Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: training loads; monitoring; illness; fatigue; training intensity distribution; threshold training; polarized training;
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:22:29 CET)
Despite the continued growth of the sport, particularly among recreational athletes, very little is known about how triathletes prepare for an event. The aim of this study was to identify the training characteristics of recreational-level triathletes and assess how their preparation for a triathlon influences their health and fatigue. During the 6 weeks prior to an Olympic distance triathlon, and the 2 weeks after the event, ten (5 males, 5 females) recreational athletes completed a daily training log to provide information on every training session. In addition, participants answered the Daily Analysis of Life Demands Questionnaire (DALDA), the Training Distress Scale (TDS), and the Alberta Swim Health Questionnaire weekly. Training loads were calculated using session-based rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and training impulse (TRIMP). Every week of training was compared to week 1 to determine how athletes’ training and health changed throughout the study. In the 6 weeks leading up to the event, training loads, total minutes trained, and time spent in each training zone did not differ significantly. Significant reductions in training duration (Z=2.39, p=0.017, ES = 0.90), training strain (Z=2.59, p=0.009, 0.98), and number of sessions (Z=2.49, p=0.012, ES = 0.94) were seen on week 6. Training intensity distribution favored a threshold approach with athletes spending 56% of their training time at zone 1, 40% at zone 2, and 4% at zone 3. No significant changes were seen in the DALDA or TDS questionnaires. The results show that while the training intensity distribution of recreational-level triathletes does not follow a polarized model, these athletes were able to maintain their health while preparing for an Olympic distance triathlon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1694.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Instability training; slosh tube training; electromyography; neuromuscular training; force steadiness
Online: 24 August 2023 (08:13:56 CEST)
Balance requires constant adjustments in muscle activation to attain force steadiness. Creating appropriate training can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two weeks front squat instability training using a water-filled training tube on force steadiness during an instability challenge. Control (CON, n= 13) and experimental (EXP, n=17) subjects completed pre and post testing for EMG variability by completing one set of 10 repetitions with a stable and unstable training tube. Electrodes were placed bilaterally on the anterior deltoid, paraspinal and vastus lateralis muscles. CON subjects completed 2 weeks of training using a stable training tube, while EXP subjects trained with a water-filled instability tube. EMG data were integrated for each contraction and force steadiness computed using the natural log of coefficient of variation. CON results showed no changes in force steadiness for any condition. EXP showed significant reductions in EMG activation variability across all muscles. These results indicate a significant training effect in reducing muscle activation variability in subjects training with a water-filled instability training device. Improvements seen in these healthy subjects supports development of training implements for a more clinical population to help improve force steadiness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: exercise intensity; training impulse; training strain; exercise volume
Online: 10 November 2021 (14:30:55 CET)
The International System of Units (SI) was adopted in 1960 as a universal measuring system to be used for all areas of science. Sports Science papers have shown lots of inaccurate and inappropriate terms for quantification of athletes’ performance and the psychobiological responses to exercise (e.g., internal load). In biomechanics, external and internal loads are forces acting externally and internally, inducing stress and strain in the biological tissues. Therefore, the current review present simple proposals to correct the inappropriate terms: 1) do not use the term external load when referring to the assessment of exercise time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.; 2) do not use the term internal load when referring to the assessment of psychobiological stress markers (i.e., session rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, oxygen consumption, etc.); 3) do not use the term impulse when expressing other calculus than integrating force with respect to time, and neither strain, when expressing other phenomena than the body deformation. Instead, the term exercise intensity is universal and can be used to describe all forms of exercise. Finally, duration should precisely be described according to physical quantities (e.g., time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, force, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.) and the units accomplish by use of the SI. These simple quantifications can be performed for the exercises, sessions, microcycles, mesocycles and macrocycles of the athletes. Such standardization will provide a consistent and clear communication among sports scientists and all areas of science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0361.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Interval training; continuous training; mood; oxidative stress; perceived exertion
Online: 9 October 2023 (15:03:32 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval training (Sp-HIIT) vs self-paced moderate-intensity continuous training (Sp-MICT) on the aerobic fitness level, psy-chophysiological responses and antioxidant status, to assess the relationship between aerobic fit-ness level and antioxidant markers. Well-trained males were randomised into Sp-HIIT and Sp-MICT. The intervention consisted of 3 weekly sessions during an 8-wk period. Sp-HIIT per-formed two sets of 12–24 x 30-s high-intensity runs ≥85 %HRmax followed by 30-s rest periods, while Sp-MICT performed 24-48 min of continuous running at 60-75 %HRmax. Pre and post-intervention testing included maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) assessment during a 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT), as well as resting blood samples analysed for oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde (MDA)) and intracellular antioxidant enzymes activity (Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized Glutathione (GSSG)). The Sp-HIIT showed meaningfully greater improvement in velocity of 30-15 IFT, VO2max and MDA responses. Furthermore, the Sp-HIIT demonstrated higher psychophysiological responses than the Sp-MICT, except for anger responses. In conclusion, these results suggest that Sp-HIIT has higher level of exercise-induced beneficial effects in physiological responses with greater perceived exer-tion in young well-trained adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0987.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: strength and conditioning, resistance training, weight training, college, football
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:36:09 CEST)
Background: Blood flow restriction training (BFRT) uses occlusion during low-intensity resistance training (<50% of repetition maximum, 1RM) to reduce arterial blood flow and venous return, imposing greater metabolic stress but similar muscular hypertrophy and strength gains as high-intensity resistance training (HIRT). However, no study, to date, has incorporated BFRT in a collegiate strength and conditioning setting to assess ecological validity. We aimed to investigate the effects of adding 6-weeks of accessory BFRT or HIRT to NCAA Division III soccer players prescribed resistance training regimen on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Methods: Male and female (n=17) athletes were randomly assigned to complete biceps curls 2x/week under BFRT or control (HIRT), following the regularly scheduled strength training. Bicep strength (1RM) and circumference (BC) were assessed at weeks 0, 3, and 6. Results: In men, no significant interaction between time and condition was observed for BC (p=0.861), though condition (BFRT vs Control, p=0.025) and time (p=0.024) were significant. For 1RM, there was no significant interaction between time and condition (BFRT vs HIRT, p=0.067) or of condition (p=0.598), but there was a significant effect of time (p=0.004). In women, there was no significant interaction between time and condition (p=0.765) or of condition (p=0.971) on BC, but time was significant (p=0.045). For 1RM, there was no significant interaction between time and condition (p=0.227) or of condition (p=0.741), but time was (p=0.018). Conclusion: BFRT induced similar increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy as HIRT in soccer players, suggesting that BFRT could be incorporated into collegiate athlete training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1568.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: inertial training; eccentric overload; strength training; young athletes; team sports
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:51:27 CEST)
Inertial training is one of the most popular training methodologies in the last years and one of the objects of study in recent literature, however more studies are necessary to know its usefulness in young athletes. The aim of the current systematic review is to evaluate the current literature surrounding the chronic effect of inertial training on physical capacities of team sports through functional test. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA). The results revealed the effectiveness of these tools for improving abilities such jumps, sprints, change of directions and power measure. In conclusion, inertial training can be an adequate stimulus for the better performance in young athletes on team sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1817.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Injury; education; training; equipment
Online: 27 September 2023 (17:14:22 CEST)
Occupational injury is widely acknowledged as a significant public health concern. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding occupational harm within the context of small-scale and woodworking firms in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to examine the knowledge and practices of woodworkers in Cameroon with the purpose of formulating suggestions for enhancement. This study employed a quantitative research design and targeted a sample of 223 workers. The participants were selected a snowball sampling approach was used to select participants from small-scale and informal wood processing enterprises located in the Tiko, Mutengene, Buea, Ekona, and Muyuka districts. Data collection was completed using a structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that most individuals engaged in woodworking were male, of a younger age, and possessed limited experience. These woodworkers primarily acquired their skills through apprenticeship programmes and were known to work extended hours. The respondents exhibited a notable lack of knowledge and adherence to workplace health and safety procedures. The study found a statistically significant association (p<0.05) between woodworkers' age, medium of training, job category and their knowledge of specific occupational health and safety (OHS) components. The study revealed that there is a strong association between the practise of specific occupational health and safety (OHS) components and various factors among woodworkers. These factors include the level of education, the medium through which they obtained training, their work experience, and the type of employment. Importantly, each of these factors individually contributes to the observed association. The study suggests that it is necessary to implement effective strategies to reduce the incidence of work-related injuries. This can be achieved by improving health and safety promotion initiatives, particularly through the provision of pre-employment occupational health and safety (OHS) training for newly hired employees. Additionally, it is important to ensure that workers are equipped with appropriate personal protective equipment, as well as necessary supplies such as suitable fire extinguishers and first aid kits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: myofibrils; mitochondria; resistance training
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:36:45 CEST)
Resistance training increases myofiber hypertrophy, but the morphological adaptations that occur within myofibers remain largely unresolved. Fifteen males with minimal training experience (24±4 years, 17.9±1.4 kg/m2 lean body mass index) performed 10 weeks of conventional, full-body resistance training (2x weekly). Body composition, the radiological density of the vastus lateralis muscle using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained one week prior to and 72 hours following the last training bout. Fiber typing and the quantification of myofibril and mitochondrial areas per fiber were performed using histology/immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques. Relative myosin heavy chain and actin protein abundances per wet muscle weight as well as citrate synthase (CS) activity assays were also obtained on tissue lysates. Training increased whole-body lean mass, mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area, various strength metrics, and mean and type II fiber cross sectional areas (fCSA) (p<0.05). Myofibril areas in type I or II fibers were not altered with training, suggesting a proportional expansion with fCSA increases. Relative myosin heavy chain and actin protein abundances also did not change with training. IHC indicated training increased mitochondrial areas in both fiber types (p=0.018). However, CS activity levels remained unaltered with training. Interestingly, although pQCT-derived muscle density increased with training (p=0.036), suggestive of myofibril packing, a positive association existed between training-induced changes in this metric and changes in type I+II myofibril areas (r=0.600, p=0.018). Shorter-term resistance training seemingly involves a proportional expansion of myofibrils and an accelerated expansion of mitochondria in type I and II fibers. Additionally, histological and biochemical techniques should be viewed independently from one another given the lack of agreement between the variables assessed herein. Finally, the pQCT may be a viable tool to non-invasively track morphological changes in muscle tissue.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0363.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Resistance training; Aerobic training; Physical exercise; Exercise guidelines; Glucose; Insulin; Glycemic control.
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:27:49 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with impaired carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, with concomitant absence of insulin secretion or reduced sensitivity to its metabolic effects. Patients with diabetes mellitus have 30% more risk of developing heart failure and cardiovascular disease with respect to healthy people. Heart and cardiovascular problems are the first cause of death worldwide and the main complications which lead to high healthcare costs. Such complications can be delayed or avoided by taking prescribed medications in conjunction with a healthy lifestyle (i.e. diet and physical activity). The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association recommend that diabetic people reduce total sedentary time by incorporating physical activity in their weekly routine. This narrative literature review has the aim to summarize and present the main guidelines, pre-exercise cardiovascular screening recommendations, and considerations for patients with diabetes and comorbidities who are planning to participate in regular exercise regimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1319.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: stroke; physiotherapy; goals; hope; training
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:11:26 CEST)
IntroductionHope is an essential concept for rehabilitation of people with stroke. The current study extended research on the model of emotions, adaptation, and hope (MEAH) by extending it according to a previously established framework of hope.MethodsAn interpretive hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted. People with stroke living in the community of the West Midlands were included. Physiotherapy students received training as part of a research placement to deliver a single intervention session using an extended version of the MEAH. Content analysis of the responses to the MEAH were taken and a process evaluation was undertaken in the form of a semi-structured interview after the intervention.ResultsSeventeen individuals (70.1±12.2 years) with stroke were included. Results considered the responses to the MEAH as a therapeutic driver and a process evaluation from people with stroke that undertook the intervention. Important scoring differences were noted for those who could and those who were not able to set goals. The MEAH tool appeared to be one way to help develop goals for people with stroke in a personalised way, however the value of the tool was identified by those who did not set a goal. Positive experiences of the intervention were reported across all people with stroke.DiscussionThe MEAH tool may be one way to support stroke rehabilitation and enhance the therapeutic encounter between physiotherapists and people with stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0153.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Career Development; Job Training; Employee
Online: 5 April 2021 (16:28:18 CEST)
Objective: This paper aims to test the effect employee job training has on employee career development in the company.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a quantitative approach with the process of finding the knowledge by using data in the form of numbers as a tool that can be generalized to prove hypotheses. The population in this study was 135 employees by sampling 100 employees using sampling method probability by using random sampling type samples to use slovin formula. Analysis techniques use multiple linear regressions.Findings: The results showed that job training influences the career development of employees in companies with a significant rate of 0.00 less than α=0.05.Practical Implications: The results of the study are recommended for company employees to conduct job training as a tool to improve career development.Originality: Previous research has been conducted to test job training on employee career development in large companies; the findings conclude that employee job training affects employee career development. This research researchers try to research medium-scale companies down.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Endurance training; angiogenesis; cardiac tissue
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:49:50 CET)
Exercise can ameliorate cardiovascular dysfunctions in diabetes condition, but its precise molecular mechanisms have not been entirely understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of endurance training on expression of angiogenesis-related genes in cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Thirty adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (N=10) including diabetic training (DT), sedentary diabetes (SD), and sedentary healthy (SH) in which diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Endurance training (ET) with moderate-intensity was performed on a motorized treadmill for six weeks. Training duration and treadmill speed were increased during five weeks, but they were kept constant at the final week and slope was zero at all stages. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) analysis was used to measure the expression of myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C), histone deacetylase-4 (HDAC4) and Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in cardiac tissues of the rats. Our results demonstrated that six weeks of ET increased gene expression of MEF2C significantly (P<0.05), and caused a significant reduction in HDAC4 and CaMKII gene expression in the DT rats compared to the SD rats (P<0.05). We concluded that moderate-intensity ET could play a critical role in ameliorating cardiovascular dysfunction in a diabetes condition by regulating the expression of some angiogenesis-related genes in cardiac tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0165.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Training; competence; incentives; management; performance.
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:55:28 CEST)
Background.Nurse gives professional nursing service to patients according to competence owned. Based on these services in the end of every year, nurses are given incentives for medical services as financial incentive. Purpose. To analyze the impact of competence training and incentives medical services’ distribution upon the achievement of nurse’s performances in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Matterial and method. Observational survey research with cross sectional design. Population. Nurses in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Technique. Total sampling technique with number of samples 183 respondents. Inclusive criteria of samples are willing to be interviewed, nurse’s status, permanent offices without limitation from particular working unit or poly in hospital. Independent variable: (1) competence training; (2) Incentives for medical services. Dependent variable; Nurse’s performance achievement. Variables are measured by using Lickert scale. Information are recorded through questionnaire. Analyzes using linier regression. Result. There are impacts of competence training (α=.000;ß=.489)and distribution of incentives for medical services(α=.012; ß=.152)upon nurse’s performances achievement in General Hospital of Prof.W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Conclusion.The training of nursing service status that could increase competences among nurses with affair incentives for medical services’ distribution simultaneously end up in the increasing of nurse’s performances achievement in a hospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0507.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: CrossFit; functional fitness training; group training; cardiorespiratory fitness; VO2max; well-being; body composition; sitting hours
Online: 8 August 2023 (05:27:42 CEST)
Insufficient physical activity (PA) is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, which favors cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases. Besides, it evidentially affects mental health. Considering the WHO PA guidelines, CrossFit® represents a versatile exercise program, combining aerobic and resistance training with mobility and could help lowering disease incidences among sedentary people. Yet, long-term CrossFit research is sparse. We conducted a nine-months intervention (≥ 2 CrossFit workouts/week) in sixteen beginners (14 males, 35 6.8 years, 180 8.6 cm, 85. 5 19.1 kg). As primary endpoint, VO2max was assessed at baseline, after four, and nine months. A repeated-measures ANOVA and pearson correlation were conducted. Well-being was investigated by WHO-5-index pre- and post-intervention. For exploratory purpose, body composition was tracked. Main outcome was an 11.5 % VO2max improvement with large effect (p < .01, η_p^2 = .27). Strong negative correlations between baseline VO2max and its progression after nine months (p = .006, r = -.654) were found. Well-being increased by 8.7 % (p = .024, d = .51). Body composition improved without statistical significance. Resting metabolic rate increased by 2.2 % (p = .042). This study reveals the potential of CrossFit to enhance physiological and psychological health in beginners. For more robust results, bigger sample sizes with higher proportion of women are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0017.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: High-intensity interval training; Continuous aerobic training; Systolic blood pressure; Diastolic blood pressure; Pre-hypertension
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:21:03 CEST)
The likelihood of pre-hypertensive young adults developing hypertension has been steadily increasing over the past few years. Despite the fact that aerobic exercise training (AET) has demonstrated positive results in lowering high blood pressure, the efficacy of different types of AET among pre-hypertensive young adults has not been well-established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) on blood pressure (BP) of physically inactive pre-hypertensive young adults. 32 adults (age 20.0±1.1 years and BMI 21.5±1.8) were randomly assigned into 3 groups: HIIT, CMT and control (CON). HIIT and CMT groups participated in 5 weeks of AET; while the CON group followed a DASH diet plan only. The HIIT protocol consisted of 1:4 minute work to rest ratio of participants 80%-85% heart rate reserve (HR-reserve) and 40%-60% HR-reserve respectively for 20-minutes, CMT group exercised at 40%-60% of HR-reserve continuously for 20-minutes. In both HIIT and CMT groups, systolic blood pressure (SBP) (3.8±2.8 mmHg, P=0.002 VS 1.6±1.5 mmHg, P=0.011) was significantly reduced. While, significant reductions in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (2.9±2.2 mmHg, P=0.002) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (3.1±1.6mmHg, P<0.0005) were noted only in the HIIT group. No significant differences in SBP (-0.4±3.7 mmHg, P=0.718), DBP (0.4±3.4 mmHg, P=0.714), or MAP (0.1±2.5mmHg, P= 0.892) were observed in the CON group. Both HIIT and CMT decreased the BP in physically inactive pre-hypertensive young adults; however, HIIT yielded more beneficial results in terms of reducing the SPB, DBP and MAP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1905.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: performance; sedentary; women; anthropometric; interval training
Online: 30 November 2023 (07:31:22 CET)
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 10-week online high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and aerobic performance in physically sedentary women. A parallel two-group, longitudinal (pre, post) design was used with physical tests performed before (preintervention) and after (postintervention) the 10-week intervention period. A total of for-ty-eight healthy and physically sedentary women were recruited to participate in this study. Par-ticipants were distributed in two groups: The experimental group (EG) with 24 women (n = 24, age 21.21 ± 2.15 years, weight 61.16 ± 8.94 kg, height 163.96 ± 4.87 cm, body mass index body weight 22.69 ± 2.49 kg/m2), and the control group (CG) with another 24 women (n = 24, age 20.50 ± 1.29 years, weight 62.0 ± 6.65 kg, height 163.92 ± 4 .89 cm, body mass index 23.04 ± 1.74 kg/m2). The EG performed an online HIIT program for 10 weeks, while CG continued with their daily life routines. The repeated measures ANCOVA indicated a significant effect in the within-group analysis for weight (p=0.001; d=-0.96), demonstrating a significant decrease in the Experimental Group (EG) while the Control Group (CG) did not show a significant decrease in body mass in-dex (p=0.15; d=-0.11). Regarding maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) values, the EG exhibited a significant improvement (p=0.001; d=-1.07), whereas the CG did not demonstrate a significant improvement (p=0.08; d=-0.37). A new within-group analysis with power output (W) revealed that EG significantly improved (p=0.01; d=-0.96), while CG did not show a significant improve-ment in power output (W/kg) (p=0.20; d=-0.11). Lastly, the within-group analysis with Load re-vealed that EG significantly improved (p=0.001; d=-0.50), while CG did not show a significant improvement in Load (p=0.10.; d=-0.10). The present study showed that 10 weeks of HIIT in an online environment during the Covid-19 lockdown significantly improved maximum oxygen consumption, and caused weight loss and a significant decrease in body mass index in physically sedentary women. These results suggest HIIT may be used as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition and cardio-respiratory fitness in sedentary women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1731.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: weightlifting; training; strength; power; team sports
Online: 28 November 2023 (09:25:00 CET)
Improving performance and promoting sustainability in women's handball are key objectives to maximize the potential of female players and ensure the long-term viability of the sport. In this context, training with Olympic movements and their derivatives improves the development of strength, power, and speed, which are determinants of performance in team sports. The aim of this study was to determine if training with Olympic movements produces significant improvements in jumping, throwing, sprinting, and change of direction performance in women handball players. Twenty-one female handball players participated in the study (10 for the control group and 11 for the intervention group). Age ranged from 15 to 17 years. All participants performed four assessment tests (Abalakov Test, throw test, 20-meter Sprint and V-Cut Test) to determine jump height, throwing speed, running speed, and change of direction ability. Measurements were carried out before and after the intervention. For six weeks, the control group performed the strength work established by the club twice a week while the intervention group additionally performed training with Olympic movements. Significant differences (p <0.05) were found between the pre and post measurement of the control group and the intervention group in jump height, throwing speed and running speed, being higher in the intervention group. For the change of direction, no significant differences were found. Between groups, significant differences were observed at the end of the intervention for jump height and running speed. The conclusion of this study was that, by training with Olympic movements, in addition to regular training, could produce greater improvements in jumping performance, throwing speed and running speed in female handball players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1258.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: physical activity; older adults; periodized training
Online: 19 October 2023 (12:46:18 CEST)
Abstract: Background: The periodization of physical exercise to optimize the objectives is common in competitive sports, however physical exercise programs for the older adults do not usu-ally present periodization in their programming, they are limited to carrying out similar sessions throughout the program. Methods:137 people over 60 years old performed a physical exercise program, 71 people participated in a multicomponent non-periodized program as the Control Group (CG) and 66 people participated in a program periodized in blocks as the Experimental Group (EG). The block periodization program was oriented to the development of strength, and was carried out in 86 sessions three times per week during a period of 8 months. Anthropometric assessments were made using: weight, height, BMI and electrical bioimpedance; and functional evaluations through standardized tests: SPPB, TUG, handgrip and two-minute stair test. Results: After the intervention, the EG presents significant improvements in the TUG, in the weight and in the BMI. On the other hand, the CG presents significant improvements in fat weight, in BMI and in the 2-minute stair test. The SPPB did not present changes after the intervention. Conclusion: The periodization of physical exercise for older adults does not have a significant impact on the functional capacity in this population group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: body control; awareness; balance; training; assessment
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:28:25 CEST)
Proprioception is an essential part of human movement and body awareness. It is the body's perception of its own spatial understanding, which helps us to accurately move our limbs and maintain balance. Purpose: This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and analyse bibliometric data about proprioception in gymnastics and acrobatics. Methodology: This article consisted of two phases: 1) a bibliometric review (based Web of Science) and 2) a systematic review (Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus) of literature. "Gymnast*", "propriocep*", were utilized as search terms to find and choose published data. From a total of 164 studies, 30 were included for data extraction (n participants= 1432 of different age, sports, physical activities, and physical condition. Heterogeneity of studies design and assessment make it difficult to interpret the outcomes and the effect of proprioceptive interventions and comparations between samples. Proprioception is difficult to define in gymnastics considering the evidence references and the physiological considerations. Also, assessment tools used do not necessary evaluate proprioception globally considering the senses involved in gymnastics. Gymnastics training enhances joint awareness and force sense, improving proprioception and reducing injury risk. Proprioceptive exercises should be incorporated into gymnastics programs to enhance stability and precision in movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: coordination abilities; training; handball; physical activity
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:42:11 CET)
According to the reviewed literature, the selection system in the handball game is quite complex and requires new approaches from specialists, based on the current requirements of this game. It was found that a main selection criterion in the game of handball is the coordination abilities because the handball game is mainly based on coordination. In this paper is related the importance of coordinative abilities development in the handball game for young children (10-12 years old) selection process meet in Romania. The results are obtained from a sociological questionnaire, where 109 specialists in the handball game are interrogated, 38 of them being handball coaches, and 71 being teachers of physical education and sports with abilities in handball game. The answers delivered depend on each specialist experience, the knowledge possessed and the difficulties encountered over the years. As a general overview, in the opinion of the surveyed specialists, the selection process in the handball game for Romania does not live up to their expectations, and the development level of coordination abilities meet in 10-12 years children is medium to weak. A total of 51.9% from the respondents stressed the importance of developing coordination abilities to optimize the selection process of children for handball game, opening a new approach in the modern training methods for performance achievement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: core training; exercises; flexibility; fitness; periodization
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:44:29 CEST)
This conceptual review aimed to investigate whether "functional training" (FT) programs are different from traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs. A search for the twenty most recent papers published involving FT was performed in the PubMed/Medline database. Definition, concepts, benefits, and the exercises employed in FT programs were analyzed. The main results were: 1) there is no agreement about a universal definition for FT; 2) FT programs aim at developing the same benefits already induced by traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs; 3) exercises employed are also the same. The inability to define FT makes differentiation difficult. Physical training programs can be easily described and classified as strength, power, flexibility, endurance, and the specific exercises employed (e.g., traditional resistance training, ballistic exercises, plyometrics and Olympic-style weightlifting, continuous and high-intensity interval training). This proper description and classification may improve communication in sports science and improve interdisciplinary integration. Aiming to avoid confusion and misconceptions, and based on the current evidence, we recommend that the terms FT, high-intensity FT, and functional fitness training no longer describe any physical training program.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: training loads; monitoring; illness; recovery; triathlon
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:08:27 CEST)
Little is known about how recreational triathletes prepare for an Olympic distance event. The aim of this study was to identify the training characteristics of recreational-level triathletes within the competition period and assess how their preparation for a triathlon influences their health and their levels of fatigue. During the 6 weeks prior to an Olympic distance triathlon, and the 2 weeks after, 9 recreational athletes (5 males, 4 females) completed a daily training log. Participants answered the Daily Analysis of Life Demands Questionnaire (DALDA), the Training Distress Scale (TDS), and the Alberta Swim Fatigue and Health Questionnaire weekly. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) was completed at the beginning of the study, on the day before the competition, and at the end of week 8. Training loads were calculated using session-based rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). The data from every week of training was compared to week 1 to determine how athletes’ training and health changed throughout the study. No changes in training loads, duration, or training intensity distribution were seen in the weeks leading up to the competition. Training duration was significantly reduced in week 6 (p=0.041, d = 1.58, 95% CI = 6.9, 421.9), while the number of sessions was reduced in week 6 (Z=2.32, p=0.02, ES = 0.88) and week 7 (Z = 2.31, p=0.02, ES = 0.87). Training was characterized by large weekly variations in training loads and a high training intensity. No significant changes were seen in the DALDA, TDS, or REST-Q questionnaire scores throughout the 8 weeks. Despite large spikes in training load and a high overall training intensity, these recreational-level triathletes were able to maintain their health in the 6 weeks of training prior an Olympic distance triathlon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: preparedness; special pathogens; Ebola; PPE; training
Online: 22 February 2021 (08:30:59 CET)
The purpose of this evaluation is to determine the effect of intensive, interactive training on hospital workers’ preparedness for special pathogen cases by utilizing the Frontline Facility Special Pathogens Training Course created by New York
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0106.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; Training Data; alawa; AI
Online: 7 May 2020 (06:20:09 CEST)
Accurate lithium battery diagnosis and prognosis is critical to increase penetration of electric vehicles and grid-tied storage systems. They are both complex due to the intricate, nonlinear, and path-dependent nature of battery degradation. Data-driven models are anticipated to play a significant role in the behavioral prediction of dynamical systems such as batteries. However, they are often limited by the amount of training data available. In this work, we generated the first big data comprehensive synthetic datasets to train diagnosis and prognosis algorithms. The proof-of-concept datasets are over three orders of magnitude larger than what is currently available in the literature. With benchmark datasets, results from different studies could be easily equated, and the performance of different algorithms can be compared, enhanced, and analyzed extensively. This will expend critical capabilities of current AI algorithms, tools, and techniques to predict scientific data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0743.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: force, power, velocity, impulse, weight training
Online: 31 October 2018 (09:01:43 CET)
Purposely slow velocity resistance exercise (i.e., 10 s concentric and eccentric phases) is a popular training method, but limits the loads that can be lifted (e.g., <50% 1 RM). This study compared the biomechanical properties of purposely slow velocity (SLOW) and traditional resistance exercise (TRAD) that uses maximal lifting velocities. Healthy resistance-trained men (n=5) performed two testing sessions (barbell squat and bench press) in random-order; a SLOW session (1 set x 10 repetitions at 28% 1 RM, 10 s concentric & eccentric), and a TRAD session (3 x 10 at 70% 1 RM, controlled eccentric and maximal concentric). A force plate and linear position transducer were used to collect kinetic and kinematic data for every repetition of both protocols (α = 0.05). For both exercises, both concentric and eccentric mean force (N) and power (W) for each repetition was greater for TRAD. When the entire training session (squat + bench press) was examined, SLOW exhibited greater time under tension, while TRAD produced greater work (J) and impulse (N·s). Contrary to suggestions in both the lay and scientific literature, purposely slow resistance exercise produced less force, power, and work than traditional velocity resistance exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: aerobic exercise training; metabolic programming; DOHaD; adolescence
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:58:52 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of fructose consumption during the peri-pubertal period on the later onset of metabolic syndrome in rats. Additionally, the study sought to explore the potential of moderate-intensity physical training as a non-pharmacological approach to mitigate the fructose effects. Male rats, 30 days old, received 10% fructose, and were submitted to concomitant moderate-intensity training until 60 days old. They were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary fructose (SF), trained control (TC), and trained fructose (TF). Fructose consumption mainly affected adult animals, resulting in glucose intolerance, increased periepididymal fat, and increased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels. Furthermore, these rats exhibited reduced sympathetic nerve activity. The moderate running led to a decrease in periepididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue, as well as a reduction in total cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. Peri-pubertal rats that received combination treatments exhibited lower levels of glucose and insulin during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. The results indicate that 10% fructose supplementation during peripuberty predisposes to metabolic syndrome in adulthood. However, simultaneous moderate-intensity exercise training attenuates these effects and induces positive changes in glycemic homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and autonomic nervous system activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0387.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: concurrent training; heart failure; left atrial dysfunction
Online: 6 May 2023 (07:51:04 CEST)
Left atrial dysfunction is associated with exercise intolerance and poor prognosis in heart failure (HF). The effects of exercise training on atrial function in patients with HF with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a 12-weeks supervised concurrent, aerobic continuous plus resistance, exercise training (SCT) pro-gram on left atrial function of patients with HFmrEF. The study included 70 stable patients, who were randomly assigned into two groups: SCT with (three session/week) or a control (CON) group directed to follow contemporary exercise preventive guidelines at home. Before starting the training program and at 12-weeks, all patients performed: ergometric test, 6-minute walk test and echocardiography. At 12-weeks, exercise duration at ergometric test and distance walked at 6-minute walk test presented a significant greater increase in the SCT compared to control (be-tween-groups p 0.0001 and p 0.004 respectively). Peak atrial longitudinal strain and conduit strain presented an increase of 29% and 34% respectively in the SCT and were unchanged in the CON (between-groups p 0.008 and p 0.001 respectively). Peak atrial contraction strain increased of 21% in the SCT with no changes in the CON (between-groups p 0.002). Left ventricular global longi-tudinal strain increased significantly SCT compared to control (between-groups p 0.03). In con-clusions SCT improved left atrial and left ventricular function in HFmrEF
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: rowing; feedback training; movement analysis; surface EMG
Online: 9 January 2023 (13:19:12 CET)
The rowing technique is a key factor in the overall rowing performance. Nowadays the athletes’ performance is so advanced that even small differences in technique can have an impact on sport competitions. To further improve the athletes’ performance, individualized rowing is necessary. This can be achieved by intelligent measurement technology that provides direct feedback. To address this issue, we developed a novel wireless rowing measurement system (WiRMS) that acquires rowing movement and measures muscle activity using electromyography (EMG). Our measurement system is able to measure several parameters simultaneously: the rowing forces, the pressure distribution on the scull, the oar angles, the seat displacement and the boat acceleration. WiRMS was evaluated in a proof-of-concept study with seven experienced athletes performing a training on water. Evaluation results showed that WiRMS is able to assess the rower’s performance by recording the rower’s movement and force applied to the scull. We found significant correlations (p<0.001) between stroke rate and drive-to-recovery ratio. By incorporating EMG data, a precise temporal assignment of the activated muscles and their contribution to the rowing motion was possible. Furthermore, we were able to show that the rower applies the force to the scull mainly with the index and middle fingers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0380.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Exercise training; arrhythmias; Drosophila; apolipoprotein B; aging
Online: 29 March 2022 (10:07:13 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) places a heavy burden on older patients and the global healthcare system. A large body of evidence suggests that exercise training is essential in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used the Drosophila melanogaster animal model to study the effects of early-life exercise training (ELET) on the aging heart and lifespan. We found in flies that age-induced arrhythmias are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. The fat body is the primary source of circulating lipoproteins in flies. Inhibition of fat body apoLpp (the flies apoB homolog) demonstrated that low expression of apoLpp reduced the development of arrhythmias in aged flies but did not affect average lifespan. At the same time, ELET can also reduce the expression of apoLpp mRNA in aged flies and have a protective effect on the heart, which is similar to the inhibition of apoLpp mRNA. Although treatment of apoLppRNAi and ELET alone had no significant effect on lifespan, the combination of apoLppRNAi and ELET extended the average lifespan of flies. Therefore, we conclude that apoLppRNAi and ELET are sufficient to resist age-induced arrhythmias, which may be related to the decreased expression of apoLpp mRNA, and that apoLppRNAi and ELET have a combined effect on prolonging the average lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Functional fitness training; athletic performance; exercise testing
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:32:59 CEST)
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years; 70.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed, on separate weeks, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2km row test), muscle strength (1RM back and front squat, isometric peak torque), and muscle power (1RM snatch and clean & jerk), and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Multiple linear regression showed that for the CrossFit Open 2020.1 and 2020.2 workouts, the score in the Tibana test was the only variable that explained the outcomes (Beta = -0.78, p < 0.01 for 2020.1 workout and Beta = 0.82, p < 0.01 for 2020.2 workout). Performance in the CrossFit Open 2020.3 and 2020.4 workouts were explained through the relative strength (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.02 for 2020.3 workout and Beta = 0.50, p = 0.04 for 2020.4 workout). Lastly, Tibana test had the greatest influence on CrossFit Open 2020.5 workout (Beta = -0.75, p < 0.01). A local muscle endurance and muscle strength may be used to predict CrossFit® open workout performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ultrasound; phantom; rectus femoris muscle; echogenicity; training
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:50:45 CEST)
Ultrasound has become widely used as a mean to measure the rectus femoris muscle in the acute and chronic phase of critical illness. Despite its noninvasiveness and accessibility, its accuracy highly depends on the skills of the technician. However, few ultrasound phantoms for the confirmation of its accuracy or to improve technical skills exist. In this study, we created a novel phantom model and used it for investigating the accuracy of measurements and for training. Study 1 investigated how various conditions affect ultrasound measurements such as thickness, cross-sectional area, and echogenicity. Study 2 investigated if the phantom can be used for training of various health care providers in vitro and vivo. Study 1 showed that thickness, cross-sectional area, and echogenicity were affected by probe compression strength, probe angle, phantom compression, and varying equipment. Study 2 in vitro showed that using the phantom for training improved the accuracy of the measurements taken within phantom, and Study 2 in vivo showed the phantom training had a short-term effect on improving the measurement accuracy in a human volunteer. The new ultrasound phantom model revealed that various conditions affected ultrasound measurements, and phantom training improved the measurement accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Repeated Sprint Training; Speed Performance; Physiology; Sports
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:20:00 CET)
Background: Interventions with the performance of sessions with sprints in different intensity manipulations, can be a great alternative to improve physical performance. Objective: To verify the influence of different break times between sprints on the performance of amateur futsal athletes Methods: 10 individuals, men, amateur futsal athletes (Age: 21.5 ± 1.6; Weight: 72.4 ± 6.88; Height: 1.72 ± 0.05; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.2; Fat%: 13.7 ± 3.3, VO2peak: 49.1 ± 10.5) participated in the study. For the intervention, individuals were randomly selected to perform sessions with sprints (10 sets 20 meters) with different pause times, being 15 (S15), 30 (S30) and 60 (S60) seconds. For performance analysis, the speed (km / h) applied to each sprint was used, monitored by a device with a photocell (CEFISE Biotecnologia Esportiva®, Nova Odessa, São Paulo) and the statistical treatment of all data was through the software Statistica 7.0 (Statsoft ™, Tulsa, OK, USA) using a significance level of p≤0.05. Results: There was an interaction between speed and interval time (p = 0.000). For condition S15, a greater reduction in performance was observed (p≤0.05), while for S30 and S60, no significant reduction in performance was observed (p> 0.05). The data for the area under the curve showed a significant difference (p = 0.000), where the interval of 60 seconds (S60) was longer compared to the values of 30 (S30) (p = 0.000) and 15 seconds (S15) (p = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences between the 30 and 15 second data (p = 0.248). Conclusion: Shorter time (15 seconds) of interval between repeated sprints can significantly affect performance when compared to longer breaks (30 and 60 seconds). But, all the conditions tested here, can be positive for the improvement of the performance, mainly in sports that demand fast and efficient motor actions, as for example, futsal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0070.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: software training; simulation workflows; SimPhoNy; Simphony-Remote
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:27:18 CET)
Hands-on type training of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is characterized by assisted application and combination of multiple simulation software tools and data. In this paper, we present recent experiences in establishing a cloud-based infrastructure to enable remote use of dedicated commercial and open access simulation tools during an interactive on-line training event. In the first part, we summarize the hardware and software requirements and illustrate how these have been met using cloud hardware services, a simulation platform environment, a suitable communication channel, common workspaces and more. The second part of the article focuses (i) on the requirements for suitable on-line hands-on training material and (ii) on details of some of the approaches taken. Eventually, the practical experiences made during three consecutive on-line training courses held in September 2020 with 35 nominal participants each, are discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: high-intensity functional training; work capacity; performance
Online: 12 March 2018 (05:33:23 CET)
High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a novel exercise intervention that may test body systems in a balanced and integrated fashion by challenging individuals’ abilities to complete mechanical work. However, research has not previously determined if physical work capacity is unique to traditional physiologic measures of fitness. Twenty-five healthy men and women completed a six-week HIFT intervention with physical work capacity and various physiologic measures of fitness assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, these physiologic measures of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) were significantly associated with physical work capacity and this relationship was even stronger at post-intervention assessment. Further, there were significant improvements across these physiologic measures in response to the delivered intervention. However, the change in these physiologic measures failed to predict the change in physical work capacity induced via HIFT. These findings point to the potential utility of HIFT as a unique challenge to individuals’ physiology beyond traditional resistance or aerobic training. Elucidating the translational impact of increasing work capacity via HIFT may be of great interest to health and fitness practitioners ranging from strength/conditioning coaches to physical therapists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: high variability phonetic training (HVPT), categorical perception (CP), cochlear implant (CI), lexical tone, Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners, training-induced gains
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:41:59 CET)
Objectives: Although pitch reception poses a great challenge for individuals with cochlear implants (CIs), formal auditory training (e.g., high variability phonetic training, HVPT) has been shown to provide direct benefits in pitch-related perceptual performances such as lexical tone recognition for CI users. As lexical tones in spoken language are expressed with a multitude of distinct spectral, temporal, and intensity cues, it is important to determine the sources of training benefits for CI users. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a rigorous fine-scale evaluation with the categorical perception (CP) paradigm to control the acoustic parameters and test the efficacy and sustainability of HVPT for Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI recipients. The main hypothesis was that HVPT-induced perceptual learning would greatly enhance CI users’ ability to extract the primary pitch contours from spoken words for lexical tone identification and discrimination. Furthermore, individual differences in immediate and long-term gains from training would likely be attributable to baseline performance and duration of CI use. Design: Twenty-eight prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners with CIs were tested. Half of them received five sessions of HVPT within a period of three weeks. The other half served as control who did not receive the formal training. Two classical CP tasks on a tonal continuum from Mandarin Tone 1 (high-flat in pitch) to Tone 2 (mid-rising in pitch) with fixed acoustic features of duration and intensity were administered before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 10 weeks post training termination (follow-up test). Participants were instructed to either label a speech stimulus along the continuum (i.e., identification task) or determine whether a pair of stimuli separated by zero or two steps from the continuum was the same or different (i.e., discrimination task). Identification function measures (i.e., boundary position and boundary width) and discrimination function scores (i.e., between-category score, within-category score, and peakedness score) were assessed for each child participant across the three test sessions.Results: Linear mixed-effects (LME) models showed significant training-induced enhancement in lexical tone categorization with significantly narrower boundary width and better between-category discrimination in the immediate posttest over pretest for the trainees. Furthermore, training-induced gains were reliably retained in the follow-up test 10 weeks after training. By contrast, no significant changes were found in the control group across sessions. Regression analysis confirmed that baseline performance (i.e., boundary width in the pretest session) and duration of CI use were significant predictors for the magnitude of training-induced benefits. Conclusions: The stringent CP tests with synthesized stimuli that excluded acoustic cues other than the pitch contour and were never used in training showed strong evidence for the efficacy of HVPT in yielding immediate and sustained improvement in lexical tone categorization for Mandarin-speaking children with CIs. The training results and individual differences have remarkable implications for developing personalized computer-based short-term HVPT protocols that may have sustainable long-term benefits for aural rehabilitation in this clinical population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1768.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Generative Pre-training Transformer; ChatGPT; cyberattacks; ChatGPT cybersecurity
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:16:14 CET)
The Chat Generative Pre-training Transformer (GPT), also known as ChatGPT, is a powerful generative AI model that can simulate human-like dialogues across a variety of domains. However, this popularity has attracted the attention of malicious actors who exploit ChatGPT to launch cyberattacks. This paper examines the tactics that adversaries use to leverage ChatGPT in a variety of cyberattacks. Attackers pose as regular users and manipulate ChatGPT’s vulnerability to malicious interactions, particularly in the context of cyber assault. The paper presents illustrative examples of cyberattacks that are possible with ChatGPT and discusses the realm of ChatGPT-fueled cybersecurity threats. The paper also investigates the extent of user awareness of the relationship between ChatGPT and cyberattacks. A survey of 253 participants was conducted, and their responses were measured on a three-point Likert scale. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of how ChatGPT can be used to improve business processes and identify areas for improvement. Over 80% of the participants agreed that cyber criminals use ChatGPT for malicious purposes. This finding underscores the importance of improving the security of this novel model. Organizations must take steps to protect their computational infrastructure. This analysis also highlights opportunities for streamlining processes, improving service quality, and increasing efficiency. Finally, the paper provides recommendations for using ChatGPT in a secure manner, outlining ways to mitigate potential cyberattacks and strengthen defenses against adversaries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Pediatric neurology; workforce; practice; resident training; Saudi Arabia
Online: 12 July 2023 (10:52:04 CEST)
Background: The medical workforce plays a pivotal role in advancing human health, particularly within the healthcare system of Saudi Arabia. While the government-employed healthcare providers form the central structure of the system and offer free healthcare services, the private healthcare sector is also witnessing significant growth. In parallel, the field of child neurology has experienced notable transformations in recent years, with continued expansion. This expansion brings forth a range of challenges for both current and future pediatric neurologists, necessitating careful consideration and proactive measures to address them. Aim of the study: This study aims to analyze the current challenges faced by the pediatric neurology workforce. Methods: In May 2023, a community-based exploratory study was conducted involving 82 practicing pediatric neurologists as well as pediatric neurology trainees across the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive 26-item questionnaire, divided into four sections, was utilized to assess the participants. Results: The survey received responses from a total of 82 pediatric neurologists in Saudi Arabia (response rate 55.03%), with 38 (46.34%) being male and 44 (53.66%) being female. The mean age was 33±1.225 years. The majority of participants practiced in major cities such as Riyadh and Jeddah. Around two-thirds had published three or fewer research articles. Approximately 30% were enrolled in a fellowship program. Nearly 50% of pediatric neurologists experienced some form of delay in obtaining their first job, ranging from 1 to 36 months. Conclusion: The landscape of the pediatric neurology workforce is currently witnessing noteworthy demographic shifts. With a majority of practitioners concentrated in major cities, there exists an ongoing demand for qualified professionals in peripheral areas. The study underscores the real-life challenges faced by pediatric neurologists, particularly the delay in securing employment after graduation, and underscores the critical importance of addressing these persistent issues along the journey of pediatric neurology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: body composition; ergogenic aids; adipose tissue; strength training
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:06:57 CEST)
Adiposity is associated with adverse health conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The combination of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation has been shown to decrease body fat % in adults ≥ 50 years of age. However, the effects in adults < 50 years of age is unknown. To address this limitation, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed several meta-analyses comparing studies that included resistance exercise and creatine supplementation to resistance exercise and placebo. Twelve studies were included involving 266 participants. Adults (< 50 years of age) that supplemented with creatine and performed resistance exercise experienced a significant reduction in body fat % (-1.19%, p=0.006) and a non-significant reduction in absolute fat mass (-0.09 kg, p=0.88). Collectively, the combination of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation produces a very small reduction in body fat % in adults < 50 years of age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1214.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Traditional Crafts; Craft Education; Craft Training; Craft Preservation
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:19:32 CEST)
A roadmap is proposed that defines a systematic approach for craft preservation and its evaluation. The proposed roadmap aims at deepening craft understanding, so blueprints of appropriate tools that support craft documentation, education, and training can be designed while achieving preservation through the stimulation and diversification of practitioner income. A roadmap is required because understanding making activities that include “care, judgement, and dexterity”  call for interdisciplinary contributions from Anthropology, Cognitive Science, Art History, as well as Physical and Computational Sciences, to cover the multifaceted expression of crafts as living and developing heritage, as a source of income, and as the expression of the mind through “imagery, technology, and sedimented knowledge” . In addition to this roadmap, an evaluation strategy is proposed to validate the efficacy of the developed results and provide a benchmark for the efficacy of craft preservation approaches. The proposed contribution aims at the catalysation of craft education and training with digital aids, widening access and engagement to crafts, economising learning, increasing exercisability, and relaxing remoteness constraints in craft learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: blood flow restricted training; vascular functions; angiogenesis; endothelium
Online: 1 May 2023 (10:39:55 CEST)
Blood flow-restricted training (BFR) is constantly growing in popularity. Despite growing evidence of the significant influence of BFR training on different body functions, its impact on the vascular system, especially the arteries, is controversial. Therefore, the objective of our study was to analyze how BFR exercise, compared to other types of exercise without restriction of blood flow or other active intervention, influences arterial functions and angiogenesis in adults. Studies comparing the effect of BFR versus non-BFR training on arterial parameters are divided into three categories. Endothelial function, angiogenesis, and other vasculature functions. The search was based on three databases (Cochrane Library, PubMed®, Embase). In this systematic review, 38 studies were included. Meta-analysis revealed a more significant improvement in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) (p=0.002) and the production of the primary angiogenesis biomarker Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) (p=0.009) after training in BFR compared to nonBFR (p=0.002). Analysis of pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, systolic blood pressure, or heart rate did not show a significant difference in changes between BFR and non-BFR training. Other parameters examined were not sufficiently provided to be included in the meta-analysis. The results obtained, present trends suggesting the significant impact of BFR training on endothelial functions and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of multicenter randomized clinical trials, including many participants, that are necessary to confirm the advantage of BFR over non-BFR activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: competition; trust; team; evaluation; vocational training; leadership education
Online: 1 March 2023 (07:59:24 CET)
The research question in this article concerns how a competitive environment affects the learner (officer cadet's) personal leadership development and their relationship to their team and with future civilian foundations. More specifically, what are the possible learning effects of the “hidden” curriculum? This article investigates how a more than 250 years of leadership education provides new army officers with new skills and how such an environment may affect the cadets' leadership training. The paper builds on ethnographic data gathered during the three-year education program in most of the relevant practical locations and contexts. Findings regarding trust in their learning environment, cadets have reported scores of (Mean 2.83) on a 1 (low trust) to 5 (high trust) Likert scale, underpinning interviewdata regarding the lack trust in the academy and in their fellow cadets. Cadets also point out that competition has hindered their learning (Mean 2.50). These findings are interpreted in relation to possible negative effects stemming from internal competition and the evaluation system as a whole. The overall output of this system is a zero–sum game, and thus effects evaluative practices and learning processes. This study is of relevance to higher education officers responsible for designing learning environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0154.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Simulation; Nursing competences; Critical patient; Training; Education; Pandemic
Online: 9 February 2023 (04:47:44 CET)
On 11 March 2020, the COVID-19 emergency was declared and a large number of patients were admitted to the ICUs. Consequently, ICUs had to recruit nurses from other units as well as Nursing students without working experience in critical patients care. Since Critical nursing competence is crucial to avoid medical errors, the aim of this study was, to describe the level of safety and nursing competence in critical patient care of recruited nurses and students, during the COVID-19 pandemic in ICUs. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 66 participants using the validated competency assessment questionnaire for nurses in hospital care (COM-VA©) was performed. Our results showed that the level of safety perceived in critical patients care by the students on placement in ICUs and mentors scored higher than the rest of the participants. Interestingly, whereas the participant’s COM-VA© score indicated a level of competence good enough to work autonomously, the supervisor/mentor’s COM-VA© evaluation showed that only the group of students on placement obtained this level of competency. Altogether, we found that students on placement in ICU possesses a higher level of safety and COM-VA© scores than the rest of participants probably due to the close support of the mentor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online physical training; attitudes: influencing factors; interview method.
Online: 21 November 2022 (01:18:01 CET)
In the context of the new crown epidemic, remote physical training will already be in order under the guidance of the Ministry of Education. There is a global focus on current lifestyle behaviors and the future health and well-being of youth. Youth physical activity, aerobic activity and muscle fitness levels are declining. Research on the effects of youth physical training and group attitudes is still in its infancy. This study conducted in-depth interviews with online physical training students, parents, teachers involved in the construction of online physical training, and sports practitioners through interview methods, documentation, and mathematical statistics. The results of the interviews were qualitatively coded using NVivo to summarize the attitudes of different subjects toward physical fitness training and the influencing factors, (1) students were basically satisfied with the teaching effect of online physical fitness training (2) parents thought the teaching effect of online physical fitness training was average (3) physical education teachers thought the effect of online physical fitness training was average (4) physical education practitioners thought the effect of online teaching was poor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0016.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: public institutions; transformations; professional training; pandemic; reform; model
Online: 1 July 2022 (15:57:13 CEST)
This article analyzes the perspectives of professional training of the public administration staff, from the viewpoint of the sustainability criteria, starting from the experiences of the online courses run in the last two years. In order to understand the nature, type and magnitude of the changes caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in the field of professional training for public administration, we performed a survey among public institution employees, by applying a questionnaire. The instrument included qualitative elements, to allow the framing of statistical results. The article is grounded on the hypothesis that the professional training activities in the last two years were organized preponderantly online and it aims to analyze the sustainability of the new teaching systems/methods. The limitations of the study are given by the fact that each administrative system has structure particularities and its own legal framework regarding the professional training of public administration staff, what makes that the model proposed cannot be applied in all countries. The study provides a model of online professional training for public administration staff, sustainable, based on the experience accumulated in the last two years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0175.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: survey; emergency medical services; training; stroke; prehospital care
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:58:04 CEST)
Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) are the first health care contact for the majority of stroke patients. However, there is a lack of data on the current paramedics’ hospital-directed feedback and training needs across different health care settings. We aimed to evaluate paramedics’ prehospital stroke care knowledge, training needs, and current status of feedback on suspected stroke patients. Methods: We surveyed paramedics from the Vilnius region from September to November 2019, and compared the answers between the city and the district agencies. The questionnaire content included questions on paramedics’ demographic characteristics, prehospital stroke care self-assessment, knowledge on stroke mimics, stroke training needs, and the importance of hospital-directed feedback on suspected stroke patients. Results: A total number of 161 paramedics were surveyed, with more district paramedics rating their prehospital stroke care knowledge as inadequate (44.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.8–57.6) vs 28.1% (95% CI 20.1–27.8), p = 0.028). In addition, more district paramedics indicated a need for additional stroke training (83.1% (95% CI 71.5–90.5) vs 69.8% (60.0–78.1), p = 0.043). However, respondents reported being the most confident while dealing with stroke (71.3%, 95% CI 63.8–77.7) compared to other time-critical conditions (p < 0.001). Vertigo (60.8%, 95% CI 53.0–68.0), brain tumours (56.3%, 95% CI 48.5–63.8), and seizures (54.4%, 95% CI 46.7–62.0) were indicated as the most common stroke mimics. Only 6.2% (95% CI 3.4–11.1) of respondents received formal feedback on the outcome of suspected stroke patients brought to the emergency department. Conclusion: A high proportion of paramedics self-perceive having inadequate stroke knowledge and an urgent need for further stroke training. The EMS staff indicate receiving an insufficient amount of feedback on suspected stroke patients, even though the usefulness is perceived to be paramount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: nursing home; advanced fire prevention; emergency response training
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:43:18 CEST)
Background: In long-term care facilities, there are many residents who do not have the ability to seek shelter by themselves in the case of an emergency. Thus, it is extremely important that the staff of nursing homes are equipped with correct disaster prevention concepts, emergency survival responses, and hazard mitigation measures. Purpose: Discuss the intervention effectiveness of different fire prevention and emergency response trainings at nursing homes and the relationship and predictivity of awareness to self-efficacy. Method: Recruit staff from two nursing homes through purposive sampling, using a two-team pre-and post-test design to collect results from 41 individuals in the experiment group and 40 individuals in the control group. The research tool is the “Nursing Home Fire Prevention and Emergency Response Awareness and Self-Efficacy Scale,” to compare the effectiveness of advanced and general fire safety trainings. Result: After receiving improved advanced fire safety training, the total score and the result of the experiment group on fire prevention and emergency response awareness and self-efficacy had both performed better than the control group who received general fire safety training (p < .001); fire prevention and emergency response awareness has significant and positive correlation with self-efficacy (r=.601, p < .001), and awareness is a significant predictor variable to self-efficacy (p < .001). Conclusion/Practical Application: This study finds that the key to improving learning effectiveness includes adding fire science concept chapter when creating fire safety training material in order to strengthen basic awareness; fire safety training should comprehensively introduce all related duty responsibilities of staff fire defense formation, in turn enabling mutual responsive support for the needs of the site; also, to become familiarized with the knowledge requires appropriate frequency of training and enhancing the staff’s awareness to fire prevention and emergency response, which is the most important key of learning effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Working memory training; intervention; developmental language disorder; children
Online: 28 March 2022 (13:43:53 CEST)
Recent research has suggested that working memory training interventions may benefit children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). The current study investigated a short and engaging adaptive working memory intervention that targeted executive skills and aimed to improve both language comprehension and working memory abilities in children with DLD. Forty-seven 6- to 10-year-old children with DLD were randomly allocated to an executive working memory training intervention (n=24) or an active control group (n=23). A pre-test/intervention/post-test/9-month-follow-up design was used. Outcome measures included assessments of language (to evaluate far transfer of the training) and working memory (to evaluate near transfer of the training). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for pre-intervention performance and age found group to be a significant predictor of sentence comprehension and of performance on six untrained working memory measures at post-intervention and 9-month follow-up. Children in the intervention group showed significantly higher language comprehension and working memory scores at both time points than children in the active control group. The intervention programme showed potential to improve working memory and language comprehension in children with DLD and demonstrated several advantages: it involved short sessions over a short period; caused little disruption in the school day; and was enjoyed by children.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: high-intensity training; LC-MS; urine; water polo
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:37:59 CET)
Objective: To study the changes in urine metabolism in female water polo players before and after high-intensity training by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to explore the biometabolic characteristics of urine after training and competition. Methods: Twelve young female water polo players (except goalkeepers) from Shanxi Province were selected. A 4-week formal training was started after one week of acclimatization according to experimental requirements. Urine samples (5 ml) were collected before formal training, early morning after 4 weeks of training, and immediately after 4 weeks of training matches, and labeled as T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The samples were tested by LC-MS after pre-treatment. XCMS, SIMCA-P 14.1, and SPSS16.0 were used to process the data and identify differential metabolites. Results: On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the pre-training period (T3 vs T1), 24 differential metabolites involved in 16 metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism and purine metabolism were potential post-competition urinary metabolic pathways in the untrained state of the athletes. On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the post-training period (T3 vs T2), 10 metabolites involved in 3 metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism was a potential target urinary metabolic pathway for the athletes after training. Niacinamide, 1-methylnicotinamide, 2-pyridone, L-Gln, AMP, and Hx were involved in two metabolic pathways before and after the training. Conclusion: Differential changes in urine after water polo games are due changes in the metabolic pathways of niacin and niacinamide.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0618.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Interpolation; Hydraulic Conductivity; Multi-Point Geostatistics; Training Image
Online: 26 February 2021 (12:47:53 CET)
Hydraulic conductivity is the key and one of the most uncertain parameters in groundwater modeling. The grid based numerical simulation require spatial distribution of sampled hydraulic conductivity at un-sampled locations in the study area. This spatial interpolation has been routinely performed using variogram based models (two-point geostatistics methods). These traditional techniques fail to capture the complex geological structures, provides smoothing effects and ignore the higher order moments of subsurface heterogeneities. In this work, a multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) method is applied to interpolate hydraulic conductivity data which will be further used in WASH123D numerical groundwater simulation model for regional smart groundwater management. To do this, MPS need ‘training images (TIs) as a key input. TI is a conceptual model of subsurface geological heterogeneity which was developed by using concept of ages, topographic slope as an index criteria and knowledge of geologist. After considerations of full physics of study area, an example shows the advantages of using multiple-point geostatistics compared with the traditional two-point geostatistics methods (such as Kriging) for the interpolation of hydraulic conductivity data in a complex geological formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: CrossFit; high-intensity functional training; Extreme conditioning programs
Online: 24 May 2019 (11:36:10 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to assess if self-regulation of intensity based on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a reliable method to control the intensity of metabolic conditioning of functional-fitness session. In addition, the relationship between RPE and changes in heart rate and lactate responses was also analyzed. Eight male participants (age 28.1 ± 5.4 years; body mass 77.2 ± 4.4kg; VO2max: 52.6 ± 4.6 mL·(kg·min)−1) completed three randomly sessions (5 to 7 days apart) under different conditions: (1) all-out (ALL); (2) self-regulation of intensity based on a RPE of 6 (hard) on the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE6); and (3) a control session. Rate of perceived exertion, LAC and HR response were measured pre, during and immediately after the sessions. The RPE and LAC during the ALL-OUT sessions were higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the RPE6 and control sessions for all the analyzed time points during the sessions. Regarding HR, the 22 min area under the curve of HR during ALL-OUT and RPE6 sessions were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the control session. The average number of repetitions was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for the RPE6 session (190.5 ± 12.5 repetitions) when compared to the ALL session (214.4 ± 18.6 repetitions). There was a significant correlation between RPE and LAC (p = 0.001; r = 0.76; very large) and number of repetitions during the session (p = 0.026; r = 0.55; large). No correlation was observed between RPE and HR (p = 0.147; r = 0.380). These results indicate that self-regulation of intensity of effort based on RPE may be a useful tool to control exercise intensity during a metabolic conditioning session of functional-fitness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: resistance training; strength test; muscle strength; older women
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:58:41 CET)
Background: The maximal one-repetition test (1-RM) is widely used in scientific research; however, there are conflict results regarding its reproducibility in elderly population. The present study aimed to analyze the reproducibility the test both before and after a 12 week training period by using the bench press and leg press 45° 1-RM tests in the elderly taking into consideration the training experience and strength level of the women. Methods: Elderly women (n = 376; age, 68.5 ± 14.1 years; height, 162.7 ± 5.5 cm; body mass, 71.2 ± 16.0 kg) who underwent ≥3 months of resistance training performed an initial week of familiarization and a second week of testing and retest, with a 48–72 hour interval. Results: The results showed maximal and relative load strength of 39.3 kg and 0.59 kg/body mass for lower limbs and 20.9 kg and 0.31 kg/body mass for upper limbs. The Kappa indices were 0.93 and 0.95, and the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.99 for the lower and upper limbs, respectively. Conclusion: Therefore, the present study confirms that the 1-RM test has high reliability and reproducibility in the elderly, for both upper and lower limbs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0992.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: brachial plexus injury; cats; electrical stimulation; locomotor training; rehabilitation
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:58:19 CEST)
This prospective cohort pilot study included 22 cats diagnosed with partial traumatic brachial plexus injury (PTBPI), aiming to explore the response of an early intensive neurorehabilitation protocol. This protocol included functional electrical stimulation (FES), locomotor treadmill training and kinesiotherapy exercises, starting at the time with highest probability of nerve repair. The synergetic benefits of this multimodal approach were based on the structural and protective role of proteins and release of neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, parametrization of FES was according to presence or absence of deep pain. Results have shown 72.6% (16/22) cats that achieved ambulation, with 9 cats within 15 days, 2 cats until 30 days and 5 cats until 60 days, however with persistent knuckling position. During the 4 years follow-up, there was evidence of improvement on both muscle mass and muscle weakness, in addition to the disappearance of neuropathic pain. Notably, after the 60 days of neurorehabilitation, 3 cats improved ambulation after arthrodesis of the carpus. Thus, early rehabilitation, with FES applied at the first weeks after injury and accurate parametrization according to deep pain perception, may improve functionality and ambulation, reducing probability of amputation of the affected limb.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0475.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Spondyloptosis; Neurogenic bladder and bowel; Physiotherapy; SCI; bladder training
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:13:33 CEST)
Spondyloptosis is a condition where there is complete dislocation of L5 over sacrum. It is a form of spinal dislocation in which one spinal segment is lodged in the anterior or posterior space of another or advanced spondylolisthesis . Treatment is usually spinal fusion depending on the level of lesion . This clinical case is of a 15 year old male with a history of fall from auto-rickshaw followed by a blunt trauma from a heavy iron rod falling over his abdomen. There was no history of loss of consciousness, but the patient had an excruciating pain over back immediately after the incident. Patient is now paraplegic with loss of sensation below L5 along with loss bladder and bowel control since the time of injury. The T1 weighted MRI of spine revealed grade 5 anterior lysthesis of L5 over S1 level with complete spinal cord transaction. The patient was operated to restore the vertebral alignment with pedicle screws and rods. After 3 months, patient is now treated for neuro-musculoskeletal , genitourinary and genitointestinal function with biofeedback, pelvic floor exercises and timed voiding . When a patient has issues with urine retention, Valsalva manoeuvres, Crede's method, suprapubic tapping, and anal stretching are employed to help them void more effortlessly .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: foals; behavior; handling; haltering; halter training; novel object test
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:32:23 CEST)
It could be helpful if behaviours presented in routine handling could be used as temperament indicators, thus directing tailor-made managements, optimising resources, and animal welfare. We evaluate whether behaviours presented by 25 foals during the first navel treatment and first halter session at weaning. Their behaviour was assessed during a novel object transposition test when they were one year of age. Behavioural parameters presented then were correlated with behaviours presented at navel treatment and haltering. Foals that showed higher exploratory activity during the test correlated to foals that showed less reactivity and less tickling at navel treatment and that were more relaxed and showed less reactivity haltering. Confidence to transpose the novel object was correlated with foals that were more relaxed, showed less reactivity and were less ticklish at navel treatment and were more relaxed during haltering. Transposition style correlated foals less prone to transpose with foals less curious in humans at navel treatment and more vigilant at haltering. Correlations verified between routine management and behaviour test indicate the possibility of early identification of equine temperament, allowing management techniques and specific training for the individual, enhancing training efficiency, animal welfare, and better human-horse interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0035.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; epidemiology; SARS-CoV-2; employment; education; training
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:33:55 CEST)
Although previous studies have focused on the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on various professional groups (particularly in the health and nursing care sector), this study aims to close a research gap by assessing perspectives of students and young professionals in epidemiology and public health in Germany in terms of shifts in workload, work content, and related challenges caused by the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between mid-February and mid-March 2022. Quantitative data were analyzed via standardized mean differences. Qualitative data based on answers to open-ended questions were analyzed via a qualitative content analysis. Overall, 172 individuals participated in this survey. Results indicate that students felt burdened the most by lack of exchange with other students and lecturers. Study participants employed in public health experienced changes in their employment, because they had changes in their work content- and administration-wise, which was accompanied with a high burden due to the workload. Multiple demands that can have an impact on both acquired skills and mental health during the professional qualification phase were mentioned by the participants. Therefore, more in-depth analyses are needed for investigating the impact the pandemic will have on the (future) public health workforce in the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD); MABC-2; Motor skills training
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:23:34 CEST)
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a motor skills training program in children with DCD considering their gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) classified the children and assessed skill changes over time. The study was implemented at four kindergartens in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan. In the study, all children had DCD (5.17 ± 0.70 years; 10 girls), and all indicators on MABC-2 were less than 16 percent. Participants were divided into an experimental group (n=17) receiving ten weeks of motor skills training program for 45 min twice per week, the control group (n=7) proceeded with exercises of everyday living. All children in the experimental group had a significant increase in total percentile rank of MABC-2 and concerning each domain (manual dexterity; throwing and catching; balance). In the control group, a significant decrease in the total percentile rank of MABC-2 and each domain of MABC-2 was observed. The effectiveness of the intervention program was similar across both genders. The study supports that a period of 10 weeks of a motor skills training program can increase the quality of children's motor coordination and represent a valuable procedure for physical education specialists to enhance motor skills for children with DCD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Augmented reality (AR); Virtual reality (VR); Simulation; Training; Navigation
Online: 4 October 2021 (11:04:55 CEST)
Background Augmented reality (AR) in surgery can offer an enhanced view of reality through the superimposition of computer-generated digital images on the real environment. It allows surgeons to integrate image visualisation, improving operative efficiency, surgical outcomes, surgical training and patient education. This review aims to evaluate the current status of augmented reality in surgery, surgical training and potential future applications. Methods We performed a non-systematic review of available literature from January 2005 to August 2021 by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library using a combination of terms “augmented reality”, “virtual reality”, “surgery”, “simulation” and “training”. Articles considered for this review were identified by relevant search criteria including title, keywords, abstract, and full-text. Conclusions AR technologies present an exciting new trend with multiple potential applications in surgery. Intraoperative AR systems have shown promise in specialties involving fine movement of organs during surgical procedures, including Neurosurgery, Ears, Nose and Throat and Orthopaedic Surgery. AR has also exhibited the potential to enhance surgical training and improve knowledge acquisition; it can foster international collaborations via telesurgery and telepresence. In the near future, AR will likely work in symbiosis with surgeons, serving as a complex computer-human coalition which can improve patient outcomes, patient education and surgical training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0367.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Functions; Knowledge Organization Systems; Mathematics Education; Teacher Training; TPACK
Online: 14 June 2021 (14:51:38 CEST)
The objective of this work is to present the results of an investigation on the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge evidenced by mathematics teachers in the second-level of initial training (preservice) at the Universidad Nacional, from the TPACK model perspective, on the subject of functions. The research has a qualitative approach with an interpretive hermeneutical stance. A sample of 27 teachers in training who were enrolled in courses related to the three base domains of the TPACK model (pedagogical, technological and content of quadratic function) during the first semester (I cycle) of 2020 was used. A theoretical inquiry was carried out that allowed the creation of an instrument that made possible the description of the participants’ knowledge based on this model focused on the topic of quadratic function. The results show that participants possess instrumental dominance over the basic forms of knowledge underlying the model. It is concluded that, although participants have already experimented in courses related to these forms of knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to ascertain that their current knowledge would allow them to integrate technologies as a didactic resource within the teaching of the subject of quadratic function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0733.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: conditioning; high-intensity functional training; methods; performance; physical fitness
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:36:00 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate and training load between different CrossFit® workouts, with equalized total volume in men and women. The study included 23 individuals (13 men and 10 women) experienced in CrossFit® training, who performed two workouts with different training types (as many reps as possible - AMRAP and for time) but equalized volume. Measurements of lactate, HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were performed. The results showed that there was no HR interaction between workout time and sex (p = 0.822; η2 = 0.006] and between workout type and sex (p = 0.064, η2 = 0.803). HR significantly differed during each workout type (p <0.001, η2 = 0.621), but not between the two workout types (p = 0.552, η2 = 0.017). Lactate showed no difference between the workout types (p = 0.474, η2 = 0.768), although the training load was higher (p = 0.033, η2 = 0.199) in women when they performed AMRAP. Altogether, HR was not significantly different between training types or sex, while RPE, lactate and training load showed small differences depending on the group (women or men) or workout type (AMRAP or 'for time').
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: communication; patient safety; obstetrics; midwifery; intervention; training; interprofessional; learning
Online: 24 December 2020 (07:59:04 CET)
(1) Background: Obstetric work requires good communication, which can be trained in interventions targeting health care providers and pregnant women/ patients. This systematic review aims to aggregate the current state of research on communication interventions in obstetrics. (2) Methods: Using the PICOS scheme, studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English or German between 2000 and 2020 were searched. Out of 7,018 results, 71 studies were included in this synthesis and evaluated using the Oxford Level of Evidence Scale. (3) Results: 63 studies, including a communication component, revealed a positive effect on different proximal outcomes (i.e., communication skills). Three studies evaluating the effect of communication training on distal performance indicators (i.e., patient safety) proved to be beneficial to some extent. Most studies included different groups at the same time; those addressing health care providers were more common than those with students (61 vs. 12). Expectant mothers were targeted only in 9 studies. Overall, the evidence level of studies was low (only 11 RCTs), with 24 studies evidence level of I-II, 35 of III, and 10 of IV. (4) Conclusions: Communication training should be applied more often to improve communication of staff, students, and pregnant women, and thereby improve patient safety.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: clinical trials; investigator qualification; good clinical practice; investigator training
Online: 8 October 2019 (05:18:34 CEST)
The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) Investigator Qualification Project addresses the need for a more efficient and effective means of identifying qualified clinical investigators and delegates. Selection of investigators and delegates who are qualified by training and experience to conduct clinical trials is essential to safeguarding protections for study participants and ensuring data quality and integrity. Sponsors generally document investigator qualification through training on the principles of good clinical practice (GCP), as defined by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), adopted by regulatory authorities in the US, Japan and the European Union. Although these GCP principles provide an important foundation for promoting the conduct of quality clinical trials, the industry standard “one-size-fits-all” GCP training may not fully prepare investigators and delegates for conducting quality clinical trials. Routine GCP training alone may not be sufficient to prepare an inexperienced member of a site team, while repeating such training is unlikely to enhance the qualifications of an experienced researcher. The CTTI project team used findings from qualitative research activities, as well as input from an expert meeting with multiple stakeholders, to identify gaps and redundancies in the current training of investigators and their delegates and recommend practical, action-based solutions. CTTI provides recommendations on how to implement a more efficient and effective means of qualification for investigators and delegates, determine whether a site team is a good fit for a particular protocol, and improve the quality of clinical trial conduct.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: pharmacy law, education, training, vaccines, community pharmacy, ambulatory care
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:01:34 CET)
Pharmacists and pharmacies are highly visible and accessible to the public and have long been regarded as a source for immunization services in the United States. As international travel continues to increase and grow in popularity in this country, there is a pressing need for expanded access to preventative health services including routine and travel vaccinations and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment of conditions that may be acquired overseas. In the United States, the scope of pharmacy practice continues to expand and incorporate these preventable health services to varying degrees on a state-by-state level. As a result, pharmacists can help to increase access to and awareness of the need for these services to insure that patients remain healthy while traveling abroad and that they do not acquire a travel-related disease while on their trip. For those pharmacists interested in starting a travel health service, considerations should be undertaken that ensures that they have the necessary training, education, and skill set in order to provide this specialty level of care and that their practice setting is optimally designed to facilitate this service. Outcomes from studies that have evaluated pharmacy-based travel health services are positive, which further supports the role of the pharmacist in this setting. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to highlight United States pharmacy laws and regulations, pharmacist training, travel clinic considerations, and patient care outcomes from pharmacy-based travel health services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0494.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: unsupervised training; features learning; deep learning; time series forecasting
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:24:43 CEST)
A continuous Deep Belief Network (cDBN) with two hidden layers is proposed in this paper, focusing on the problem of weak feature learning ability when dealing with continuous data. In cDBN, the input data is trained in an unsupervised way by using continuous version of transfer functions, the contrastive divergence is designed in hidden layer training process to raise convergence speed, an improved dropout strategy is then implemented in unsupervised training to realize features learning by de-cooperating between the units, and then the network is fine-tuned using back propagation algorithm. Besides, hyper-parameters are analysed through stability analysis to assure the network can find the optimal. Finally, the experiments on Lorenz chaos series, CATS benchmark and other real world like CO2 and waste water parameters forecasting show that cDBN has the advantage of higher accuracy, simpler structure and faster convergence speed than other methods.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0145.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Aged; Geriatrics; Successful Ageing; Care Quality; Health Systems; Training
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:34:05 CEST)
Malaysia became the centre of international attention when it democratically removed a semi-authoritarian government of 62 years during its 14th general election this year. This electoral success has provided geriatric medicine in Malaysia with the unexpected ageing icon in the oldest prime minister in the world. Political change has led to a wave of optimism for the expansion of geriatric services in Malaysia, which has met with numerous challenges in the last two decades. The number of geriatrics specialists and services had already begun expanding under the previous government. However, existing geriatricians will need to reassess the landscape of delivery and access of care in our rapidly growing ageing population and develop new strategies to truly expand their services. In addition to unrelenting efforts in the recruitment and training of future geriatricians, the steady expansion of the geriatric workforce should take into account the inclusion of geriatric medicine in the undergraduate training curricula of all healthcare professionals. Expansion of geriatric services will also be a cost-effective strategy to reduce the growing national healthcare budget incurred by the growing needs of an ageing population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0436.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Expanded Public Works Programme; EPWP; SMMEs; Training; and Support
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:44:18 CEST)
Small business sector around the world is regarded as a catalyst of employment for the largest number of people. To reduce massive unemployment and inequality in the country, the Government of South Africa introduced various initiatives to stimulate and support small businesses, the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) is one of such initiatives. The enterprise development approach, is one of the delivery mechanisms of the EPWP, which seeks to transfer income to poor households in the short to medium-term. This study critically assess the impact and effectiveness of training and support interventions provided to small businesses through the EPWP. The study employs a quantitative research method and due to the size, availability and ease of access to the participants, the entire population of twenty (20) small businesses supported by the EPWP in Pretoria Region was sampled. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The study demonstrates that the training intervention provided through the EPWP is making positive impact and achieving its intended goals of enhancing business management skills to participants. It also reveals an interesting outcome that the majority of the participants are women. The study also identified some weaknesses in the programme which leads to the recommendation that long-term support mechanisms are essential to ensure sustainability of emerging enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: research-based training; methodological characteristics; development of research skills.
Online: 26 September 2017 (08:10:13 CEST)
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using of teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences of Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on the focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training, which have been put into basis of analysis of educational programs for the purpose of determining the application of tasks that contribute to the development of research skills of students. The study used a method of focus group. Its purpose was to obtain the necessary information from the participants to describe the methodological basis and justification of methods, forms, indicators, etc. of research-based training system among people who are competent, have experience in this field. After that, the method of "theoretical sampling" was used, which enabled to formulate generalized characteristics according to the results of focus groups. The practical value of the study is determination of the methodological characteristics of research-based training which is the basis for the application of tasks by university teachers that promote the development of research competence of students. The research is one of the first attempts to determine the methodological characteristics of research-based training in Ukraine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: multiple sclerosis; therapeutic climbing; motivation; training conditions; neurorehabilitation; qualitative research
Online: 20 November 2023 (05:01:25 CET)
Background: Therapeutic climbing (TC) has emerged as a prospective rehabilitation approach for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Existing literature primarily focuses on the physical and psychological benefits of TC across diverse populations but is limited concerning its application and efficacy for patients with MS. Objectives: This study aimed to delineate the experiences, effects, and perceptions of both individuals with MS and therapists regarding TC, highlighting the potential benefits and challenges of this therapeutic approach. Methods: Using a qualitative design, structured interviews were conducted with patients living with MS (N=5) and therapists (N=7) involved in TC sessions at a rehabilitation facility. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic qualitative text analysis. Results: Our analysis resulted in the identification of five main categories: (1) motivational factors, (2) training conditions, (3) training content, (4) observed effects, and (5) safety protocols. Findings primarily centred around the motivational aspects of TC. Participants consistently reported experiencing feelings of accomplishment, success, enjoyment, and increased self-confidence. Furthermore, TC was often perceived as a comprehensive intervention, addressing endurance, strength, flexibility, neuromotor functions, cognition, and mental health while having a low-risk profile. However, due to the demanding nature of TC, careful fatigue management is crucial. This entails personalized intensity adjustments during sessions and coordinating TC with other physically demanding therapies when implementing TC within a rehabilitation environment. Conclusions: TC shows promise within MS rehabilitation and can be considered safe under certain framework conditions. This research sheds light on its potential benefits, facilitators and barriers and provides insights for practical integration into rehabilitation programmes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1885.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: aging; physical activity; bibliometric analysis; meta-analysis; frailty; resistance training
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:26:44 CET)
Objectives: Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) is an efficient intervention to maintain functional capabilities and mitigate physiological changes in the older population. However, an attempt has yet to be made to comprehensively investigate the published landscape on the subject. Methods: This study had two aims. The first aim was to perform a bibliometric analysis for two keywords, “aging” and “PA”, to analyze the research trend. Since ‘frailty’ is the most noticeable co-occurring keyword with the two keywords, the second aim was to investigate the effects of PA, particularly resistance training (RT), on frailty via meta-analysis to provide a summary of the current evidence base. Results: Bibliometric analysis revealed that the number of publications on this research topic has gradually increased, highlighting the importance of understanding the role of PA in aging. A meta-analysis found that RT had significant beneficial effects on physical frailty factors, including handgrip strength, lower limb strength, balance, gait speed, and stair climbing ability. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that RT is an effective intervention for improving physical function in frail populations; thus it has important implications for the development of PA programs for older adults with frailty. Future research is warranted to explore the optimal dose, frequency, and duration of RT programs for older adults, as well as the potential benefits of combining RT with other forms of PA, such as aerobic or balance exercises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1487.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: post-training pruning; combinatorial optimization; large language models; inference acceleration
Online: 24 October 2023 (07:51:13 CEST)
With the rapid growth of large language models (LLMs), there is increasing demand for memory and computation for LLMs. Recent efforts on post-training pruning of LLMs aim to reduce the model size and computation, yet the performance is still sub-optimal. In this paper, we present a plug-and-play solution for post-training pruning of LLMs. The proposed solution has two innovative components: 1) **Relative Importance and Activations** (RIA), a new pruning metric that jointly considers the weight and activations efficiently on LLMs; and 2) **Channel Permutation**, a new approach to maximally preserve important weights under N:M sparsity. The proposed two components can be readily combined to further enhance the N:M structuredly pruned LLMs. Our empirical experiments show that RIA alone can already surpass all existing post-training pruning methods on prevalent LLMs, e.g., LLaMA ranging from 7B to 65B. Furthermore, N:M structured pruning with channel permutation can even outperform the original LLaMA2 70B on zero-shot tasks, together with practical speed-up on specific hardware.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1424.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: dabigatran etexilate; exercise training; atherosclerosis; plaque stability; matrix metalloproteinases; inflammation
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:36:12 CEST)
Aim: Complementary effects of dabigatran etexilate (DE), exercise training (ET) and combination (DE+ET) on the development and composition of the atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic apoE knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Methods: In 48 male apoE-/- diabetic mice, streptozotocin (STZ) was induced for 5 consecutive days. Mice received figh-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and were randomized into 4 groups (1.Control/CG, 2.DEG: HFD with DE, 3.ETG: ET on treadmill, 4.DE+ETG: Combination DE and ET treatment). At the end of 8th week, all mice were euthanatized and morphometry of the aortic lesions at the level of aortic valve was obtained. Collagen, elastin, TNF-a, MCP-1, matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2,-3,-9), and TIMP-1 concentration within plaques at aortic valve were determined. Results: All active groups had significantly smaller aorta stenosis (DEG:7.9±2.2%, ETG:17.3±5.3%, DE+ETG:7.1±2.7%) compared to CG (23.3±5.5% p<0.05), reduced the relative intra-plaque concentrations of macrophages, MCP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, and considerably increased collagen, elastin and TIMP-1 (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the most pronounced results (p<0.05). Both DEG and DE+ETG significantly reduced MMP-2 and TNF-a concentrations compared to ETG and CG (p<0.010). Conclusion: DE and ET treatment in diabetic apoE-/- mice showed complementary amelioration of atherosclerotic lesions development and stability, mediated by the anti-inflammatory modulation of both DE and ET.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0864.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: anthropometric parameters; female adolescent; online resistance training; muscle strength; overweight
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:13:19 CEST)
Resistance training is beneficial to adults for improving muscle strength and reducing the body composition. Nevertheless, little is known regarding online resistance training on anthropometric parameters and muscular strength (MS) in overweight female adolescents. This study aimed to examine the effects of online resistance training on anthropometric parameters and muscular strength (MS) in overweight female adolescents. This prospective, single-center, single-blinded, randomized controlled study included 60 overweight female adolescents who were divided into a control group (n=30) and an intervention group (n=30). The intervention group performed online resistance training, which focused on body weight training of 12 components (4 sets, 12 repetitions) for 45 min, three times per week, for 12 weeks. The intensity of training was 65–75%. Anthropometric parameters, including body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), body circumference measurements (BCM), and muscle strength (MS), were assessed. All parameters were measured at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Within-group and between-group comparisons were performed. The results revealed improvements in MS, BW, BMI, and BCM in the intervention group. However, chest circumference was not significant. These findings suggest that online resistance training was effective in improving MS and reducing the body composition and circumference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2123.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Breast tumor; exercise training; gastrocnemius; soleus; cancer-induced muscle wasting
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:36:52 CEST)
Background: Muscle wasting is a common phenomenon in oncology and appears to be alleviated by exercise training. This study aims to determine the degree of aggressiveness of cancer-induced muscle wasting in two different phenotypic muscles, and whether exercise training can attenuate this muscle dysfunction. Methods: Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, two control groups (sedentary and exercised) and two breast cancer model groups (sedentary and exercised) induced by 1-methyl-1-nitrosoureia (MNU). After 35 weeks of endurance training the animals were sacrificed and the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were harvested for morphometric analysis. Results: A significant reduction in cross-sectional area (P < 0.05) was found in both muscles of sedentary tumor-bearing animals. Interstitial fibrosis was significantly higher in the gastrocnemius of sedentary tumor-bearing animals (P < 0.05), but not in the soleus. A shift from large to small fibers was observed in the gastrocnemius of sedentary tumor-bearing animals. Long-term exercise training was able to prevent this cancer-related mus-cle dysfunction. Conclusions: The Gastrocnemius muscle showed a very pronounced reduction in cross-sectional area and marked interstitial fibrosis in sedentary animals with tumors. The soleus muscle showed a less pronounced but significant reduction in cross-sectional area, and collagen deposition did not differ between tumor groups. These contrasting results confirm that can-cer-induced muscle wasting can affect specific fiber types, and specific muscles, namely fast glycolytic muscles, and that exercise training can act to improve it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1591.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: voice recognition; channel adversarial training; information security domain; speaker confirmation
Online: 24 July 2023 (11:36:43 CEST)
With the rapid development of big data, artificial intelligence, and Internet technologies, the human-human contact and human-machine interaction have produced an explosive growth of voice data. Rapidly identifying the speaker's identity and retrieving and managing his or her speech data in the massive amount of speech data has become a major challenge for intelligent speech applications in the field of information security. This research proposes a vocal recognition technique based on information adversarial training for speaker identity recognition in massive audio and video, and speaker identification when oriented to the information security domain. The experimental results show that the method projects data from different scene channels all onto the same space and dynamically generates interactive speaker representations. It solves the channel mismatch problem and effectively improves the recognition of speaker's voice patterns across channels and scenes. It is able to separate overlapping voices when multiple people speak at the same time and reduce speaker separation errors. It realizes speaker voice recognition for information security field and achieves 89% recall rate in massive database, which has practical application value for intelligent application field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: transcatheter aortic valve implantation; cardiac rehabilitation; exercise training; vascular function
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:27:06 CEST)
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) improves event-free survival in patients with severe aortic stenosis, but patients’ exercise capacity remains poor after the procedure. Therefore, we sought to compare the effects of supervised centre-based exercise training program and unsupervised exercise routine on exercise capacity and vascular function in patients after TAVI. Patients were randomised to either centre-based exercise training (12-24 sessions of combined aerobic and low-weight resistance training twice weekly for 8-12 weeks) or unsupervised home-based exercise routine (initial appraisal with detailed recommendations and monthly follow-up). Exercise capacity (cardiopulmonary testing) and vascular function (ultrasonographic measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation [FMD] and arterial stiffness) were assessed at baseline and after the study period. We included 23 patients (mean age 81 years, 61% women), with higher-than-expected drop-out rates (41%) because of the coronavirus-19 pandemic outbreak. Exercise capacity improved over time, irrespective of intervention group: 0.09 ml/min/kg increase in peak oxygen uptake (95%CI [0.01-0.16]; p=0.02), 8.2 Watts increase in workload (95%CI [0.6-15.8]; p=0.034), and 47 seconds increase in cumulative exercise time (95% CI [5.0-89.6]; p=0.029). A between-group difference in change over time (treatment effect) was detected only for FMD (4.49%; 95% CI [2.35; 6.63], p < 0.001), but not for other outcome variables. Both supervised and unsupervised exercise training improve exercise capacity and vascular function in patients after TAVI, with supervised exercise training possibly yielding larger improvements in vascular function, as determined by FMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Training intensity; bimanual coordination; real-world activity; actigraphs; upper extremity
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:22:31 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to quantify characteristics of bimanual movement intensity during 30-hour Hand Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy (HABIT) and bimanual performance (activities and participation) in real-world using accelerometers in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). Twenty-five children with UCP participated in a 30-hour HABIT program. Data was collected from bilateral wrist-worn accelerometers during 30-hours HABIT to quantify the movement intensity, and three days pre- and post-HABIT to assess real-world performance gains. Movement intensity and performance gains were measured using six standard accelerometer-derived variables. Bimanual capacity (body function and activities) was assessed using standardized hand function tests. We found that accelerometer variables increased significantly during HABIT, indicating increased bimanual symmetry and intensity. Post-HABIT, children demonstrated significant improvements in all accelerometer metrics, reflecting real-world performance gains. Children also achieved significant and clinically relevant changes in the hand capacity following HABIT. Therefore, our findings suggest that accelerometers can objectively quantify bimanual movement intensity during HABIT. Moreover, HABIT enhances hand function as well as activities and participation in real-world situation in children with UCP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0868.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Digital Transformation; Digital Competences; Professional Training; Public Services; Human Capital.
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:24:30 CEST)
Digital transformation can become a complex process when workers have insufficient skills, which makes training in the digital field essential. Herein, we intended to relate digital literacy perceived by workers with their training needs for the Portuguese public sector context. Additionally, based in the Human capital theory, we also investigate which professional/demographic characteristics increase training propensity in digital fields. Through an online questionnaire, a dataset with information on 573 workers was obtained. Data analysis was made by using a probabilistic regression model and additional statistical techniques. The results revealed that workers with higher levels of education and higher professional skills have higher probability of participating in training in the digital field. On average, workers reveal low levels of digital knowledge and low participation in training in the digital fields, but the majority present a willingness to participate in future training sessions, especially in the fields of Dataset management, Cybersecurity and Communication systems. This study provides information on training in the digital field of workers in the public sector, which is essential for public organizations to better prepare for digital transformation. Additionally, it contributes to a very recent literature on digital learning, and it can be extended to other contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee pain; frequency of knee pain; exercise training; physical activity
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:38:21 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Adolescents frequently self-report pain, according to epidemiological research. The knee is one of the sites where the pain is most common. One of the main factors contributing to the number of years people spend disabled and having substantial personal, societal, and economic burdens globally is musculoskeletal disorders. Insidious, slowly building onset that neither the adolescent nor the parent is aware of . Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is a clinical knee pain commonly affecting adolescents. In the present study, the authors aimed to estimate the frequency of knee pain in Saudi adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey carried out from June to November 2022 included 676 adolescents, ages 10 to 18. The data are presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means between groups, while the chi-square test was used for the comparison of categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Adolescents were invited to take part in the study; 57.5% were female and 42.5% were male, and 68.8% were aged between 15 and 18. The prevalence of knee pain was considerably high among females (26%), while it was 19.2% among males. Moreover, age was a significant predictor for knee pain, and BMI was as well. We also found a significant difference between BMI classification and stiffness of the knee (p = 0.008). There is a difference between adolescents who do physical activities in leisure and difficulty bending (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Our study noted a high rate of knee pain among adolescents, so we need to raise awareness about risk factors. Adolescent knee pain can be prevented with conservative methods and some minor lifestyle/activity modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1520.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Neuromuscular performance; blood flow restriction; occlusion; resistance training; velocity; EMG
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:31:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of blood flow restriction on movement velocity and muscle activity during the back-squat exercise. Methods: Twenty-four university students participated in this study. In two randomized 72-hours apart sessions, participants performed a 4-set protocol consisting of 30-15-15-15 repetitions performed at 30% of their one-repetition maximum in the back-squat exercise. In both sessions, neuromuscular function was monitored by surface electromyography (EMG) and movement velocity (mean propulsive velocity [MPV], peak concentric velocity [Vmax] and the effort index [EI]). Blood flow restriction (BFR) was applied during exercise in one of the experimental sessions with 80% of full arterial occlusion pressure over lower limbs. Results: BFR condition showed higher (p<0.05) EI, peak and rooted mean square normalized EMG in set 1 compared to set 2. Similar MPV and Vmax were observed at each set for both BFR and control conditions. No significant differences were observed between conditions at any set. Conclusions: BFR did not imply changes in neuromuscular performance during low-intensity resistance training, but it might induce greater intra-series velocity loss and less activation of the muscles involved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0283.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: cognitive rehearsal; coping skills; nursing education; simulation training; workplace bullying
Online: 16 February 2023 (09:36:05 CET)
Bullying makes learning difficult for nursing students, and using real-life scenarios during training can improve the understanding of workplace bullying. Thus, to mitigate bullying experienced by nurses, this study developed and evaluated a cognitive rehearsal education program that constituted of training nursing students through role-play simulations. A mixed-method research design was used to evaluate 39 nursing students from two universities. A quasi-experimental research design was applied to assess symptoms, knowledge, and perceptions of bullying, and a focus group interview was conducted with six participants. Quantitative analyses revealed that the program improved participants’ knowledge and perceptions, but not their symptoms. The focus group interview revealed that the program improved participants’ coping skills and desire for education. This program could be effective in raising awareness of workplace bullying and increasing relevant coping skills. It can be further developed as part of an overall strategy to manage workplace bullying and its consequences in hospital settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teacher training; moral education; values system; higher education; SARS-CoV2
Online: 1 April 2022 (11:29:54 CEST)
To determine the ethical-attitudinal profile of university students in the education career during the pandemic with a tendency towards a new normality. University students of the education career were surveyed online, in an ethical key (axiological attitude, moral attitude and attitude towards new normality). The research was descriptive of univariate hypothesis, with non-probabilistic snowball sampling, reaching a sample of 480 participants. The Ethical-Attitudinal Profile Scale (EPEA) was designed, whose reliability was 0.93 in Lawshe's formula and 0.89 in Cronbach's Alpha. In the axiological attitude, values were obtained more frequently: respect with 79%, sincerity with 73%, prudence with 72%. In the moral attitude, a polar result is contrasted between laxity (67%) and kindness (45%); while, in the attitude towards new normality, there was no spike in frequencies, being distributed more homogeneously between indicators, with a low resilience index. There is an adequate evaluative profile of the university students of the education career despite the context of the pandemic and the trend towards a new normality; having a moral attitude of laxity inferred by the circumstances of uncertainty that are experienced in adverse contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Functional Fitness; High intensity Functional training; Periodization; Overreaching; Muscle recovery.
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:19:09 CEST)
The study describes the acute and delayed time course of recovery following the CrossFit® Benchmark Workout Karen. Eight trained men (28.4±6.4 years; 1RM back squat 139.1±26.0 kg) undertook the Karen protocol. The protocol consists of 150 Wall Balls, aiming to hit a target 3 meters high. Countermovement jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), and perceived recovery status scale (PRS) (general, lower and upper limbs) were assessed pre, post-0h, 24h, 48h and 72h after the session. The CK concentration 24h after was higher than pre-exercise (338.4 U/L vs. 143.3 U/L; effect size: 0.74; p≤0.05). At 48h and 72h following exercise, CK concentration had returned to baseline levels. The PRS general and of the lower limbs were lower in the 24-hours post-exercise compared to pre-exercise (PRS general: 4.7 ±1.5 and 7.9 ±1.7 mmol/L; and PRS of the lower limbs: 4.0 ±2.5 and 7.9 ±0.8, respectively). The PRS general, lower, and upper limbs were reduced at 48-post exercise compared to 72-hours post-exercise scores. Our findings provide insights into the fatigue profile and recovery in acute CrossFit® and can be useful to coaches effectively design the daily session.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0699.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: adaptive computing; dynamic deep neural structure; adpative convolution; dynamic training
Online: 30 July 2021 (12:25:45 CEST)
The colossal depths of the deep neural network sometimes suffer from ineffective backpropagation of the gradients through all its depths. Whereas, The strong performance of shallower multilayer neural structures prove their ability to increase the gradient signals in the early stages of training which easily gets backpropagated for global loss corrections. Shallow neural structures are always a good starting point for encouraging the sturdy feature characteristics of the input. In this research, a shallow, deep neural structure called PrimeNet is proposed. PrimeNet is aimed to dynamically identify and encourage the quality visual indicators from the input to be used by the subsequent deep network layers and increase the gradient signals in the lower stages of the training pipeline. In addition to this, the layerwise training is performed with the help of locally generated errors which means the gradient is not backpropagated to previous layers, and the hidden layer weights are updated during the forward pass, making this structure a backpropagation free variant. PrimeNet has obtained state-of-the-art results on various image datasets, attaining the dual objective of (1) compact dynamic deep neural structure, which (2) eliminates the problem of backwards-locking. The PrimeNet unit is proposed as an alternative to traditional convolution and dense blocks for faster and memory-efficient training, outperforming previously reported results aimed at adaptive methods for parallel and multilayer deep neural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dementia; multicomponent training; long-term care home; social ethical approach
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:45:37 CEST)
Multicomponent training is recommended for people with dementia living in long-term care homes. Nevertheless, evidence is limited and people with severe dementia are often excluded from trials. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate (1) the feasibility and (2) the requirements regarding a multicomponent training for people with moderate to severe dementia. The study was conducted as an uncontrolled single arm pilot study with a mixed methods approach. 15 nursing home residents with a mean age of 82 years (range: 75-90 years; female: 64%) with moderate to severe dementia received 16 weeks of multicomponent training. Feasibility and requirements of the training were assessed by a standardized observation protocol. Eleven participants regularly attended the intervention. The highest active participation was observed during gait exercises (64%), the lowest during strength exercises (33%). It was supportive if exercises were task-specific or related to everyday life. This study confirms that a multicomponent training for the target group is (1) feasible and well accepted. To enhance active participation (2) individual instructions and the implementation of exercises related to everyday life is required. The effectiveness of the adapted training should be tested in future randomized controlled trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0776.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: virtual reality; VR; hockey training; motor reaction; response time; sport
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:16:38 CEST)
The efficiency of performance in various sports has the development of certain specific skills at its core. In ice hockey, both the technical aspects (techniques, stance) and the cognitive ones (keeping attention on the puck, game strategy, etc.) are highly important. This study is aimed at the identification of specific features that determine the performance efficiency of professional hockey players. We used virtual reality (VR) to study the differences between professional ice hockey players and novices in terms of motor responses to the puck’s presentation on different levels of difficulty. The study involved 22 participants, 13 of them being professional ice hockey players (Mage=20±2.9; mean age of training experience М=14.18±3.8) and 9 being not experienced participants (Mage=20±1.4). The study showed that the stick response time of professional hockey players is significantly higher (0.98 ms vs 1.5 ms, p≤0.05) in more difficult situations close to a real game. Moreover, professionals proved to have more stable movement patterns of the knee and hip joints. They also make fewer head movements as a response to stimuli during all runs (0.66 vs 1.25, p≤0.05). Therefore, the results indicate specific spatial-temporal, technical and tactical, and energetic determinants, that ensure higher performance efficiency in hockey players
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: warm up; muscle force; performance; resistance training; thermal imaging; physiology
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:15:20 CET)
(1) Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different types of warm-ups on the strength and skin temperature of Paralympic powerlifting athletes; (2) Methods: The participants were 15 male Paralympic powerlifting athletes. It was analyzed the effects of three different types of warm-up (without warm-up (WW), traditional warm-up (TW), or stretching warm-up (SW)) on static and dynamic strength tests as well as in the skin temperature, which was monitored by thermal imaging; (3) Results: show no differences in the dynamic and static indicators of the force in relation to the different types of warm-up. No significant differences were found in relation to the Peak Torque (p = 0.055, F=4.560, η2p= 0.246 medium effect), and 1-Repetition Maximum (p = 0.139, F=3.191, η2p = 0.186, medium effect) between the different types of warm-up. In the thermographic analysis, there was a significant difference only in the Pectoral muscle clavicular portion between the TW (33.04 ± 0.71ºC) and the WW (32.51 ± 0.74ºC) (p = 0.038). The TW method also presented slightly higher values than the SW and WW in the Pectoral Muscles Sternal portion and in the Deltoid anterior portion, but with p-value > 0.05; (4) Conclusions: that the types of warm-up studied do not seem to interfere with the performance of Paralympic Powerlifting athletes. However, the thermal images showed that traditional warm-up best meets the objectives expected for this preparation phase.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorders; Early Intervention; Parent mediated intervention; Parental Training
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:04:07 CET)
The aim of this article is to analyze the evidence against the effectiveness of intervention programs based on the participation of parents of children with autism. To obtain the data, a systematic search was carried out in four databases (ProQuest-PsychArticles, ProQuest-ERIC, ProQuest-PubMed, and Scopus). These documents were refined under the inclusion/exclusion criteria and a total of 51 empirical studies were selected. They were classified, first, according to the function of the intervention objective and, later, by the methodology applied (19 studies based on comprehensive interventions, 11 focused on the nuclear symptoms of ASD, 12 focused on the promotion of positive parenting and 9 interactions focused on children play). Once all the documents have been analyzed, the evidence indicates scientific efficacy in most studies, mainly in those based on child development and the application of behavioral analysis principles. Also, the positive influence of parent participation in such programs was demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: good clinical practice; clinical trials; quality; investigator training; clinical investigator
Online: 19 January 2020 (04:46:48 CET)
Background: Good clinical practice (GCP) training is the industry standard for ensuring the quality conduct of registrational clinical trials. However, concerns have been raised about whether the current structure and delivery of GCP training sufficiently prepares clinical investigators and their delegates to conduct clinical trials. Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 13 clinical investigators and 10 research sponsors to 1) examine characteristics of the quality conduct of sponsored clinical trials, including critical tasks and concerns perceived as essential for trial quality, 2) identify key knowledge and skills required to perform critical tasks, and 3) identify gaps and redundancies in GCP training and areas of improvement to ensure the quality conduct of clinical trials. We used applied thematic analysis to analyze the data. Results: The top three tasks identified as critical for the quality conduct of clinical trials were obtaining informed consent, ensuring protocol compliance, and protecting participants’ health and safety. Respondents acknowledged that GCP principles address each of these critical tasks; however, they described many challenges and burdens of GCP training, including high training frequency and repetitive content. Respondents suggested moving beyond GCP training as a mere check-box activity by making it more effective, engaging, and interactive. They also emphasized that applying GCP principles in a real-world, skills-based environment would increase the relevance of GCP training to investigators and their delegates. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that although investigators and sponsors recognize that GCP training addresses critical tasks necessary to the quality conduct of clinical trials, they articulated the need for significant improvement in the design, content, and presentation of GCP training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0029.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: pedestrian detection; Unified Deep Net; two-stream nets; network training
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:08:39 CET)
Pedestrian detection is the core of driver assistance system, which collects the road conditions through the radars or cameras on the vehicle, judges whether there is a pedestrian in front of the vehicle, supports decisions such as raising the alarm, automatically slowing down or emergency stopping to keep pedestrians safe, and improves the security when the vehicle is moving. Suffered from weather, lighting, clothing, large pose variations and occlusion, the current pedestrian detection still has a certain distance from the practical applications. In recent years, deep networks have shown excellent performance for image detection, recognition and classification. Some researchers employed deep network for pedestrian detection and achieve great progress, but deep networks need huge computational resources which make it difficult to put into practical applications. In real scenarios of autonomous vehicle, the computation ability is limited. Thus, the shallow networks such as UDN (Unified Deep Networks) is a better choice since it performs well on consuming less computation resources. Base on UDN, this paper proposes a new deep network model named as two-stream UDN, which augments another branch for solving traditional UDN’s indistinction of the difference between trees / telegraph poles and pedestrians. The new branch accepts the upper third part of the pedestrian image as input, and the partial image has less deformation, stable features and more distinguished characters from other objects. For the proposed two-stream UDN, multi-input features including HOG feature, Sobel feature, color feature and foreground regions extracted by GrabCut segmentation algorithms are fed. Compared with the original input of UDN, the multi-input features are more conducive for pedestrian detection since the fused HOG features and significant objects are more significant for pedestrian detection. Two-stream UDN is trained through two steps: First, the two sub-networks are trained until converge; then we fuse results of the two subnets as the final result and feed it back to the two subnets to fine tune network parameters synchronously. To improve the performance, Softplus is adopted as activation function to obtain faster training speed, and positive samples are mirrored and rotated with small angle to make positive and negative samples more balanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable development agenda; higher education; employability competencies; entrepreneurial skills training
Online: 22 December 2019 (02:05:11 CET)
The objective of this paper is to analyze students’ assessments of the attainment of skills acquired by university graduates enrolled in a Training Programme (TP) to develop entrepreneurial skills and transversal employability competencies. Both of which are vital for the success of today's societies and play an important role in the sustainable development agenda. The TP was a twelve-week programme with six modules combining entrepreneurship training and traditional teaching methods. There were nine editions and 148 students worked in teams preparing business plans to present to consultants and potential investors. The Focal Group method was used to identify competencies and a survey was designed to identify the level to which skills were attained. The results suggest that the students attained both types of skills, acquiring a higher level of proficiency in entrepreneurial skills and those transversal competencies most connected to entrepreneurship. Additionally, different levels of attainment of entrepreneurial skills were found in different groups. We provide new evidence that TPs, as compulsory subjects in the core curriculum of degree programmes, will help accomplish both objectives: the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and generic university educational competencies. The overall outcome of this research highlights the value added by the TPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0220.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: younger schoolchildren; anxiety; psychocorrection; sociopsychological training; biological feedback; art-therapy
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:28:45 CET)
The purpose of our study is to determine the effectiveness of various types of psychocorrection measures: social and psychological training, a method of biological feedback and Sandplay for the indicators of childhood anxiety among younger schoolchildren. The study was conducted in the school of Magadan, North East of Russia (9-10 year old students, n = 43). We used a standardized method of Multidimensional Assessment of Child Anxiety which included 10 scales. The correction methods were used: socio-psychological training (SPT), biofeedback method (BFB), individual and group Sandplay. Students of group I (n = 12) participated only in the SPT. Students of group II (n = 11) participated in the SPT and underwent a course of training in self-regulation using the BFB method. In correction work with the students of group III (n = 20), the SPT, BFB, individual and group Sandplay were used. In group I, after the correction activities, a significant decrease in anxiety was observed in 3 of 10 scales (2, 6, 7; (p <0.05). In group II it was seen in 5 scales (1, 3, 6, 7, 8; p <0.05). In group III, a significant improvements took place in 7 scales (1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10; p <0.01–p <0.05). The present study has shown the different efficacy of applying the remedial techniques separately and in combination. The use of methods in the complex enhances the impact on the types of the child anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: School coexistence; cyberbullying; education; family; victims; prevention; management; training; perceptions
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:12:16 CET)
The present work analyzes university students' perceptions on cyberbullying. More specifically, the main objective was to understand the level of concern displayed by young students in teacher training programs regarding cyberbullying; our analysis includes their degree of self-confidence and their commitment when faced with this problem, their self-reported training on the subject, and the measures they consider adequate to approach it in the educational context. Using a survey research design, 408 students from Early Childhood Education, Primary Education Degrees, and the Master’s Degree in Secondary Education, and Vocational Training from national public universities participated. The results shed light upon the coexistence of three differentiated profiles of teachers in training when faced with cyberbullying. However, although there is clear evidence of the high level of concern regarding this problem in every case, they placed more importance on raising awareness of the issue with families, prevention, management and training as basic pillars for re-directing the worrisome reality experienced in educational centers. The need to include these contents in the initial training of future education professionals, for overcoming cyberbullying, and the importance of collaborative work between parents and educators are the conclusions of this research study that are in agreement with other studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HMB; Branched-chain amino acid; Strength training; Sports nutrition; Inflammation.
Online: 29 August 2018 (14:12:18 CEST)
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who engage in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation that have received less attention. Because of the small number of published studies, it has not been possible to conclude the exact effects of HMB on cardiovascular parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Thus, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data presented here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate pro-inflammatory response following an intense resistance exercise in athletes. Also, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption in conjunction with resistance training has no more adaptive advantages associated with decreasing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress markers. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, longer duration studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with body’s inflammatory condition, antioxidative defense system, and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: chemical engineering; journal publications; lexical choices; collocations; impact factor; training
Online: 30 March 2018 (11:25:20 CEST)
The combination of increased pressures for high-volume, high-impact publications in English language with the high rejection rates of submitted manuscripts for publications presents an often unsurpassable obstacle for (early career) researchers. At the same, the register requirements of peer-reviewed journals -that can contribute to whether a paper is accepted for publication- has received little attention. This paper redresses this gap, by investigating the linguistic choices in 60 published manuscripts in four journals, with impact factor (IF) above 2; all 4 journals, publish original research papers in the field of chemical engineering science and specifically focus on wastewater treatment. Our survey shows that chemical engineering research publications tend to comply to a set of unwritten requirements: multidisciplinarity, brevity, co-authorship, focus on the description of practical results (rather than methods), and awareness of non-specialised audiences. It is found that less discipline-specific vocabulary was used in higher IF journals and this is interpreted within the current context of manuscript publication and consumption. Also, a complex relationship between the advertised scope of each journal and the actual published papers exists, indicating that guide for authors and aims and objective published by the journal's editorial office should be critically evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0079.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fire detection; upwelling radiation; diurnal variation; training data; geostationary sensors
Online: 15 December 2016 (09:22:10 CET)
Fire detection from satellite sensors relies on an accurate estimation of the unperturbed state of a target pixel, from which an anomaly can be isolated. Methods for estimating the radiation budget of a pixel without fire depend upon training data derived from the location's recent history of brightness temperature variation over the diurnal cycle, which can be vulnerable to cloud contamination and the effects of weather. This study proposes a new method that utilises the common solar budget found at a given latitude in conjunction with an area's local solar time to aggregate a broad-area training dataset, which can be used to model the expected diurnal temperature cycle of a location. This training data is then used in a temperature fitting process with the measured brightness temperatures in a pixel, and compared to pixel-derived training data and contextual methods of background temperature determination. Results of this study show similar accuracy between clear-sky medium wave infrared upwelling radiation and the diurnal temperature cycle estimation compared to previous methods, with demonstrable improvements in processing time and training data availability. This method can be used in conjunction with brightness temperature thresholds to provide a baseline for upwelling radiation, from which positive thermal anomalies such as fire can be isolated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0687.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: automatic speech recognition (ASR); automatic assessment tools; foreign language pronunciation; pronunciation training; computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT); automatic pronunciation assessment; learning environments; minimal pairs
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:31:41 CEST)
General–purpose automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have improved their quality and are being used for pronunciation assessment. However, the assessment of isolated short utterances, as words in minimal pairs for segmental approaches, remains an important challenge, even more for non-native speakers. In this work, we compare the performance of our own tailored ASR system (kASR) with the one of Google ASR (gASR) for the assessment of Spanish minimal pair words produced by 33 native Japanese speakers in a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) scenario. Participants of a pre/post-test training experiment spanning four weeks were split into three groups: experimental, in-classroom, and placebo. Experimental group used the CAPT tool described in the paper, which we specially designed for autonomous pronunciation training. Statistically significant improvement for experimental and in-classroom groups is revealed, and moderate correlation values between gASR and kASR results were obtained, beside strong correlations between the post-test scores of both ASR systems with the CAPT application scores found at the final stages of application use. These results suggest that both ASR alternatives are valid for assessing minimal pairs in CAPT tools, in the current configuration. Discussion on possible ways to improve our system and possibilities for future research are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0931.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: digital competence assessment; health professions students; telehealth; Covid-19; training program
Online: 14 November 2023 (12:57:23 CET)
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic triggered a swift transition to online learning, remote work and an increased demand for proficiency in telehealth and digital health among health professions students as they prepare for their future careers. In responding to the question: “What are the essential constructs and the validity of a digital competence assessment scale for health professions students", this study sought to develop and validate a digital competence assessment scale (DigiCAS-HPS). The present study followed a mixed-methods approach: qualitative methods (phase 1) for generating and refining items in the scale through literature review on digital frameworks, pilot testing and expert review, and quantitative methods (phase 2) including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for its validation. The study revealed a two-factor structure, encompassing Digital Communication, Collaboration, and Online Security (Factor 1) and Digital Content Development and Software Mastery (Factor 2), demonstrating strong construct validity and reliability. Regarding differences in digital competence across groups, older and soon-to-graduate students exhibited higher proficiency in digital content development and software mastery. The two critical facets of DigiCAS-HPS scale could tailor training programs and ensure that health professions students are well-prepared for the evolving telehealthcare landscape. This promotes the growth and accessibility of telehealth, which is increasingly vital in the post-COVID-19 new normal era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0296.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: core training; abdominal muscle activity; head-neck posture; EMG; physical therapy
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:43:25 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the influence of cranio-cervical position on the electromyographical activity of the core muscles during the prone plank exercise. Twenty healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Muscle activation was registered using surface electromyography (sEMG) in the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and lumbar portion of erector spinae (LES). Three prone plank conditions were randomly evaluated, varying the position of the cranio-cervical segment during the prone plank performance (NEUTRAL, FLEXION and EXTENSION). sEMG signals of each individual muscle, Total Intensity (TI) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were analysed with statistical significance set at P<0.05. FLEXION revealed significantly higher TI values compared to NEUTRAL and EXTENSION (p = 0.000; effect size (ES) > 0.90). The RA presented larger activation in FLEXION compared to the other variations (p < 0.05; ES >0.70). FLEXION elicited a greater response compared to NEUTRAL for both sides of EO when compared to EXTENSION, and also for both sides of IO compared to the other conditions. Both FLEXION and EXTENSION reported higher RPE values compared to NEUTRAL. Cranio-cervical segment position influenced the electromyographical activation of core musculature, showing highest values when performing prone plank in a cranio-cervical flexion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1706.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: via ferrata; first aid; safety management; first aid training; climbing; accidents
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:17:51 CEST)
Background: The popularity of climbing via ferratas (VF) in the European Alps has increased a lot. We have analysed the pattern of injuries from accidents, which have occurred on VF, and First Aid (FA) knowledge from the persons on such alpine routes. The aim was to create specific FA courses for those who climb VF. Material and Methods: Incidences and FA knowledge of the alpinists were investigated by a questionnaire. Data included details of the individual’s alpine experience, accidents or any kind of medical emergency they have ever experienced. FA knowledge was evaluated by 18 multiple choice questions with 5 answers each. The questionnaire was based on those of previous studies but was slightly adopted for VF. For this data from rescue operations on VF were used. Finally every participant was asked to judge his FA knowledge by a Likert scale (1 to 5). Results: The collective consisted of 391 participants (28.4% women) with an average age of 41 years. A significant portion did no regular fitness training and in most cases the last FA training was years ago. Nobody had joined a specific FA course for climbers or mountaineers. The most common causes of emergencies were: weather conditions (19%), stumble (18.6%), falls (13.4%), and weariness and deficiency in concentration (13.4%). FA questions most often answered correctly were cardiac emergencies (49.6%), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) (43.2%), snow blindness (40.9%), injuries of the head (37.1%) and hemorrhagic shock (35.3%). Those most often wrong were injuries of the back (1.0%), injuries of the thorax (2.8%), frostbite (9.0%), acute mountain sickness (AMS) (4.1%) and strategy of rescue (4.1%). VF climbers show significant less FA knowledge than mountaineers in the Western Alps and trekkers. Conclusions: Data support the need of a specific FA training for VF climbers. Their FA knowledge does not fit with the demands in the mountains while some other knowledge they have is negligible on VFs (e.g. HACE). This is in accordance with earlier studies in “classic” alpine mountaineering and in trekking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1214.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: virtual reality; reading fluency training; language learning; acceptance; students; secondary school
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:59:59 CEST)
Appropriate techniques for promoting reading fluency are difficult to implement in the classroom. There is little time to provide students with individualized feedback on reading aloud or to moti-vate them to do so. In this context, VR can be beneficial for learning, to provide individualized feedback and for increasing learners' engagement. Studies analyzing established methods of lan-guage learning in school in VR seem to be lacking so far. Therefore, this study project was the first to analyze the acceptance of students towards the implementation of a concept of reading fluency training with students at a secondary school in VR. The study method was developed based on the Technology Acceptance Model. The VR environment developed is web-based and provides indi-vidual and collaborative opportunities for training reading fluency, giving, and receiving feed-back, and deepening content understanding of the reading texts. To analyze the acceptance of the VR environment, 5 guided interviews were conducted. The results show that despite technical challenges with the VR environment, students accepted and appreciated the reading fluency training in VR. The integration of established concepts of reading fluency training in foreign lan-guage classrooms has great potential as additional added value can be created to address the challenges of face-to-face instruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Virtual Reality; Flight Simulation; Ground Control Station; Airship; Flight Test; Training
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:31:00 CEST)
A real-time flight simulation tool is proposed using a Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Display (VR-HMD) for airships operating in beyond the line-of-sight (BLOS) conditions. Particularly, the VR-HMD is developed for stratospheric airships flying at low/high altitudes. The proposed flight simulation tool uses the corresponding aerodynamics characteristics of the airship, the buoyancy effect, mass balance, added mass, propulsion contributions and ground reactions in the FlightGear Fight Simulator (FGFS). The VR headset has been connected to the FGFS along with the radio controller containing the real-time orientation/state of each button that is also simulated to provide better situational awareness and a Head-Up Display (HUD) that has been developed to provide the required flight data. In this work, a system was developed to connect the FGFS and the VR-capable graphics engine, Unity, to a PC and a wireless VR-HMD in real-time with minimal lag between data transmission. A balance was found for FGFS to write to a CSV file at a period of 0.01s. For Unity, the file was read every frame which translates to around 0.0167s (60 Hz). A test procedure was also conducted with a similar rating technique based on the NASA TLX questionnaire that identifies the pilot’s spare mental capacity when completing an assigned task to assure the comfortability of the proposed VR-HMD. Accordingly, a comparison has been made for the aircraft control using the desktop simulator and the VR-HMD tool. Results, showed that the current iteration of the system is ideal to train pilots on using similar systems in a safe and immersive environment. Furthermore, such an advanced portable system may even increase the situational awareness of pilots and allow them to complete a sizeable portion of actual flight tests with the same data transmission procedures in simulation. The resulting VR-HMD flight simulator is also conceived to express the ground control station (GCS) concept and transmit flight information as well as the point of view (POV) visuals in real-time using the real environment broadcasted using an onboard camera.