REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Cortex Periplocae; traditional Chinese medicines; periplocin; phytochemistry; biological activities
Online: 8 December 2016 (10:24:43 CET)
Cortex Periplocae, as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used for autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Due to its potential pharmaceutical values, more studies about the biological activities of Cortex Periplocae have been conducted recently. Meanwhile, the adverse reaction of Cortex Periplocae is not a negligible problem in clinic. In this article, we reviewed a series of articles and summarized the recent studies of Cortex Periplocae in the areas of phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 100 constituents have been isolated and identified from Cortex Periplocae, including steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and fatty acid compounds. The crude extracts of Cortex Periplocae and its active compounds exhibit various biological activities, such as cardiotonic effect, anticancer action, and anti-inflammatory effect. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the bioactive ingredients, pharmacological effect, and toxicity of this plant. Furthermore, this review suggests investigating and developing new clinical usages according to the above pharmacological effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1110.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: traditional medicine; life expectancy; health care
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:17:14 CEST)
The study investigated the impact of traditional medicine on life expectancy in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study adopted a quantitative research approach. Purposive or judgmental sampling was used to elucidate the data set used for the study. Cross-sectional data were gathered with the help of a well-designed questionnaire from a total of three hundred and fifty-seven (357) respondents who were available for the survey. The data set collected was analysed using descriptive and linear regression using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). From the results, 53%, 87%, and 56% were male, below 50 years old, and in the low-income class, respectively, suggesting that the bulk of the respondents under investigation were male, young, and had rather modest incomes. Also, 53% were married, and all had one form of formal education. 67% of respondents acknowledge using traditional medicine; however, the majority of respondents preferred Orthodox medical care over alternative kinds of care. Traditional medicine (TM) and factors that contribute to the advancement of traditional medicine (FITM) have a negative impact on life expectancy, according to the regression analysis. On the other hand, TM has no statistically significant impact on life expectancy, despite FITM having a statistically significant effect at the 5% level. All available data, however, indicates that TM and FITM have an impact on life expectancy, either directly or indirectly. Based on the results, this study concluded that traditional medicine has the potential to significantly increase life expectancy in Nasarawa State and throughout Nigeria. The study recommends that traditional health professionals, stakeholders, and concerned government agencies should put efforts in place to improve and promote modern traditional medicine among the people, especially its effectiveness and medicinal quality, increase its accessibility to people, and efficiently regulate its prices to increase its affordability for low-income earners
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma; traditional Chinese medicine; Chinese herbal products; complementary and alternative medicine; Gan-Lu-Yin
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:09:08 CEST)
In most countries, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is no more than 1 per 100,000 for both men and women; however, it is much higher for men and women in Taiwan. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of NPC and its treatment-related side effects has been increasing. The National Health Insurance (NHI) covers 99.6% of Taiwan’s residents. In the present population-based cohort study, we aimed to investigate the pattern of utilization of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) for NPC from 2001 through 2011 in Taiwan. We identified a total of 30294 patients with newly diagnosed NPC from the Registry for Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database (RCIPD). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for CHP utilization. From 2001 through 2011, 17816 patients aged ≥20 years were newly diagnosed with NPC. Of these, 4749 patients used TCM outpatient services for NPC treatment. TCM users were more likely to be women, young, residents of Central Taiwan, and white-collar workers. The most commonly prescribed formula CHP was Gan-Lu-Yin, followed by Xin-Yi-Qing Fei-Tang and Shan-Shen-Mai-Men-Dong-Tang. The most commonly prescribed single CHP was Hedyotis diffusa, followed by Radix Scrophulariae and Radix Ophiopogonis. These findings provide information regarding personalized therapies for NPC and can promote further clinical experiments and pharmacological research on CHPs for NPC treatment in Taiwan. Further well-designed randomized controlled studies and basic mechanistic studies should assess the safety and effectiveness of CHPs for NPC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0559.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Sakha; traditional medicine; plant names; healing; medicinal plants; Arctic
Online: 10 October 2023 (13:22:32 CEST)
The Sakha people have a long history of use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine and healing practices. This article explores the use and naming practices found with 10 plants that grow in far northeastern Russia, in the Arctic and Subarctic zones of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). A field survey of 2500 participants was used to identify the most widely used medicinal plants, their names, and uses. Findings were double-checked with published resources. A small set of criteria are used in naming practices. These practices are based on the plant’s appearance, its habit, or in some way are related to their use, indexing the disease, or the diseased organ, or the result of healing. We find robust knowledge and practice of traditional medicine across the Sakha population, and deep knowledge of plants among Sakha herbalists, healers and shamans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; network medicine; inflammation; network and system pharmacology; traditional Chinese medicine
Online: 18 April 2018 (07:41:00 CEST)
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition that currently has no known cure. The principles of the expanding field of network medicine (NM) have recently been applied to AD research. The main principle of NM proposes that diseases are much more complicated than one mutation in one gene, and incorporate different genes, connections between genes, and pathways that may include multiple diseases to create full scale disease networks. AD research findings as a result of the application of NM principles have suggested that functional network connectivity, myelination, myeloid cells, and genes and pathways may play an integral role in AD progression, and may be integral to the search for a cure. Different aspects of the AD pathology could be potential targets for drug therapy to slow down or stop the disease from advancing, but more research is needed to reach definitive conclusions. Additionally, the holistic approaches of network pharmacology in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research may be viable options for the AD treatment, and may lead to an effective cure for AD in the future.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: traditional korean medicine; hippocampus; neuronal cell death; oxidative stress; medicinal herbs
Online: 10 November 2019 (14:53:14 CET)
Incident rates of neurodegenerative diseases have steadily increased globally, but there is no therapeutic access available. We newly prescribed medicinal herbal remedy including five different herbal plants called, Chen-Ma-Dan-Sam-Ga-Mi-Bang (CMST), purposed to prove for pharmacological properties and corresponded actions on hippocampus neuronal cell injury by hypoxia-induced mice model. Mice were adapted to normoxia or hypoxia with or without CMST for 5 days. We gathered pharmacological effects of CMST on cell injury by enhancement of dihydroethidium and 4-hydroxynonenal signals which were correlated with abnormal redox status in the protein or gene expression levels (abnormal elevations of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and deteriorations of total glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase) due to hypoxia. CMST also notably exerted to attenuates molecules for neuronal cell injury markers such as p-tau, cleaved caspase-3 due to DNA oxidations (53bp1and phosphor-histone H2AX), inflammatory cytokines, and hemeoxigenase-1. We further figured out the underlying actions of CMST by in vitro experiment through inactivation of microglial cell which can mediate neuronal cell injury. Collectively, CMST prevented from hippocampal neuronal cells via inactivation of microglial cell with normalization of redox status on hypoxia-induced hippocampus neuronal cell injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Euryale ferox; traditional medicine; phytochemical constituents; pharmacological effects
Online: 5 May 2023 (09:57:25 CEST)
Euryale ferox, which belongs to the family of Nymphaeaceae, has been widely distributed in China, India, Korea, and Japan. The seeds of E. ferox (EFS) have been categorized as superior food for 2000 years in China, based on its abundant nutrients including polysaccharides, polyphenols, sesquineolignans, tocopherols, cyclic dipeptides, glucosylsterols, cerebrosides, and triterpenoids. These constituents exert multiple pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant, hypoglycemic, cardioprotective, antibacterial, anticancer, antidepression, and hepatoprotective properties. There are very few summarized reports on E. ferox, albeit with its high nutritional value and beneficial activities. Therefore, we collected the reported literatures (since 1980), medical classics, databases, and pharmacopeia of E. ferox, and summarized the botanical classification, traditional uses, phytochemicals, and pharmacological effects of E. ferox, which will provide new insights for the further research and development of EFS-derived functional products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0024.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; Persian medicine; ontology; knowledge-base; Mizaj; temperament; new drug discovery
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:07:50 CET)
Background: Iranian traditional medicine is a holistic school of medicine with a long prolific history. It describes numerous concepts and the relationships between them. However, no unified terminology has been proposed for the concepts of this medicine up to the present time. Considering the extensive use of concepts in the numerous textbooks written by the scholars over centuries, comprehending the totality of the terminology is obviously a very challenging task. To resolve this issue and overcome the obstacles, and code the concepts in a reusable manner, constructing an ontology of the concepts of Iranian traditional medicine seems a necessity.Methods: Makhzan al-Advieh, an encyclopedia of materia medica compiled by Mohammad Hossein Aghili Khorasani, was selected as the resource to create an ontology of Mizaj. The steps followed to accomplish this task included (1) compiling the list of classes for Mizaj; (2) arranging the classes in taxonomy; (3) determining object properties and their cardinalities; (4) specifying annotation properties including codes, labels, synonyms, and definitions for each concept; (5) reviewing the fields pertaining to Mizaj of all monographs in Makhzan al-Advieh. The ontology was created using Protégé with adherence to the principles of ontology development provided by the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) foundry. Results: Mizaj ontology was constructed with a final inclusion of 105 classes, three object properties, and 1078 axioms in the Iranian Traditional Medicine General Ontology database, IrGO, freely available at http://jafarilab.com/irgo/. An indented tree view and an interactive graph view using WebVOWL were used to visualize the ontology. All classes were linked to their instances in the UNaProd database to create a knowledge-base of Mizaj. Conclusion: We constructed an ontology-based knowledge base of ITM concepts of Mizaj in the domain of materia medica to help offer a shared and common understanding of this concept, enable reuse of the knowledge, and make the assumptions explicit. Extending IrGO will bridge the gap between traditional and conventional schools of medicine and help guide future research on new treatment options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; alternative and complementary medicine; database; natural products; Mizaj; temperament
Online: 8 May 2019 (10:08:54 CEST)
As a holistic medical school, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) considers the human body as a dynamic and intricate network of interconnecting processes. Currently, systems biology and more precisely systems medicine and pharmacology can be an aid in providing rationalizations for many traditional medications and treatments and elucidating a great deal of knowledge they can offer to guide future research in medicine. Therefore, re-organization and standardization of traditional medicine data are requested more than ever before. To address this issue, we have constructed UNaProd, a Universal Natural Product database for materia medica of ITM. Primarily based on Makhzan al-Advieh, which is the most recent encyclopedia of materia medica in ITM with the largest number of monographs, this database was created using both text mining methods and manual editing. UNaProd is currently hosting to 2696 monographs from herbal to animal to mineral compounds in 16 diverse attributes such as origin and scientific name. In the current version, UNaProd is hyperlinked to IrGO and CMAUP databases for Mizaj and molecular features respectively and it is freely available at http://jafarilab.com/unaprod/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Acute lung injury (ALI); Angiotensin-converting enzyme type II (ACE2); Animal model; traditional Chinese medicine
Online: 17 July 2023 (07:32:40 CEST)
COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, and acute lung injury (ALI) is the major cause of COVID-19. The challenge in studying SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity is the limited availability of animal models. Therefore, it is necessary to establish animal models that can reproduce multiple characteristics of ALI to study therapeutic applications. The present study established a mouse model that has features of ALI that are similar to COVID-19 syndrome to investigate the role of ACE2 and the administration of the Chinese herbal prescription NRICM101 in ALI. Mice with genetic modifications, including overexpression of human ACE2 (K18-hACE2 TG) and absence of ACE2 (mACE2 KO), were intratracheally instillated with hydrochloric acid. The acid intratracheal instillation induced severe immune cell infiltration, cytokine storms, and pulmonary disease in mice. Compared with K18-hACE2 TG mice, mACE2 KO mice exhibited dramatically increased levels of multiple inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, histological evidence of lung injury, and dysregulation of MAPK and MMP activation. In mACE2 KO mice, NRICM101 could ameliorate the disease progression of acid-induced ALI. In conclusion, the established mouse model provided an effective platform for researchers to investigate pathological mechanisms and develop therapeutic strategies for ALI, including COVID-19-related ALI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0132.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: arylamine N-acetyltransferases; cancer; tuberculosis; drug discovery; traditional Chinese medicine; virtual screening; molecular dynamics simulation; MM-PBSA
Online: 30 June 2017 (11:36:22 CEST)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are cytosolic enzymes, highly polymorphic, present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These enzymes play an important role in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics as well as in the synthesis of endogenous compounds. Specific NATs have been pointed out in the literature as possible therapeutic targets. In particular, the human NAT1, for the treatment of certain cancers, and the NAT from M. tuberculosis (TBNAT), for the treatment of tuberculosis. This paper describes an in silico approach to prospect and select potentially inhibitors of NAT1 and TBNAT from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using free available tools. A library with ligands from TCM was previously screened in order to select only compounds with optimal pharmacological properties. The affinity of the selected ligands with respect to NAT enzymes was then evaluated by virtual screening (VS). Subsequently, the complexes with the best ligands were submitted to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations aiming to obtain better quality information on affinity and selectivity. The results for one specific ligand, ZINC14690579, indicated its potential for affinity and selectivity. ZINC14690579 structure may represent the discovery of a new scaffold for future development of NAT inhibitors.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine; Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM); Thermodynamic mechanism; Entropic systems biology; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organization triggering factor (SOTF); Wuxing (five phases), Qi, Meridians (Jingluo); Acupuncture points; Chinese herbs; Aquamoleculomics; Modernization of TCM
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:12:29 CEST)
As a complementary and alternative medicine in the western countries for decades, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for more than 2000 years in China. Because of the characteristics of the philosophical style and the unknown mechanism of action, TCM sometimes has been biasedly described as "fraught with pseudoscience". From the scientific basis of the systems biology, here we promoted a novel medical model called the entropic systems medicine which could be applied to scientize TCM in future. In entropic systems medicine, TCM and Western modern biomedicine target the different variables of the entropic system. For instance, while Western modern biomedicine directly targets the phenotypes and its SOCs of macrostates, TCM differently targets the microstates, entropy and entropic force to generate SOTFs gradually causing the differentiated syndromes to be slowly rearranged. The prerequisites to modernize TCM are the entropic systems biology having been well established so that the variables could be precisely monitored and mathematically calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1521.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular complications; atherogenesis; cardiac arrhythmias; inflammation; disease, traditional factors; “non-traditional” factors
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:06:55 CET)
Background and Objectives: The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is two times higher compared to the general population. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the type of cardiovascular complications that can appear in men vs. women with rheumatoid arth-ritis. Early diagnosis and initiation of therapeutic measures to reduce the progression rate of rheumatoid arthritis, while also maintaining an active lifestyle, are the most important problems in young patients. Materials and Methods: We included a number of 200 pa-tients, divided in 2 groups according to gender (124 women and 76 men) with rheumatoid arthritis, presenting various stages of disease concomitant with cardiovascular complications. We assessed traditional and non-traditional risk factors, electrocardio-graphic and echocardiographic findings in both groups. Results: All patients presented an atherogenic coefficient over two, indicating a significant risk of atherogenesis. Men had elevated levels of total cholesterol compared with women (≥ 200 mg/dL; 77.6% - men vs. 25.8% - women, p<0.001). The participants presented cardiac arrhythmias, especially in the active stage of RA. Women had an increased risk of atrial fibrillation by 2.308 times compared with men (p=0.020). One of the most important complications in young women was pulmonary arterial hypertension (p=0.007). Conclusion: However, in daily clinical practice, the screening for RA is poorly done. Thus, patients are often undiagnosed, while the risk factors are not assessed and RA patients continue to present an increased risk of developing CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: harvesting; oil quality; olive; traditional cultivation
Online: 4 December 2023 (10:29:08 CET)
Traditional olive orchards have been grown for thousands of years and still occupy most of the world’s olive cultivation area. To compete with olive oil produced in the higher-yielding intensive orchards, the oil from traditional orchards must be of high quality. We evaluated oil quali-ty—potential and actual (under commercial conditions)—and identified the stages in the pro-duction chain that reduce oil quality in the traditional sector in the Middle East region. Our findings show a clear negative impact of growers' traditional practices on both chemical and sensorial characteristics of the olive oil. The oil originating from the commercial process had higher free fatty acid and lower polyphenol and carotenoid contents, lower stability, lower pungency, fruitiness and bitterness, and a higher prevalence of organoleptic defects than oil originating from fruit picked from the same trees in the experimental procedure. The current, commonly harvesting technique of pole beating significantly increased fruit injury and fruit with mold, leading to a reduction in oil polyphenols and an increase in free fatty acid level compared to manual picking. After harvest, storing the fruit for more than 48 h in plastic bags reduced oil quality dramatically. The traditional olive orchard could potentially be a source of high-quality Extra Virgin Olive Oil. However, handling of the fruit—from the trees until the end of the oil-extraction process—is done incorrectly, adversely affecting oil quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Practices; traditional knowledge; agriculture; farmers; India
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:41:19 CEST)
The traditional Agriculture Knowledge is epic information, was created by the forefathers in the past civilizations. The forefathers practiced traditional agriculture information during Harappa civilizations, Vedic and Iron Age civilizations. The present Small and Marginal farmer utilizes traditional information in the crop production & management, crop protection, farm machinery & tools, soil & water management, medicinal & aromatic plants for diseases diagnosis, animal husbandry, stored grain pests’ management, weed management and value added food product and transfers in the youth. The utilizing traditional informations in the agriculture practices are collected from the different geographical states of India. The informations are practiced in the specific activities by the farmers. The farmer utilizes compositions of natural resource in the geographical states for the crop husbandry and farm linked activities. The traditional information is more practiced by the Southern and North-Eastern Geographical zone. The farmer applies specific informations in the crop production & management, crop protection, farm machinery & tools, soil & water management, medicinal & aromatic plants for diseases diagnosis, animal husbandry, stored grain pests’ management, weed management and value added food product. The farmer preserves and transfers the information in the rural community. The farmer transmits information in the present generation for creating mobilization. The traditional agriculture information transforms agriculture resources, maintains biodiversity ethics and enlightens historical and practical approaches to the present generations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Superstition; Scientific knowledge; Conflict; Traditional healers
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:11:54 CET)
Superstition is a belief that is not based on scientific knowledge. Traditional healers usually use superstition in their practices to manage human health problems and diseases; such practices create a conflict with the medical profession and its evidence-based practices. Medical professionals confirm that this kind of practice is not safe to human health as it is done by untrained people (e.g., tradition healers) utilizing unsterilized instruments within unhygienic environments. Most of the cases eventually develop a variety of complications, which are sometimes fatal. Female genital mutilation, uvulectomy, oral mutilation (tooth bud extraction to cure “Ibyinyo”), and eyebrow incisions are examples of the many different types of superstitious practices which occur commonly in different parts of the world. We described how these traditional practices of superstition have been and continue to be performed in various parts of the world, their complications on oral and general health, and the ways such practices hinder modern medical practices. This paper aims to increase the awareness of these superstition-driven traditional and potentially harmful practices by promoting the importance of evidence-based medical practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: diseases; ethnomedicine; Suryabinayak Municipality; traditional knowledge
Online: 10 August 2020 (08:05:53 CEST)
Ethnomedicine refers to the use of medicinal plants by a society, ethnic group or tribe for health benefits and for the prevention, treatment, and cure of different ailments. The healthy relationship between plants and humans has been continuing since the start of human civilization. The present study aims to document the medicinal information about plants used by ethnic people in different wards of Suryabinyak Municipality, Bhaktapur district, to conserve and utilize the traditional knowledge. Ethnomedicinal data were collected by a Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) method such as door to door surveys, direct observation. Individual interviews, field visits, and a questionnaire survey with the guidance of key informants. The present study has documented 107 medicinal plant species under 60 families which are used for prevention and treatment of 39 different diseases like Jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, and cancer and 46 distinct health benefits like cough, cold, anti-bleeding, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, blood pressure, fracture, toothache, etc. Suryabinayak Municipality has a rich diversity in culture, ethnic groups, and medicinal plants, along with a wide geographic and climatic condition. However, with modernization, urbanization, deforestation, and increasing residential areas, the occurrence and use of medicinal plants have been diminished. Thus, documentation of this research is vital for further pharmaceutical research and enhancement and preservation of traditional knowledge of local people living in Suryabinayak Municipality and Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0029.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: functions; contexts; traditional pottery; northern; Ghana
Online: 5 March 2018 (04:00:32 CET)
The aim of this paper is to identify and document some functions and contextsof traditional pottery within northern Ghana. The descriptive approach of the qualitative research methodology was employed. Interview and observation methods were employed as the data collection methods. They were used to ascertain reasons why some potteryare engaged in certain contexts andfor certainfunctions. The data was tabulated to include the traditional name of the pot, the function and the context. The data were then analyzed and the indications were that, the potters make interesting forms of traditional pottery for different purposes; and the local name given to each pot perfectly defines their functions and contexts within northern Ghana. On the flipside of the coin, the function and context of every pot can also be dictated by its end user. Base on this, the researchers were able to discover some functions and contexts of the indigenous pottery which were put into some groups. On the first hand, the researchers classified the functions into five groups of purpose. These included: domestic purposes, religious purposes, agricultural purposes, rites of passage purposes and traditional herbal medicinal purposes. On other hand, seven groups of contexts were also discovered at the time of the study. These included: courtyards, bedrooms, bathrooms, graveyards, kitchens, shrines, and hencoops as places where these pots can be found among the people of the Northern Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Availability hypothesis; Ethnobotany; Ex-situ Conservation; Kruger National Park; Sustainable Development of Traditional Knowledge; Traditional medicine
Online: 6 June 2022 (13:19:18 CEST)
In ethnobotany, the availability hypothesis predicts that plants that are abundant and easily accessible to people are more likely to be medicinal than not. By protecting species diversity away from people, protected areas (PAs) may act as a limiting factor to a sustainable development of traditional knowledge concerning medicinal uses, and in so doing, PAs provide opportunity to prioritize ex-situ conservation for species that are PAs restricted. In this scenario, ex-situ conservation becomes the only chance for people to develop traditional knowledge on plants which otherwise wouldn’t be documented as traditionally useful to people. To test these expectations, we used data collected for almost 20 years of fieldworks on plant medicinal uses and their abundance inside and outside the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We fitted four different scenarios of structural equation models (SEMs) to the data collected. We found that total plant abundance (abundance outside + inside KNP) is a significant positive predictor of medicinal status, and so is abundance outside KNP, thus supporting the availability hypothesis. However, not only abundance inside KNP is not a direct significant correlate of medicinal status, but also the relationship between both is negative. The lack of predictive power of inside-abundance is most likely because some species are exclusively found inside KNP, and local communities do not have access to them. It also shows that the positive and direct correlation of total abundance with medicinal status is driven by outside-abundance. In addition, the negative relationships between inside abundance and medicinal status implies that abundant plants inside KNP tend to be not-medicinal, further providing evidence that PAs hinder the development of medicinal knowledge. Furthermore, when inside and outside abundance were included simultaneously in a model as two distinct variables, inside abundance was never a direct significant predictor of medicinal status, but it was so, via an indirect path mediated by outside abundance. This suggests that outside abundance is the key variable driving the development of medicinal plant knowledge. Cumulatively, our findings suggest that anything that promotes the growth of PA-restricted plants beyond the natural realized niches of these plants (ex-situ conservation) such as in botanical gardens, private gardens, in agroforestry systems, etc., is to be promoted so that people-plant interactions may continue for the benefits of ethnobotanical knowledge development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Traditional practitioners; maternal health; roles; challenges; rural
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:59:55 CEST)
Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) are considered as the entry level of care in African societies and play an important role in the delivery of health services to the population. A phenomenological qualitative study was carried out among pur-posefully selected THPs in Mthatha to understand their roles and the challenges they face in providing maternal health services. The study included a focus group discussion with seven participants, which yielded three themes and seven sub-themes. The content analysis of descriptive data from the focus group discussion revealed threats posed by unregistered and counterfeit THPs to the lives of pregnant women in rural settings. THPs' wide range of services allowed pregnant women to receive prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care in close proximity. This level of care, however, was characterized by high levels of secrecy and counterfeit practitioners who used human body parts, which jeopardized the practice and made it unpopular. Traditional health practice must be protected through registration of THPs and the establishment of functional referral pathways between THPs and conventional health services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0020.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ehretia laevis; Pharmacological Activities; Phytochemistry; Traditional Use
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:59:18 CEST)
Ehretia laevis Roxb. (Boraginaceae) has been extensively used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of a diverse range of ailments related to the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, and against several infections. This review critically assesses and documents, for the ﬁrst time, the fragmented information on E. laevis, including its botanical description, folklore uses, bioactive phytometabolites and pharmacological activities. The goal is to explore this plant therapeutically. Ethnomedicinal surveys reveal that E. laevis has been used by tribal communities in Asian countries for the treatment of various disorders. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical investigations of E. laevis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as pentacyclic triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, steroids, alkaloids, aliphatic alcohols, hydrocarbons, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Fresh plant parts, crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds have been reported to exhibit broad spectrum of therapeutic activities viz., antioxidant, antiarthritic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, wound healing and anti-infective activities. E. laevis is shown to be an excellent potential source of drugs for the mitigation of jaundice, asthma, dysentery, ulcers, diarrhea, ringworm, eczema, diabetes, fissure, syphilis, cuts and wounds, inflammation, liver problems, venereal and infectious disorders. Although few investigations authenticated its traditional uses but employed uncharacterized crude extracts of the plant, the major concerns raised are reproducibility of therapeutic efficacy and safety of plant material. The outcomes of limited pharmacological screening and reported bioactive compounds of E. laevis suggest that there is an urgent need for in-depth pharmacological investigations of the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: traditional; local; consumer behavior; principal component analysis
Online: 8 January 2018 (04:17:29 CET)
This study assesses attitudes of young adults' (18-30 years old) consumption on local and traditional products in7 European countries. A clustered sample (n=836) from natives of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France was collected, by distributing questionnaires through social media and university mail services. Sample was examined by implementing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in three different samples; overall and two subgroups, Eastern and Western European countries. Six major factors revealed: consumer behavior, health issues, cost, influence from media and close environment and availability on store. As a result, young adults have a positive attitude to local and traditional food products but they express insecurity for health issues. Cost factor influences less people from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment is a different factor in Eastern countries comparing to Western ones that it common with influence from media. Females and older people (25-30 years old) doubt less about TFPs, while media have high influence on consumers’ decisions. Aim of this survey is to create consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0503.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: safety management; traditional shipping; technical; non-technical factors
Online: 8 November 2023 (07:27:56 CET)
Traditional shipping ships abbreviated as Pelra have a different character from conventional ships. Hypothetically, the application of Safety Management System (SMS) on Pelra is influenced by technical and non-technical factors. These factors are control variables and determinants of action priorities if SMS is applied to the safety of traditional shipping, so that it has implications as a basis for formulating and developing safety policies for traditional shipping transportation in an effort to reduce the risk of accidents. This research uses Structural Equation Modeling by analyzing expert opinions. The results of the analysis show that technical and non-technical factors have a direct and interconnected effect on Pelra safety management. The dominant influences are non-technical factors of authority and responsibility of the company and crew as well as the feasibility of ship construction as technical and environmental factors..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1290.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: traditional oriental landscape (TOL); GAN; SPADE; generator; discriminator
Online: 19 October 2023 (16:44:14 CEST)
We present TOLGAN that generates traditional oriental landscape (TOL) image from a map that specifies the locations and shapes of the elements composing TOL. Users can create a TOL map by using a user interface or a segmentation scheme from a photograph. We design the generator of TOLGAN as a series of decoding layers where the map is applied between the layers. The generated TOL image is further enhanced through an AdaIN architecture. The discriminator of TOLGAN processes a generated image and its groundtruth TOL artwork image. TOLGAN is trained through a dataset composed of paired TOL artwork images and their TOL maps. We present a tool through which users can produce a TOL map by specifying and organizing the elements of TOL artworks. TOLGAN successfully generates a series of TOL images from the TOL map. We evaluate our approach using a quantitative way by estimating FID and ArtFID scores and a qualitative way by executing two user studies. Through these studies, we prove the excellence of our approach by comparing our results with those from several important existing works.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0656.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Bioactive chemicals; Pharmacology; Phytochemistry; Rydingia michauxii; Traditional Medicine
Online: 11 July 2023 (04:25:04 CEST)
Bioactive plant compounds, also known as phytochemicals, are essential for plant resistance, growth, and development. These chemicals often possess therapeutic properties that have been used in traditional medicine for centuries as herbal remedies for a variety of diseases. As a member of the Lamiaceae family, Rydingia (Syn: Otostegia) is found in Asia and northeastern Africa. R. michauxii, is a unique shrub that grows in the Southern region of Iran, Fars province. Rydingia species have been used as traditional herbal medicine in Iran for many years. It seems that R. michauxii offers great potential for in-depth research on its diverse biological properties, especially its antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects. Nevertheless, no clinical investigation has been carried out on the phytochemical characteristics of this plant to date. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge on the pharmacological properties of R. michauxii and its phytochemical compounds and encourage researchers to evaluate its biological properties in animal models. In this study, all available scientific literature was compiled and all phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the R. michauxii plant were investigated, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, antimalarial, cytotoxic, and lipid-lowering effects, which may prove useful in developing novel formulations with greater therapeutic benefits in clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0573.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Tulou; spatial layout; Chinese traditional residence; Hakka; Fulao
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:09:15 CEST)
Tulou dwellings in Southeast China have captivated global interest due to their distinctive appearance, sustainable construction materials and technologies, and their defensive and collective housing functions. Despite several recognized as World Cultural Heritage sites, the vast majority of tulou buildings are undergoing irreversible decline and destruction, necessitating a comprehensive and systematic study. Taking 83 Tulou buildings in Raoping County, Chaozhou City, Guangdong Province as the research object, this study reconstructs the historical scenes and systematically reveals the emergence, popularity, and consolidation process of tulou dwellings as integrated defensive and residential buildings for ordinary people by conducting a comprehensive analysis of historical documents and local chronicles. Based on an extensive field investigation, the study systematically analyzes the geospatial distribution and the spatial characteristics of Raoping tulou and its residential unit. The results demonstrate the adaptability and flexibility of tulou dwellings, showcasing their developmental process and revealing the inclusive nature of these traditional residences, as well as the initiative of those who reside within them. The research findings contribute to a more dynamic, comprehensive, and authentic understanding of tulou and Chinese traditional residences, providing valuable references for the preservation and sustainable development of tulou architectural heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1214.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Traditional Crafts; Craft Education; Craft Training; Craft Preservation
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:19:32 CEST)
A roadmap is proposed that defines a systematic approach for craft preservation and its evaluation. The proposed roadmap aims at deepening craft understanding, so blueprints of appropriate tools that support craft documentation, education, and training can be designed while achieving preservation through the stimulation and diversification of practitioner income. A roadmap is required because understanding making activities that include “care, judgement, and dexterity”  call for interdisciplinary contributions from Anthropology, Cognitive Science, Art History, as well as Physical and Computational Sciences, to cover the multifaceted expression of crafts as living and developing heritage, as a source of income, and as the expression of the mind through “imagery, technology, and sedimented knowledge” . In addition to this roadmap, an evaluation strategy is proposed to validate the efficacy of the developed results and provide a benchmark for the efficacy of craft preservation approaches. The proposed contribution aims at the catalysation of craft education and training with digital aids, widening access and engagement to crafts, economising learning, increasing exercisability, and relaxing remoteness constraints in craft learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0637.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Traditional To Smart cities; Smart Transportation; Mashhad City
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:57:47 CEST)
Background: Smart transport plays a crucial role in urban planning and the transition from traditional to smart cities in developing countries with sustainability requirements.Traditional cities in developing countries often suffer from traffic congestion,air pollution, and inadequate public transportation systems,which can impede economic growth and negatively impact the quality of life for residents. Smart transport solutions can address these challenges by providing more efficient, sustainable.Here is a possible business model for an ITS system in a high-potential city in Iran,Based on IoT analysis, Mashhad city in Iran selected as a high-potential city to be changed to a smart city in the transportation sector.In the localization business model,the Uber smart transportation business model as a successful world experience is considered the base model. Methods: Based on the literature review,various criteria and sub-criteria were identified and determined in designing a new localized transportation business model.A questionnaire was prepared and filled with the help of 11 experts,method IAHP technique; Results:The present study showed the possibility of monthly payments for customers,software development, and the addition of luxury cars are among the most important sub-criteria with high weights;Conclusions: Working with transport companies,schools and universities as key partners solves reaching a strong and sustainable smart transportation system.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Governance; Livelihoods; Natural Resources; Resilience; Traditional Systems; Pastoralism
Online: 18 March 2021 (13:15:35 CET)
Kenya’s natural resource base has dwindled over years. The existence of many natural resource policies, some that are incompatible, has resulted in complex rangeland management regimes, giving rise to fragmented interventions and inadequate natural resource policies in relation to pastoralism. The majority of pastoral land resources held under a controlled access system by the national government that regulates management and utilization of resources. Pastoralists in Kenya have become among the most marginalized and disadvantaged minority groups. This is due to limited or under investment by government and other actors, and access to, or ownership of land, water and other resources, which are fundamental for pastoralism. This study examines significant obstacles for the establishment of a more inclusive ‘governance’ approach to natural resource management in northern Kenya, that characterize the customary Boran knowledge such as Deedha’s (traditional grazing unit) and formal institutions and seeks to address the tension between them through a legal framework that accommodates both. The results of the study established existence of the traditional structures and institutions in governance of natural resources within the pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. These institutions have evolved to cope with changing dynamics brought about by formalization of the natural resources governance. The resulted showed that various formal institutions from national government agencies to county government department were involved in management of the natural resources. However, the study established various operational divergence and links between informal and formal institutions involved in natural resources management. The study concluded that both informal institution such as Deedha and formal institutions constituted by national and county government did governance of natural resources among pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. The communities however have more trust in the informal structures and institutions because of their flexibility and inclusiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rachis; traditional; post shooting approach; economic production; demand
Online: 11 April 2019 (05:41:39 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Due to huge demand and availability of Banana, innovative cost effective method is necessary to promote and smoothen the banana production among farmers commercially mitigating the demand. Method and Materials: In this study, we feed cow dung mixture along with Urea, TSP, MoP, water to the distal part of rachis after cutting down male bud as soon as the female flowers matured into fruits (T1). The effect of this method was then compared with two control groups; one with the same strategy except fertilizer applied on root following ring method (C1, Positive control) and another was male flower untouched without applying fertilizer on rachis or root (C2, Negative control). Results and Conclusion: T1 showed more than double increase in length than controls. In the same way, in case of shape (diameter), T1 (0.46 cm) showed twice as better growth in the C1 (0.22 cm) and C2 (0.18 cm). Trend analysis showed the test group T1 curve is much steeper than the control groups suggesting faster growth rate than the other two. Finally, the cost of fertilizers for T1 per plant was estimated 0.091 USD while for positive control C1 it was 2.9 USD. This study shows an approach to be effective and economic comparing to traditional method of fertilizer application, which can be adapted as a new method of banana production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: etymological values, traditional knowledge, classification, custodians, Sphenostysis stenocarpa
Online: 4 March 2019 (13:35:27 CET)
Folk nomenclature is habitually established for species that have attained high utilitarian and cultural significance by custodians of such plants worldwide. Such folk names assigned to species often carry etymological values such as therapeutic effects, morphological features, mythical connotations, and their allegorical values. This research sought to unveil the etymology in folk nomenclatures of Sphenostysis stenocarpa (Hosch ex A. Rich) Harms (African Yam Bean). Three hundred and fifty respondents were randomly selected from 13 local communities in Ebonyi State in South-eastern, Nigeria. Data were collected through oral interviews with semi-structural questionnaires, along with focused group discussions. Analysis of data was carried out using simple statistical methods involving frequencies and percentages. The results recorded ten folk nomenclatures assigned to this species in seven dialects affiliated to cultural values within these communities. Etymologically, the results also revealed that out of the ten folk names of AYB cryptic connotations, five reflected their trust in the gods that answered their prayers, two were attributed to the healing potentials inherent in this crop for medicine, three names were associated with the seeds, while one referred to feminist attachment to the crop, another to its resilience/ adaptability to climatic stress and one as a sustainer of farmers. Considering that folk nomenclature is based mainly on qualitative data and the information outside the scientific domain, they are nonetheless highly valued because they are based on long-term interactions, utilization and observations of the custodians of these natural resources. However, these data are equally vulnerable to erosion if not properly documented and conserved for posterity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0365.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Traditional; Communication; Media; Rural; Information Service Delivery; Adolescent
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:25:56 CEST)
This research work examined the various communication media used in the rural areas for the purpose of conveying messages to Adolescents in the selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria - Woji, Rumuigbo, Rumuola, Rumuokwuta and Elelenwo communities. The Taro Yammane Statistical formula for determination of sample size was used in drawing a sample of 363 respondents from a population of 3,630 Adolescents. The simple random sampling method was used in the distribution of the questionnaire to target respondents in the selected communities. Two hundred and eighty two (282) copies of the questionnaire were returned valid, and data from them was analysed and interpreted with the use of frequency tables and percentages. The result shows that traditional communication media is still relevant in the dissemination of information to rural dwellers in general and to Adolescents in particular. The agencies that make use of these media are; village authority, age groups, etc. The research work recommend among others that the government and rural dwellers should hold our traditional and cultural values in high esteem through the use of these media, harmonizing the use of traditional communication media and modern media for effective rural information service delivery.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: medicinal plants; traditional knowledge; Himalayas; mountain plants; ethnobotany
Online: 29 November 2016 (06:35:45 CET)
The Himalaya is well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayas are well studied. In particular, studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are rare and lacking for many tribes. Past studies primarily focused on listing plants name and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation had not yet been reported in published literature from the Eastern Himalaya. In this study, we are reporting the first time ethnopharmacological used 24 medicines, their procedures of preparation and listed 53 plant species used for those medicines for Monpa tribe. Such documentations had not yet been done for other tribes in India. Our research demonstrates the urgent need to documents traditional medicine preparation procedures from the local healers before rapid cultural modernization forgets them in transforming country like India. This study should motivate national and international researchers to do more works on ethnopharmacology and bioprospecting.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1820.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Traditional Chinese Medicine; TCM; Integrative Medicine; Acupoints; Channels; Collaterals
Online: 27 October 2023 (14:45:05 CEST)
According to traditional Chinese medicine, Qi and Blood circulate through the human body via pathways known as 'channels and collaterals'. This process supports the normal function of internal organs and the whole body. Pathological conditions can be attributed to abnormal circulation of Qi and Blood, which results in excess or deficiency of organs and channels. Therapeutic methods used in traditional Chinese medicine restore the balance of Qi and Blood.Since acupuncture was introduced in Europe, discussion and debate about the nature of 'acupoints,' 'channels,' and 'collaterals' has continued. Currently, opposing views exist on this subject, ranging from complete denial of the existence of the channels to uncovering the previously unknown system of intra-tissue gaps and microscopic vessels. The author offers an original hypothesis that regards the theory of channels and collaterals as the description of the physiology and pathology of intercellular space and the theory of organs as a description of the physiology and pathology of cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: phytotherapy; digestive system; andean community; traditional medicine; peruvian andes
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:28:23 CEST)
The use of medicinal plants for the therapy of diseases of the digestive system; where the Andean peoples developed various forms of administration. The objective being the identification of medicinal plants used in the therapy of ailments of the digestive system by the Andean inhabitants of Pampas, Tayacaja, Huancavelica, Peru. Methods, non-probabilistic sampling, using the “snowball” technique, carrying out semi-structured surveys, allowing information to be collected on the prevalence of ailments or diseases of the digestive system treated with medicinal plants, with inhabitants over 20 years of age participating and using the medicinal plants in the therapy of your digestive system ailments; and, exclude those inhabitants who do not comply with it. Results, 16 families, 33 genera and 34 species are reported; where the families that present the greatest abundance of species are Asteraceae, Lamiaceae; Likewise, the widely used species are Minthostachys mollis (11.9%), Aloe vera (10.4%), Clinopodium bolivianum (9%), Artemisia absinthium (9%) and Matricaria chamomilla (8.2%). Concluding with the identification of a diversity of medicinal flora, used in the therapy of diseases of the digestive system, such as stomach pain, constipation, gallbladder ailments, gastritis, gastrointestinal and liver diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Tourism gentrification; Traditional industrial areas; Relocation decision; Residents’ stress
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:40:56 CEST)
Tourism gentrification presents issues of privatization of public space, the transformation of public services to cater to tourists, the erosion of community social bonds, and the commodification of regional consumption, which has far-reaching impacts on the well-being of local residents and a desire to relocate. Thus, tourism gentrification in traditional industrial areas is defined as a process driven by the reconfiguration of spatial functions and the transformation of service provisions, resulting in displacement. This study employs Q methodology aims to understand the residents’ perceptions of tourism gentrification with a specific focus on the 798 Industrial Art Zone in Beijing, China. The results reveal four dimensions that form residents’ stress: neighboring environment, community attachment, economic interest, and cultural identity. Based on the stress threshold theory, this study further proposes a framework to explain the decision-making processes of residents in relation to their intent to relocate due to stress from interactions with migrants and visitors and changes in the place functions of industrial areas and communities. The findings offer valuable theoretical knowledge surrounding tourism gentrification from residents’ perspectives and suggest practical guidance for policymakers and destination managers in reducing residents’ stress and promoting sustainable development of industrial tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0506.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Microbiological quality; traditional fermented African yoghurt; public health concern
Online: 7 June 2023 (07:52:19 CEST)
In this study, the microbiological quality of traditionally made yoghurt from Northern Uganda and Western Kenya were analysed. Six samples of typical traditionally fermented milk were randomly collected from traditional cattle keepers from Karamojong (UG 1) and Acholi (UG 2) in Northern Uganda), and Kalenjin in Western Kenya (KE). Analysis was carried out for microbial quality of the collected samples and was assessed using the conventional methods for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeasts, and mould counts. The results showed that the pH of the samples was low (2.9- 3.6). The mean aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts were 5.14 x 109 cfu/ml. The mean counts for mesophilic lactobacilli ranged from x 106 to x 108, cfu/ml. The mean thermophilic lactobacilli count ranged from x 107, to x 109, cfu/ml. However, the thermophilic lactococci counts ranged from x 106, to x 109, cfu/ml. On the other hand, the Streptococci counts were between x 106 to x 108 cfu/ml. The mean counts for the non-Sorbitol E. coli was 3.87 x 103 cfu/ml. The results suggest that although the pH of the yoghurt made in the Acholi and Karamojong (Northern Uganda) and in Kalenjin (Kenya) areas was low, the level of bacteria, yeast, and mould counts indicated poor microbiological quality control. This poses public health concerns. Therefore, attention of the appropriate government agencies is needed to ensure that environment of yogurt produced in a traditional setting in most appropriate condition to reduce contamination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Foeniculi fructus; Functional dyspepsia; Network Pharmacology; Traditional Medicine; TCMSP.
Online: 17 May 2023 (04:44:08 CEST)
For centuries, Foeniculi fructus (F. fructus) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in China and Europe and is widely used as a natural therapy for digestive disorders, including indigestion, flatulence, and bloating. The mechanism by which F. fructus alleviates functional dyspepsia was analyzed through network pharmacology, and its therapeutic effect on an animal model of functional dyspepsia was investigated. The compounds, targets, and related diseases of F. fructus were studied utilizing the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology (TCMSP) database. Information on the target genes was classified using the UniProt database. A network was built using Cytoscape 3.9.1, and functional dyspepsia-related genes were checked using the Cytoscape string application. The efficacy of F. fructus on functional dyspepsia, including gastroparesis and gastrointestinal motility, was confirmed by treatment with its extract in a mouse model of loperamide-induced functional dyspepsia. Seven compounds targeted twelve functional dyspepsia-associated genes. In a functional dyspepsia mouse model, F. fructus significantly suppressed the symptoms when compared to that in the control group. Our animal studies showed that the mechanism of action of F. fructus is closely related to gastrointestinal motility. Based on animal experimental results, the results showed that F. fructus provides a potential means to treat functional dyspepsia, suggesting that its medical mechanism for functional dyspepsia can be described by the relationship between seven key compounds of F. fructus, including oleic acid and β-sitosterol, and 12 functional dyspepsia-related genes.
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Patents; Plant Breeders Rights; IPR laws; Traditional Knowledge; Strategies
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:11:16 CEST)
This paper discusses the bioethics of intellectual property (IP) and intellectual property rights (IPR) applicable to biotechnology-based IP. It outlines some of the laws that are related to IPR in Zimbabwe and globally. The paper additionally highlights gaps, opportunities and concerns with the laws. Finally, the paper highlights some initiatives already underway in Zimbabwe targeted at promoting entrepreneurship, commercialization and industrialization while proposing strategies that can be used to further promote the generation and granting of biotechnology-related IP and IPR in Zimbabwe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0524.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: Sport History; Iran; Zoorkhaneh Sport; Arjan Cup; Traditional Sport
Online: 21 June 2021 (15:46:22 CEST)
The article reviews Iranian sports in three periods: prehistoric, ancient, and modern. In prehistoric times, remaining cases have shown the existence of movement activities based on recreational and religious ceremonies. In the period of ancient history, documents such as Hasanlu Golden Cup and Arjan Cup, and in the continuation of architectures leftover from different eras, refer to the prosperity of sports activities with different approaches. Among all kinds of activities, Iranian zoorkhaneh sport has a significant cultural background and effect. Modern sports entered Iran through embassies, oil contractors, Western-educated students, and military representatives in other countries (in the modern era). Iran became a member of the International Olympic Committee in 1947 and won its first Olympic medal in 1948. Entering the 21st century, the sports industry in Iran began to grow and the number of clubs, sports careers, and sports science students in universities increased significantly. The growing dimension of attention and interest in sports among Iranians shows that sports will be one of the main areas in Iran's development in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0576.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria; Traditional fermented milk; Isolation; Identification. characterization
Online: 24 March 2021 (09:58:43 CET)
Fermented milk product "Laban" in Libya is one of the most a traditional fermented milk product consumed a refreshing drink, particularly in the warm season The average values of the physicochemical including titratable acidity, pH, total solids, and fat were 0.73%, 4.16, 8.12%, and 1.54% respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴, and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml., respectively. Most strains of coliform bacteria were Serratia odorifera, Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2. and Klebsiella oxytoca. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of 142 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests revealed the most frequent Lactobacillus species found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%), followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. Thus, our research documented the lactic acid bacteria strains and will provides fundamental basic and useful information for further studies of strain selection starter culture, with regard to the industrial production of fermented dairy milk products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1313.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: System of Rice Intensification; Traditional Rice Varieties; Conserving Rice Biodiversity
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:36:08 CET)
The genetic potentials of rice cultivars will need to be expressed to their fullest if global rice production is to be expanded enough by 2050 to meet the increased demand of expanding population while the availability of land and water per capita dwindles. New and ‘improved’ rice varieties have contributed greatly to increased production over the past 50 years, but the rate of rice yield increase based on genetic changes has declined in recent decades compared with the early years of the Green Revolution. In fact, many rice consumers continue to prefer to consume ‘traditional’ rice varieties (referred to also as local, native, unimproved, or indigenous) because of their taste, aroma, texture, and other qualities. Further, many farmers prefer to cultivate these varieties because of their better adaptation to local climatic and soil conditions and their evolved resistance to endemic stresses. The practices that comprise the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), including transplanting rice seedlings at a young age, wide spacing between plants, keeping the soil well-aerated rather than inundated, and enhancing soil organic matter, provide traditional rice varieties with micro-environments that are more favorable for the expression of their genetic and agronomic potentials. Interactions among rice plants, soil characteristics, water, energy, and other inputs improve the phenotypic and physiological performance of rice plants. This paper considers how the cultivation of traditional rice varieties with SRI methods can raise yields, reduce farmers’ costs of production, and generate higher incomes, while contributing to the conservation of rice biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1864.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Dendrobium officinale; traditional processing; widely-targeted metabolic analysis; chemical ingredients
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:54:15 CEST)
The traditional processing of Dendrobium officinale (DO) is manufactured through five necessary processing steps: fresh strips, drying at 85 °C, curling, molding, and drying at 35 °C (Fengdou), and the antioxidant activity of DO were increased after processing into Fengdou. To comprehensively analyses the changing functional components, a plant-wide target metabolomics were employed. In total, 739 differential ingredients were identified in five processing treatments, mainly highlighting differences in variation with phenolic acids, flavonoids, lipids, and amino acids and their derivatives, and glycosylation of aglycone result in the up-regulation in flavonoid glycosides levels. Temperature is a key step in DO processing production. In addition, the main enrichment of specific differential ingredients was found in five different metabolic pathways, including glucosinolate biosynthesis, linoleic acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ubiquinone and other terpene quinone biosynthesis. Correlation analysis clarified that total phenols and flavonoids showed a significant positive correlation with antioxidant capacity. This study provides new insights into the influence of processing processes on DO quality, which may lead to guidance for the high-quality production of DO.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0272.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Apiaceae plants; traditional use; phytochemistry; bolting and flowering; controlling approaches
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:47:46 CEST)
Apiaceae plants have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for the treatment of removing dampness, relieving superficies, and dispelling cold, etc. In order to exploit the potential application and improve the yield and quality of Apiaceae medicinal plants (AMPs), The traditional use, phytochemistry, modern pharmacological use, effect of bolting and flowering (BF), and approaches for controlling the BF were summarized. Currently, about 228 AMPs have been recorded as TCMs with 6 medicinal parts, 72 traditional uses, 62 modern pharmacological uses, and 5 main kinds of metabolites. Three effect degrees (i.e., significantly affected, affected to some extent, and no significantly affected) could be classed based on the yield and quality. The BF of individual plants (e.g., Angelica sinensis) could be effectively controlled by the standard cultivation techniques, while the mechanism of BF has not been systemically revealed. This review will provide useful references for the reasonable exploration and high-quality production of AMPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy; Traditional medicines; Phytochemistry; Biological activity; Pharmacology
Online: 3 March 2021 (11:46:16 CET)
Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy is a robust woody climbing shrub of the genus Rivea which is found in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand. R. hypocrateriformis is a promising medicinal herb with enormous helpful and wellbeing advancing impacts. R. hypocrateriformis has been utilized as a customary medication for a long time to treat rheumatic pain, fever, urogenital problem, snake bite, cough, piles, malaria, and skin disease. Apart from the traditional uses its leaves and young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable and for preparation of bread with millet flour. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity study of R. hypocrateriformis. Phytochemical investigation has been revealed that alkaloids, glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, xanthones, stilbenes, and other organic compounds are contained in R. hypocrateriformis. Crude extracts and isolated compounds have exhibited numerous pharmacological activities such as anovulatory effect, antifertility activity, antiarthritic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antilithiatic, antimitotic. R. hypocrateriformis is a promising restorative spice with monstrous remedial and wellbeing advancing impacts. Along these lines, further investigations on the bioactive mixtures and systems of R. hypocrateriformis are justified. Extra clinical and toxicological examinations are expected to assess its wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0957.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Baccharis concava; Chilean medicinal plant; Phytochemical composition; Antimicrobial properties; Used traditional
Online: 16 October 2023 (16:31:13 CEST)
Few Sclerophyllous plants from the central coast of Chile have been systematically studied. This work describes the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Baccharis concava Pers. (sin. B. macraei), a shrub found in the first line and nearby the pacific coast between latitudes 29-38⁰S. B. concava has been traditionally used by indigenous inhabitants of today central Chile for their anthelmintic properties, wound healing properties and as a diuretic. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of B. concava were prepared from leaves and small branches. The qualitative phytochemical characterization indicated presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic and tannins compounds. The antimicrobial activity of this extract was assessed in a panel of microorganisms including Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and pathogenic yeasts. The extract displayed important antimicrobial effects against Gram positive, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans, but not against Gram negative, for which an intact Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is apparently the determinant of resistant to B. concava extracts. The hydroalcoholic extract was then fractionated through a sephadex LH-20/methanol-ethyl acetate column. Followed, the fractions were pooled according to a similar composition that was visualized by TLC/UV analysis. Fractions obtained by this criterion were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The fraction presenting the most antimicrobial activity was HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyzed obtaining a composition rich in structures derived from caffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acid and quercetin, among others. In conclusion, the extracts of B. concava show a strong antimicrobial activity probably due to their composition rich in metabolites derived from caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin, that in turn could be responsible for helping with wound healing, as reported from its ancient cultural use. In addition, the development of antimicrobial therapies based in the molecules found in B. concava could help to combat infection caused by pathogenic yeasts and Gram-positive bacteria, without affecting the Gram-negative microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0667.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: traditional village; roof feature line; slope segmentation; cloth simulation filter; UAV
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:12:44 CEST)
The extraction of roof feature lines is an important foundation for realizing large-scale and batch 3D modeling. However, the current traditional point cloud segmentation algorithms do not have satisfactory results in extracting roof feature lines of Chinese traditional residential buildings. In this paper, taking Jingping Village in Western Hunan as an example, we propose a method that combines multiple algorithms based on slope segmentation of roof patches to extract feature lines. Firstly, VDVI and CSF algorithms are used to extract the building and roof point cloud based on the MVS point cloud. Secondly, according to roof features, village buildings are classified, and 3D roof point cloud is projected into 2D regular grid data. Finally, the roof slope is segmented via slope direction, and internal and external feature lines are obtained after refinement through Canny edge detection and Hough straight line detection. Results reveal that this method effectively extracts feature lines of low-building roofs in traditional villages, with slope-based roof surface segmentation accuracy surpassing 99.6%. This method significantly outperforms the RANSAC algorithm and region segmentation algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Traditional Shipyard Industry; Manufacturing Cycle Efficiency; Non-Value Added; Lean Manufacturing
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:43:16 CEST)
This article explores the important role of traditional shipyards in the global maritime industry, covering aspects of construction, repair, and maintenance. With the advent of faster manufacturing techniques, traditional shipyards face important challenges such as planning errors, coordination problems, delivery delays, and underutilization of technology, which results in high costs, reduced productivity, and prolonged projects. The application of Manufacturing Cycle Efficiency (MCE) emerged as an important solution to significantly increase production efficiency. MCE empowers shipyards to deal effectively with waste, bottlenecks, and disruptions, thereby increasing performance, competitiveness, and profitability. Using a comprehensive approach that uses both qualitative and quantitative methods, including field surveys, and in-depth interviews in the traditional shipyards industry, this research identifies Non-Value-Added (NVA) processes, conducts process mapping, and calculates MCE. The findings reported in this article underscore the significant wastage in the production process, indicating an urgent need for improvement, given the current average MCE value of 67.08%, indicating considerable room for improvement. This article provides innovative perspectives on optimizing the traditional shipyards industry through production cycle efficiencies while offering actionable recommendations. Key focus areas include integrating management systems, adopting advanced technologies, and implementing sustainable strategies to improve MCE, especially by reducing non-value-added time wastage, such as inspection and storage. By implementing strategies that optimize production, minimize waste, and overcome the challenges of global competition, this research contributes to improving MCE. In conclusion, this study is an invaluable guide for industry stakeholders, enabling them to enhance their competitiveness and adapt effectively to a dynamic business environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Traditional medicine; phytotherapy; hypoxia; oxidative stress; nephroprotection; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; diuretic.
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:48:42 CEST)
There are several Amazonian plant species with potential pharmacological validation for the treatment of acute kidney injury, a condition in which the kidneys are unable to adequately filter the blood, resulting in the accumulation of toxins and waste in the body. Scientific production on plant compounds capable of preventing or attenuating acute kidney injury, caused by several factors, including ischemia, toxins and inflammation, has shown promising results in animal models of acute kidney injury and some preliminary studies in humans. Despite the popular use of Amazonian plant species for kidney disorders, further pharmacological studies are needed to identify active compounds and subsequently conduct more complex preclinical trials. Thus, this review aimed to describe the pharmacological properties of phytocompounds from Amazonian plant species and their effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of Acute Kidney Injury. (AKI). The classes of Amazonian plant compounds with significant biological activities most evident in the consulted literature were alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and terpenoids. An expressive phytochemical and pharmacological relevance of the studied species was identified, although many of them with insufficiently explored potential, mainly in face of AKI, a clinical condition with high morbidity and mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0774.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: animal release; invasive species management; South Korea; traditional markets; Trachemys scripta
Online: 12 June 2023 (05:43:04 CEST)
The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) was designated as an invasive alien species in South Korea in 2001. Although the prevention and control of invasive species have received considerable atten-tion worldwide, studies on the current status and effective management of T. scripta in South Korea are lacking. This study aimed to elucidate the status of domestic reuse of T. scripta and provide effective management suggestions. Analysis of the National Institute of Ecology's “Na-tionwide Survey of Non-native Species in Korea” conducted from 2015 to 2022 confirmed the habitats of 1,440 T. scripta individuals at 295 sites. T. scripta is the most frequently observed among invasive turtles identified in the Korean Peninsula. To determine the reuse of T. scripta, 13 tradi-tional markets were surveyed; five markets were confirmed to have T. scripta. Although the exact distribution route is unknown, individuals living or abandoned in the region might be resold in the market. T. scripta is mostly sold for ritual purposes. Moreover, T. scripta accounted for 31% of freshwater turtles abandoned between 2019 and 2022. Their continuous reuse has been confirmed 22 years after their designation as an invasive alien species. Therefore, effective and fundamental management measures for T. scripta are required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Amaryllidaceae alkaloids; Biological activities; Traditional medicines; Yellow rain lily; Zephyranthes citrine
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:41:44 CEST)
Zephyranthes citrina Baker is a bulbous herb, commonly known as yellow rain lily belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. It is a native of tropical and subtropical America but nowadays it is cultivated as a popular ornamental herb in several parts of the world including India. This herb represents one of the richest sources of phytochemicals, especially alkaloids and possesses great potential for pharmaceutical applications. It shows remarkable antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and dye removal activities. This review is an effort to give a detailed study of the literature on the biological activities of Zephyranthes citrina. This review concludes that Zephyranthes citrina has a great potential to treat various diseases and could be used as a source for novel healthcare products in the near future, which requires further experimentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0391.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Ethnobotany; Human Health; Poverty; Traditional Knowledge; Sustainable Agriculture
Online: 20 January 2021 (11:04:41 CET)
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) envisaged under Agenda 2030 are a set of seventeen goals which envisage a holistic approach towards attaining certain targets keeping humankind and the planet at center. There are total 169 targets spread across seventeen goals covering wide ranging issues and challenges the world is facing in the twenty-first century. And they are to be achieved by 2030. Concerted efforts of all the stakeholders ranging from indigenous communities, common citizens, scientists, policy makers, world leaders are needed to achieve all the goals and targets Of the seventeen goals, at least seven goals are of interest to the ethnobotanists and are associated with traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. Therefore to achieve those set of goals, a thorough understanding is required to disentangle the intricacies involving traditional ethnobotanical knowledge, indigenous people as traditional knowledge holders and their future role. Understanding relationships between traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and indigenous communities, seeking cooperation from and establishing partnerships with them would help us design policies to achieve intended outcomes of SDGs. In this paper, particular attention is attracted towards the potential role of traditional ethnobotanical knowledge in achieving select sustainable development goals and targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: gastronomy; livelihood; public healthcare; traditional knowledge; wild food plants; tribal belt
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:05:21 CEST)
The tribal belt of Pakistan-the Pak-Afghan border region is famous for its unique culture, ethnography and wild food plants and traditional knowledge. People of these regions gather wild plants for number of purposes including plants or plant parts for direct use, use it in the traditional cuisines and selling in local markets. However, there is huge lack of documentation of food system particularly the Wild Food Plants (WFPs). In current study we have focused on the uses and contributions of the WFPs in the tribal traditional food system. The ethnobotanical data were gathered through questionnaire surveys with Eighty-four informants 69 men and 15 women belonging to 21 different villages. We documented Sixty-three WFP species belonging to 34 botanical families, of which 27 were used as vegetables, 24 as fruits, 6 in different kinds of chutneys (starters) formation and six as fresh food species. Fruits were the mostly used part (40%) followed by leaves (24%), aerial parts (24%), seeds (7%), stem (3%), legume (2%) and young inflorescence (1%). Use of Carthamus oxycanthus & Pinus roxburghii seeds and Marsillea quadrifolia leaves were the novel reports for the gastronomy of Pakistan. The results elucidate that WFPs have a significant contribution in the Tribal Food Systems. Tribal people use WFPs not only due to their nutritional importance but also as a cultural practice - an inseparable component of the tribal communities. This important traditional Knowledge about the consumption of WFPs has been eroding with an alarming speed among the younger generations due to introduction of fast food chains, modernization, and globalization. Therefore, appropriates strategies are imperative not only to safeguard traditional knowledge but also the cultural heritage, food security and hence public healthcare via food supplement in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Cameroon, agency; community; cultural assets; empowerment; relational networking; infrastructure; traditional authority
Online: 27 July 2018 (14:00:24 CEST)
Utilizing relational networking and cultural assets provide an arena for village development associations (VDAs) to fill the gaps in infrastructure in resource limited communities of Cameroon’s north-western region. Through case study, this study interrogates the foundational thesis of relational networking and cultural assets deployed to deal with social development challenges. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with community participants. Purposive sampling was used, and data were analysed and critically synthesized with comparable literature. Communities increasingly shoulder their own development through a multiplicity of agency with internal and external stakeholders. The analysis captures a typology of incremental cultural assets, galvanised and re-engineered, promoting a rejuvenated community. A multi-layered approach centred on intersecting elements with unvarying input from community members are perceptible. Though the translational benefits are not clear-cut, relational networking and incremental cultural assets hold out the prospect for community transformation in infrastructure provision - supply of fresh water, equipping schools, community halls, building roads, bridges and community halls. In the process, social inequality and other barriers of disadvantage are narrowed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: local perceptions; chimpanzees; conservation; natural resources; human-chimpanzees conflict; traditional beliefs
Online: 29 December 2017 (08:00:35 CET)
The objective is to study the local perceptions on the conservation of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Réserve Naturelle Communautaire de Dindéfélo (RNCD), southeast of Senegal, to design specific actions to improve conservation management. We conducted 338 semi-structured interviews in three main villages of RNCD. Three-fourths of the population were farmers. Of those interviewed, 29% received elementary education. Two of the three villages participated in a project to plant trees as fences. On average, 66% of the respondents were animists. Of the respondents who were afraid to see a chimpanzee, 68% answered because they attack. Seventy-seven percent washed their clothes in the forest river because there was more water than in the village wells. Of the interviewees who threw the old clothes into the forest, 50% did it due to tradition. Ninety-six percent of respondents stated that chimpanzees do not feed from their crops. The main problems of the locals with the Reserve were lack of water and basic resources and not been allow to cut trees in protected areas. There were significant relationships between education (1 relationship), environmental project (4 relationships) and animism (11 relationships) with local perceptions. The 93% of the respondents who had the traditional belief that “if the old clothes were burnt, children would become sick” feel fear of chimpanzees, while those who did not have this animistic belief the 6% are afraid (χ2 = 1.57, P < 0.02). These local perceptions allow us to design specific course of action to improve chimpanzee conservation and sustainable coexistence in this complex period of the Anthropocene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0477.v1
Subject: Film, Radio And Television, Arts And Humanities Keywords: Traditional news media; Online Media/News streaming; Nigeria; Internet; Social media, Journalism
Online: 7 December 2023 (08:17:37 CET)
The Nigerian media have traversed through all manners of leadership— military, democratic—finally settling into democratic governance. Experience from previous regimes exposed them to the vagaries of power and how to cope with them. The coming of the internet with its social media handles threw the journalists of these media into confusion as the citizens have taken the reigns of news/information peddling from under them, turning them into agents of confirmation and authenticity of information. The objective is to interrogate how online media/information/news streaming has taken the audience away from the traditional media by being on the ‘spot’ at all hours with their avalanche of “Breaking News.” Deploying survey method (opinion poll, OPL), and relying on purposive sampling technique, the authors purposively selected WhatsApp Group Platforms (WGP), as the most suitable of the new/social media with access to all manners of news sources. Findings reveal that audiences currently resort to the traditional media to confirm the authenticity of news and information carried online in a sort-of-when-in-doubt-watch-the television; listen to radio or read the newspaper/magazine. It concludes that online news streaming has become the coveted bride of present day information and news seekers albeit a most unreliable one at that.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2107.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Serratia marcescens; cheese, blue-veined cheese; technological defect; colour defect; traditional cheeses
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:15:27 CEST)
Technological defects in the organoleptic characteristics of cheese (odour, colour, texture and flavour) reduce quality and consumer acceptance. A red colour defect in Cabrales cheese (a traditional, blue-veined, Spanish cheese made from raw milk) occurs infrequently but can have a notable economic impact on family-owned, artisanal cheesemaking businesses. This work reports the culture-based determination of Serratia marcescens strain R01 as the microbe involved in the appearance of red spots on the surface and nearby inner areas of such cheese. Sequencing and analysis of its genome revealed a cluster of 16 genes involved in the production of prodigiosin, a tripyrrole red pigment. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of prodigiosin in methanol extracts of S. marcescens RO1 cultures. The same was also observed in extracts from red areas of affected cheeses. The strain showed low survival rates under acidic conditions, but was not affected by concentrations of up to 5% NaCl (the usual value for blue cheese). The optimal conditions for prodigiosin production by S. marscescens RO1 on agar plates were 32 ºC and aerobic conditions. Prodigiosin has been reported to possess antimicrobial activity, which agrees with the here-observed inhibitory effect of RO1 supernatants on different bacteria, its inhibition of Enterobacteriaceae, and the delayed development of Penicillium roqueforti during cheesemaking. The association between S. marcescens and the red colour defect was strengthened by recreating the fault in experimental cheeses inoculated with RO1. The data gathered in this study points towards the starting milk to be the origin of this bacterium in cheese. These findings should help in the development of strategies that minimize the incidence of pigmenting S. marcescens in milk, the red defect the bacterium causes in cheese, and its associated economic losses.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0422.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Rainforest; recovery; indicators; logging; grassland; shifting cultivation; forestry; national parks; traditional rights
Online: 20 August 2021 (19:02:09 CEST)
Recovery of forest after logging can be tested in many ways: the presence of particular species of fauna or flora, the similarity of the biodiversity of the recovering forest to that on neighbouring areas of undisturbed forest; or the characteristics of soils and streams whose conditions may have drastically changed during logging. Three cases of rainforest recovery after logging and clearance from Australia and Borneo exhibit different starting and different goals for recovery. Faunal indicators of recovery vary with size and with species dependence of the rainforest. Endemic forest species may have difficulty in recovering. Tree species richness and abundance may recover in two decades, but canopy closure takes longer. Compacted soils may retain low infiltration capacities for many decades. This diversity in recovery rates is confirmed when compared with those used elsewhere. Because the starting points for recovery vary, from damage by tropical cyclones and landslides, to clearance for shifting cultivation, pasture or agriculture, to post-logging conditions, universal indicators may be inappropriate. The desired endpoints of recovery also range from a “wilderness” state to a National Park for human enjoyment, biodiversity preservation, safeguarding rights of traditional forest-dwelling peoples, or a second round of selective logging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Traditional food crops; Climate change; Food security; Omics; Translational genomics; Gene editing
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:02:24 CEST)
The indigenous communities across the globe especially in the rural areas consume locally available plants known as Traditional Food Plants (TFPs) for their nutritional and health-related needs. Recent research shows that many of the traditional food plants are highly nutritious as they contain health beneficial metabolites, vitamins, mineral elements and other nutrients. Excessive reliance on the mainstream staple crops has its own disadvantages. TFPs are nowadays considered important crops of the future and can act as supplementary foods for the burgeoning global population. They can also act as emergency foods in times of pandemics and other situations like COVID-19. The current situation necessitates locally available alternative nutritious TFPs for sustainable food production. To increase the cultivation or improve the traits in TFPs, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of the genes that regulate some important traits such as nutritional components and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. The integrated use of modern omics and gene editing technologies provide great opportunities to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of superior nutrient content, climate-resilient traits and adaptation to local agroclimatic zones. Recently, realising the importance and benefits of TFPs, scientists have shown interest in the prospection and sequencing of traditional food plants for their improvements, further cultivation and mainstreaming. Integrated omics such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics are successfully used in plants and have provided a comprehensive understanding of gene-protein-metabolite networks. Combined use of omics and editing tools has led to successful editing of beneficial traits in few TFPs. This suggests that there is ample scope of integrated use of modern omics and editing tools/techniques for improvement of TFPs and their use for sustainable food production. In this article, we highlight the importance, scope and progress towards improvement of TFPs for valuable traits by integrated use of omics and gene editing techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: antiophidic; antivenin plants; envenomation; ethnobotany; ethnomedicine; phospholipase A2; snakebite; traditional medicine; Uganda
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:41:08 CEST)
Snakebite envenomation, cognized as a neglected tropical disease, is a dread public health concern with the most susceptible groups being herdsmen, the elderly, active farmers, hunters, fishers, firewood collectors, 10 to 14-year old working children and individuals with limited access to education and health care. Snakebites are fragmentarily documented in Uganda primarily because most occur in rural settings where traditional therapists end up being the first line defence for treatment. Ethnobotanical surveys in Uganda have unveiled that some plants are used to antagonize the activity of various snake venoms. This review was sought to compile the sporadic information on the vegetal species reported as antivenins in Uganda. Electronic data indicate that no study entirely reported on antivenin plants in Uganda. A total of 77 plant species belonging to 65 genera, distributed among 42 botanical families claimed as antiophidic in Uganda are used for treatment of snakebites. Majority of these species belong to family Fabaceae (30.9%), Euphorbiaceae (14.3%), Asteraceae (11.9%), Amaryllidaceae (9.5%) and Solanaceae (9.5%). The antiophidic species listed are shrubs (40.5%), trees (32.9%) and herbs (17.7%), usually found in the wild and uncultivated. Antivenin extracts are primarily prepared from roots and leaves, through decoctions, infusions, powders and juices and administered orally or topically. The most frequently encountered therapeutically important species are Allium cepa L., Carica papaya L., Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. and Nicotiana tabacum L. Baseline epidemiological data on snake envenomation and antivenin plants in Uganda remain incomplete due to inadequate research and diverse ethnic groups in the country. There is a dire need to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds in the claimed plants to enable their adroit utilization in handling the plague of snake envenomation. More baseline data should be collected on snake ecology and human behaviour as well as antivenin plants in Uganda. Indigenous knowledge on the use of plant preparations in traditional medicine in Uganda is humongous, but if this is not quickly researched and appropriately documented, indications as to the usefulness of this vegetal treasure house will be lost in the not so distant future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: traditional market; state promoted market; coordination problems; market devise; market flexibility; adaptation
Online: 18 October 2018 (11:28:00 CEST)
The penetration of modern supermarkets is believed to be the cause of the declining role of traditional markets and street vendors in Indonesia. But the competition between state-promoted markets and traditional markets is rarely discussed. This investigation focuses on traditional markets as social institutions, which continuously have developed a variety of strategies in order to remain competitive in the midst of intense rivalry. Firstly, we will outline a theoretical understanding of the traditional markets positioning along the concepts of flexibility and market devices. Secondly, we empirically reflect the strategies of four traditional vegetable markets in the District of Malang, East Java Province, as case studies. We show that the traditional markets build flexibility without governmental support by: (1) specifying commodities, (2) segmenting customers, (3) managing the load time, (4) modifying transportation to operate more efficiently, and (5) minimizing transaction costs by leveraging social capital. We argue that traditional vegetable markets institutionally reduce the potential of transaction costs to be competitive and avoid problems of coordination by building social capital through networks. All in all, market institutions supported by market devices are flexibly capable of adapting to the pressures of both selfishness among actors and competition with other markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0419.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Corporate board characteristics; environmental disclosure; Traditional and integrated frameworks; South Africa; Nigeria
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:51:10 CEST)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the influence of corporate board characteristics on the extent of environmental disclosure quantity of listed firms in two leading emerging economies in Africa, South Africa (integrated reporting framework) and Nigeria (traditional reporting framework). Methods: The sample was comprised of 303 firms including environmentally sensitive companies purposively selected for content analysis study in South Africa (213) and Nigeria (90). We used both descriptive, multivariate and regression models to comparatively analyze the differences about corporate board characteristics as determinants of the extent of their environmental disclosure quantity. Results: The results reveal a more significant positive association between board characteristics and environmental disclosure in South Africa and less relevant association in Nigeria. Also, the results support that board independence arrangement may serve as bonding mechanisms in weak reporting environments, suggesting a substitutive relationship between board independence and the regulatory framework. Quiet revealing a board with environmental committee show a higher tendency to be ecologic transparent in both countries. However, in a traditional reporting framework, the environmental committee is not enough; its effect was insignificant and highly significant in the integrated reporting framework. Further revealed is the significant positive effect of industry membership influence on environmental disclosure. In all estimated models of South Africa sample show that 45% of environmentally sensitive industries significantly influence environmental disclosure, while 51% is environmentally polluting industries in Nigeria show less concern on environmental disclosure. Interestingly, Audit firm size (Big4) positively and statistically significantly associated with overall environmental reporting in both countries. The results are consistent with stakeholder theory, agency theory, institutional and legitimacy theory suggesting that a strong board size, independent members of the board with auditing experience, the active environmental committee in conjunction with solid audit reputation may reduce information asymmetry. Our findings will be helpful for policymakers and other regulators who are interested in environmental impact reporting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Zingiber; ginger; essential oil; rhizome; herbal remedies; traditional healing systems; food preservatives
Online: 16 November 2017 (04:38:52 CET)
Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae) are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In addition, gingerols have been identified as the major active components in the fresh rhizome, whereas shogaols, dehydrated gingerol derivatives, are the predominant pungent constituents in dried rhizome. Zingiber spp. may thus represent a promising and innovative source of natural alternatives to chemical food preservatives. This approach would meet the increasing concern of consumers aware of the potential health risks associated with the conventional antimicrobial agents in food. This narrative review aims providing a literature overview on Zingiber spp. plants, their cultivation, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0324.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Traditional Villages, Landscape Evaluation, Eye-tracking, Semantic Differential Analysis, Visual Preference, Public Space
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:57:57 CET)
A scientific investigation into visual preferences of rural recreation path landscapes is crucial for enhancing visual qualities and visitors' experience. Taking Baofeng, a representative traditional village in Yunlong, as an example, this study analyzed the visual preference of three typical linear recreational paths with different landscape attributes. We used eye-tracking technology to collect eye movement data and conducted a subjective semantic differential evaluation. Our findings manifest a general inclination amongst individuals to favor closer views and paths with clear trajectories and rich elevation changes while walking, despite preference differences on different types of paths. Regarding group diversity, more inclusive design should be made to meet the sensory needs of different groups. Moreover, despite the limited level of correlation between subjective and objective evaluation methods, combining these two approaches remains indispensable. This synthesis advances prior quantitative landscape evaluation with a specific focus on rural path landscapes and upholds the integrity of results by combining objectivity with subjectivity. It also provides relevant design suggestions for further rural renewal and path planning of Baofeng village.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1127.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: traditional knowledge; forest degradation; socio-economic value; non-timber forest products; miombo woodlands
Online: 18 September 2023 (08:52:46 CEST)
The overexploitation of forest resources in the charcoal production basin of the city of Lubum-bashi (DR Congo) is reducing the resilience of miombo woodlands and threatening the survival of the riparian as well as urban human populations that depend on it. We assessed the socio-economic value and availability of plant-based non-timber forest products NTFPs in the rural area of Lubumbashi through ethnobotanical (100 respondents) and socio-economic (90 respondents) interviews, supplemented with floristic inventories, in two village areas selected on the basis of the level of forest degradation. The results show that 60 woody species, including 46 in the degraded forest (Maksem) and 53 in the intact forest (Mwawa), belonging to 22 families are used as sources of NTFPs in both villages. Among these species, 25 are considered priority species. NTFPs are collected for various purposes, including handcrafting, hut building, and traditional medicine. Moreover, the ethnobotanical lists reveal a similarity of almost 75%, indicating that both local communities surveyed use the same species for collecting plant-based NTFPs, despite differences in the level of degradation of the miombo woodlands in the two corresponding study areas. However, the plant-based NTFPs that are collected from miombo woodlands and traded in the urban markets have significant economic value, which ranges from 0.5 to 14.58 USD per kg depending on the species and uses. NTFPs used for handicraft purposes have a higher economic value than those used for other purposes. However, the sustainability of this activity is threatened due to unsustainable harvesting practices that include stem slashing, root digging, and bark peeling of woody species. Consequently, there is a low availability of plant-based NTFPs, particularly in the village area where forest degradation is more advanced. It is imperative that policies for monitoring and regulation of harvesting, and promoting sustainable management of communities’ plant-based NTFPs priority, be undertaken to maintain their resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Anticandidosic activity; Candida albicans; Quercus suber L.; Methanolic extracts; Traditional pharmacopoeia; Acute Toxicity
Online: 7 September 2021 (10:32:31 CEST)
The cork oak (Quercus suber L.), endemic essence of the Mediterranean Basin, is commonly used in traditional pharmacopoeia. The main objective of this work is to enhance the valorization of this plant species through the study of the anticandidosic activity of cork oak bark methalonic extracts in order to develop an efficient natural formulation for Candidiasis treatment.The anticandidosic activity of methanolic extracts of Q. suber bark stemming from decoction, maceration and Soxhlet methods of extraction in was tested on five different Candida albicans strains. Our results showed that all the tested extracts displayed an inhibitive activity, which varies according to the obtained extract and the tested strain. The best anticandidosic potential was observed with extracts obtained with Soxhlet method. The study of the acute toxicity showed that the lethal dose is 1150 mg/kg in mice, which remained moderately toxic according to Hodge and Sterner classification scale. Thus, this extract can be used in phytotherapy without danger in doses that are below 300 mg/kg of corporal weight. Based on these results, we can conclude that Cork oak bark extracts can be used to treat Candida albicans infections.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Orphan crops; polyunsaturated fatty acids; α-linolenic acid; food security; traditional crops; oilseeds
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:53:18 CEST)
Plukenetia volubilis is an underutilized oilseed crop native to the Amazon basin, where it has been utilised by humans since Incan times. The large seeds contain approx. 45–50 % lipid, of which approx. 35.2–50.8 % is α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ω-3) and approx. 33.4–41.0 % is linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6, ω-6), the two essential fatty acids required by humans. The seeds also contain 22–30 % protein and have antioxidant properties. Due to its excellent nutritional composition and good agronomic properties, it has attracted increasing attention in recent years, and cultivation is expanding. When considering current global challenges, a reformation of our food systems is imperative in order to ensure food security, mitigation of climate change, and alleviation of malnutrition. For this purpose, underutilized crops may be essential tools, which can provide agricultural hardiness and reduced need for external inputs, climate resilience, diet diversification, and improved income opportunities for smallholders. Plukenetia volubilis is a promising up and coming crop in this regard and has considerable potential for further domestication; it has an exceptional oil composition, good sensory acceptability, is well suited for cultivation, and has numerous potential applications in, e.g. gastronomy, medicine, and cosmetics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gut microbiome; Western and indigenous/traditional cultures; gut health; disease; lifestyle; novel microbials
Online: 6 April 2021 (12:40:04 CEST)
The mammalian gut ecosystem plays critical roles in multiple functions related to health and homeostasis. In many cases, disturbances in the gut ecosystem are associated with a large number of metabolic and chronic diseases and disorders such as diabetes, cancer, and obesity. A diverse community of microorganisms ranging from viruses to bacteria comprise the gut microbiota, which is often considered as an organ in itself. Recent studies have profiled the influence of lifestyles and dietary behavior by comparing the gut microbiome of populations with different cultural underpinnings. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies which report the influence on the gut microbial composition of dietary and lifestyle patterns in different contexts such as western industrialized countries and indigenous cultures (corresponding to different lifestyle gradients such as hunter-gatherers and pastoralists) and how this association may influence health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Oroxylum indicum; Oroxyquinone; Traditional medicine; Bioassay Guided Fractionation; caspase-independent apoptosis; anti-metastatic
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:55:57 CET)
Leaf crude extract (aqueous) of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz induces genomic DNA fragmentation, comet formation, and inhibition of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell line, PC3 as assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, comet assay, and MTT assay respectively. The bioactive compound was purified through bioassay-guided fractionation using preparative HPLC and MTT as-say. The brown and water-soluble compound was characterized using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, and the compound was iden-tified as a glycosylated hydroquinone derivative, 2-[p-(2-Carboxyhydrazino)phenoxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahy-dro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (molecular formula, C13H18N2O8; molecular mass = 330). The identified phytocompound has not been reported earlier elsewhere. Therefore, the common name of the novel anticancer phytocompound isolated from oroxylum indicum in this current study is named as oroxyquinone. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of oroxyquinone on PC3 cells was 19.44 µg/ml (95% CI = 17.97 to 21.04). Oroxyquinone induced cell cycle arrest at S phases and inhibition of cell migration on PC3 as assessed by flow cytome-try and wound healing assay respectively. On investigating the molecular mechanism of inducing apoptosis, the results indicated that the oroxyquinone induced apoptosis through the p38 pathway and cell cycle arrest, however, not through caspase-3 and PARP pathways. The present study identifies a novel an-ticancer molecule and provides scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potency of OI for ethnomedicinal uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0041.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: human ecological footprint; traditional ecological knowledge; biocultural restoration; social-ecological system; Hawaiian islands
Online: 2 August 2018 (08:55:49 CEST)
Pre-Western contact Hawaiʻi stands as a quintessential sustainability example of a large human population that practiced intensive agriculture, yet minimally displaced native habitats that comprised the foundation of its vitality. An explicit geospatial footprint of human-transformed areas across the pre-contact Hawaiian archipelago comprised less than 15% of total land area, yet provided 100% of human needs, supporting a thriving Polynesian society. A post-contact history of disruption of traditional Hawaiian land-use and its supplanting by Western land tenure and agriculture based on ranching, sugarcane, and pineapple, culminated in a landscape, in which over 50% of native habitats have been lost, while self-sufficiency has plummeted to 15% or less. Recapturing the ʻāina momona (productive lands) of ancient times can be accomplished through study of pre-contact agriculture, assessment of biological and ecological changes imposed on Hawaiian social-ecological systems, and conscious planned efforts to increase self-sufficiency and reduce importation. Impediments include the current tourism-based economy, competition from habitat-modifying introduced species, a suite of agricultural pests severely limiting traditional agriculture, and changes in climate rendering some pre-contact agricultural centers suboptimal. Modified agricultural methods will be required to counteract these limitations, and diversified agriculture to broaden the production base, without contributing to further degradation of native habitats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: excessive fertilization; agro environment; rental land; traditional way; younger farmers; environmental consciousness
Online: 13 November 2017 (16:14:39 CET)
Abstract: The study focuses on how socio-economic and demographic indicators affect fertilization sustainability (excessive amount of fertilization). Principally we aim to examine the significance magnitude of the effects of three socio-demographic variables such as traditional way of fertilization, rental land farming, and farmers’ younger age on over-fertilization in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In 1960s, Bangladesh state authority launched a campaign ‘Grow more Food’ to feed huge numbers of population and thus the farmers are provided chemical fertilizers and pesticides at a subsidized low price. Farmers began to use huge amount of fertilizers for gaining high yields and continued it to present causing environmental woes a lot. We interview (face-to-face, focus group discussion, and phone interview) 210 Bangladesh farmers in 2016 by semi-structured questionnaire. Data has been analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) in Univariate Analysis of Variance. The study found the effect of traditional way of fertilization on excessive amount of fertilization is strongly significant at 1% level. Apart from, rental land farming and farmers’ younger age have a significant influence on over- fertilization; though their significance level (5% and 10% respectively) is quasi-strong. Policy makers can be able to formulate fertilizer policy on the basis of these findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1459.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: traditional use; chemical composition; botanical description; pharmacological activities; natural products; bioactive compounds; Kalanchoe; Crassulaceae.
Online: 20 June 2023 (15:26:16 CEST)
Species of the genus Kalanchoe have a long history of therapeutic use in ethnomedicine linked to their remarkable healing properties. Several species have chemical and anatomical similarities, often leading to confusion when they are used in folk medicine. This review aims to provide an overview and discussion of the reported traditional uses, botanical aspects, chemical constituents, and pharmacological potential of the Kalanchoe species. Published scientific materials were collected from the PubMed and SciFinder databases without restriction regarding the year of publication through April 2023. Ethnopharmacological knowledge suggests that these species have been used to treat infections, inflammation, injuries, and other disorders. Typically, all parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes either as crude extract or juice. Botanical evaluation can clarify species differentiation and can enable correct identification and validation of the scientific data. Flavonoids are the most common classes of secondary metabolites identified from Kalanchoe species and can be correlated with some biological studies (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potential). This review summarizes several topics related to the Kalanchoe genus, supporting future studies regarding other unexplored research areas. The need to carry out further studies to confirm the popular uses and biological activities of bioactive compounds is also highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0492.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral; therapeutics; natural products; traditional Chinese medicines; plant extracts
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:34:31 CEST)
Despite the fact that COVID-19 treatment and management are now considerably regulated, SARS-CoV-2 is still one of the leading causes of death in 2022. The availability of COVID-19 vaccines, FDA-approved antivirals, and monoclonal antibodies in low-income countries still poses an issue to be addressed. Natural products, particularly traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and medicinal plant extracts (or their active component) have challenged the dominance of drug repurposing and synthetic compound libraries in COVID-19 therapeutics. Abundant resources and excellent antiviral performance make natural products a relatively cheap and easily available alternative for COVID-19 therapeutics. Here, we deliberately review the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of the natural products, their potency (pharmacological profiles), and application strategies for COVID-19 intervention. In light of their advantages, this review is intended to acknowledge the potential of natural products as COVID-19 therapeutic candidates.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ethnoveterinary medicines; Kinnaur; traditional knowledge; livestock; Sanctuary; shepherds; mountain people; aboriginal; tribal; herbalism; ritualism
Online: 29 January 2020 (03:57:56 CET)
The Himalayas are known for high floristic diversity and rich ethnobotanical practices. However, not all parts of the Himalayan regions are thoroughly studied. The present study aims to document the ethnoveterinary medicines used by migratory shepherds in Trans-Himalayan Rakchham-Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary,Baspa (Sangla) valley of the Kinnaur district in Himachal Pradesh. The shepherds are very close to nature as they spend most of their time in forests with their livestock. Shepherding depends more on traditional healthcare practices based on local medicinal plants. In this study, we are reporting for the first time commonly used ethnoveterinary medicines in Rakchham and Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary and their application, procedures of preparation, as well as listing 51 plant species. Such documentations are done first time in the Himachal Pradesh region of India as per our information. Our research emphasizes the urgent need to document traditional medicine preparation procedures from migratory shepherds. The required information on various ethnoveterinary medicines used by migratory shepherds was collected through personal field visits, participatory observations, interview and using a pretested questionnaire. It was observed that in all 51 species of ethnoveterinary were used by shepherds in Trans-Himalayan Rakchham-Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary in Baspa (Sangla) valley of Kinnaur district. The results of this survey show that shepherds in tribal areas are highly dependent on ethnoveterinary remedies for their livestock which evolved over generations of practices for healthcare. There is an urgent need to document this vast knowledge of migratory shepherds concerning the use of ethnoveterinary remedies for animal health care in the regions of the Himalayas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land expropriation; intra-racial tension; social cohesion; political and traditional elitism; marginalised landless majority
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:38:36 CET)
Section 25(2) of the Constitution of South Africa protects property rights and the White Paper on Land Reform demonstrate tolerance and wisdom in the application of land reform policies. The central argument to this research was whether amendment of Section 25 (2) of the constitution to allow expropriation of land without compensation redresses redistribution of land for social cohesion and political stability. The researcher argues that, currently, Section 25 of the constitution provides for expropriation without compensation but at the same time protects property rights reducing the pace of redistribution. Hence, an amendment of section 25 (2) may remove the property right clause and accelerate expropriation without compensation. But whether the removal of the property right clause and acceleration of the process of expropriation without compensation will result to equitable and fair distribution of land to the majority of landless South Africans is not certain. The study concludes that, amendment of Section 25(2) is a justifiable process and priorities must be given to equity in redistribution to the majority landless at the margins of communities and not elites. If the amendment of Section 25 (2) cannot guarantee equity in redistribution for all ill respective of race, social cohesion, political stability and economic growth, intra-racial tensions may emerge. Such tensions may further compound the land question and affects investors’ confidence in South Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Jivanti; Leptadenia reticulata; traditional medicine; herb; therapy; rasayana; galactagogue; pharmacology; biological activities; medicinal plant
Online: 1 May 2017 (10:25:26 CEST)
Leptadenia reticulata (Ritz.) Wight (Asclepiadaceae), a traditional medicinal plant species, is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentriacontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to claim the traditional uses of L. reticulata into evidence-based uses. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge on its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation technique will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can warrant conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L. reticulata. This comprehensive information will certainly allow better utilization of this industrially important herb towards the discovery of lead drug molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1797.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial activity; bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria; bacteriocins; Ethiopian; solvent extraction and traditional fermented products
Online: 27 October 2023 (11:31:22 CEST)
The study aimed to isolate and characterize bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus species from Ethiopian traditional fermented foods and beverages. The bacteriocin bioassay was tested against food-borne pathogens at various temperatures, pH, solvents, additives, and enzymes. A solvent extraction method was established to concentrate bacteriocins from Enterococcus species. The study found that crude extracts with proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin deactivated antimicrobial activity, confirming their proteinaceous nature. Organic solvents were more effective at extracting bacteriocins from CFS, with chloroform alone and in combination providing rapid and efficient recovery. The optimal bacteriocin production and strong inhibition activity were achieved at 37°C with a pH range of 5.5 to 6.5 incubated for 16-18 hours. The six Enterococcus faecium species were the best bacteriocin-producing isolates. Optimizing bacteriocin production and changing environmental growing circumstances can enhance the application of bacteriocins as food preservation agents. Traditional fermented products are potential sources of bacteriocin-producing LAB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0802.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Traditional life policy; Non-participating policy; Participating policy; Induced demand; Optimal pricing strategy; Maximum profits
Online: 12 June 2023 (08:49:33 CEST)
This study presents a novel approach to analyzing the present value of total profit for non-participating and participating insurance policies in order to determine the optimal profitability of non-participating and participating insurance policies based on applying the approach used in operations research to the field of finance. As such, a comprehensive insurance product evaluation model was developed using both mathematical models and numerical analysis to evaluate the demand for non-participating and participating life insurance policies in response to changes in interest rates. The findings indicate that non-participating life insurance policies offer greater solvency for insurance companies compared to participating policies. The study also highlights the significance of spontaneous and induced demand in determining the total profit of both types of policies. The study concludes that life insurance companies should focus on generating spontaneous consumer demand, reducing induced demand, and implementing the optimal pricing strategy to achieve maximum profits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Monochoria angustifolia; Monochoria hastata; Flavonoid; Antioxidant mechanism; Natural populations; Phytochemical profile; Traditional herbal medicine; Phytopharmaceutical
Online: 12 April 2022 (04:08:17 CEST)
Plants of the genus Monochoria have long been utilized in food, cosmetics, and traditional herbal treatment. Thailand has the highest species diversity of this genus and a new member, Monochoria angustifolia (G. X. Wang) Boonkerd & Tungmunnithum has been recently described. This plant is called “Siam Violet Pearl” as a common name or “ไข่มุกสีม่วงแห่งสยาม” as its vernacular name in the same meaning in Thai language. Despite their importance, few researches on Monochoria species have been conducted. This study, thus, provided the results to fill in this gap by: i) determining flavonoids phytochemical profiles of 25 natural populations of M. angustifolia covering the whole floristic regions in Thailand, and ii) determining antioxidant activity using various antioxidant assays to investigate the probable mechanism. The results revealed that M. angustifolia presented a higher flavonoid content than the outgroup, M. hastata. Our results also revealed that flavonoids might be used to investigate Monochoria evolutionary connections and for botanical authentication. The various antioxidant assays revealed that M. angustifolia extracts preferentially act through a hydrogen atom transfer antioxidant mechanism. Pearson correlation analysis indicated significant correlations emphasizing that the antioxidant capacity is most probably the result of a complex phytochemical combinations rather than of a single molecule. Altogether, these results showed that this new species provide an attractive alternative starting material with phytochemical variety and antioxidant potential for the phytopharmaceutical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0381.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: fermented sausage; Ventricina del Vastese; traditional production; coagulase negative staphylo-cocci; hazardous genetic traits; antibiotic resistance
Online: 21 November 2022 (07:31:16 CET)
Ventricina del Vastese is a traditional dry fermented sausage from Central Italy not yet charac-terized for occurrence, identity and safety of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), a bacterial group technologically important for this kind of products. Therefore, in this study, 98 CNS isolates from four manufacturers were differentiated by Repetitive element palindromic PCR (Rep-PCR) and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These were examined for genes encoding biogenic amine (BA) production, resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams and tetracyclines and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Staphylococcus succinus (55%) predominated, followed by S. xylosus (30%), S. epidermidis (7.4%), S. equorum (3.1%), S. saprophyticus (3.1%) and S. warneri (1%). One S. succinus subsp. casei isolate was slightly β-hemolytic. SEs and the histidine decarboxylase gene hdcA were not detected, while the tyrosine decarboxylase gene tdcA was detected in four S. xylosus isolates. A blaZ beta-lactamase gene and tetracycline resistance genes tetK (six isolates) and tetA (one isolate also bearing tetK) were found, respectively. However, fewer hazardous and AR traits compared to CNS examined in other studies were found, as a probable consequence of using meat from animals reared in conditions that allow to minimize pathogen circulation and antibiotic use. Therefore, appropriate production conditions can reduce these threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: information technologies (I.T); sign language; hearing impairment; traditional games; primary school teaching; inclusive education; physical education
Online: 2 November 2021 (11:54:47 CET)
This article propose a didactic, through games, tool based on information and communication technologies, in order to eliminate possible communication barriers and to promote the inclusion of students with hearing impairment in Physical Education classes. To this end, a dossier of traditional games has been developed. These are structured in turn into objectives, materials, organisation, graphic description and a QR code for each game. These codes are linked to different videos hosted on the YouTube platform, in which the explanation of the games, mentioned above, can be visualised graphically using sign language. The whole creative process is described in the article, as well as possible pedagogical applications of the use of the tools created for this purpose in other educational contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0776.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Saponins; anticancer activities; traditional plants; mechanism of action; cell cycle arrest; apoptosis; chemopreventive; future cancer research
Online: 29 April 2021 (14:08:23 CEST)
Abstract Traditional plants are known to contain a wide array of secondary metabolites with important biological activity, including anticancer activity. One of such metabolites is saponin; a steroidal or triterpenoid glycoside that is distinguished by its soap forming nature. Different saponins have been characterized and purified so far, and are gaining attention in cancer chemotherapy. Saponins possess incredible structural diversity which has been linked to their activity. They have been implicated in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Several studies have reported the role of saponins in cancer and their mechanism of actions including cell cycle arrest, antioxidant, cellular invasion inhibition, induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Despite the extensive research and significant anticancer effect of saponins there are no known FDA approved saponin based anticancer drugs due to a number of limitations including toxicities and drug likeness properties. Recent studies have explored options such as structural optimization, combination therapy and drug delivery systems to design saponins with increased efficacy and decreased toxicities. This review discussed the current knowledge on different saponins, their anticancer activity, mechanism of action as well as the current promising research on saponins within the last two decades and recommendations for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0443.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate change; Nationalism; Anthropocene; Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK); Geoethics; Sustainable communities; Subsistence societies; Indigenous peoples; Anthropocene
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:33:37 CET)
This article argues that we need to look at living examples provided by non-state communities in various regions of the world that are, perhaps unwittingly, contributing to the maintenance of the Earth's optimal thermal balance. These fully sustainable communities have been living outside the mainstream for centuries, even millennia, providing examples in the global struggle against the degradation of social–ecological systems. They have all, to varying degrees, embraced simple forms of living that make them ‘exemplary ethical communities’ (EECs) – human communities with a track record of sustainability related to forms of traditional knowledge and the capacity to survive outside the capitalist market and nation-state system. The article proceeds in three steps: First, it condenses a large body of research on the limits of the existing nation-state system and its accompanying ideology, nationalism, identifying this institutional–ideological complex as the major obstacle to tackling climate change. Second, alternative social formations that could offer viable micro-level and micro-scale alternatives are suggested. These are unlikely to identify with existing nation-states as they often form distinct types of social communities. Taking examples from hunter-gatherer societies and simple-living religious groups, it is shown how the protection and maintenance of these EECs could become the keystone in the struggle for survival of humankind and other forms of life. Finally, further investigation is called for, into how researchers can come forward with more examples of actually existing communities that might provide pathways to sustainability and resistance to the looming global environmental catastrophe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1411.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: activity recognition; inertial measurement unit; deep learning; convolutional neural network; residual neural network; traditional machine learning; study
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:51:12 CET)
Augmented reality (AR) provides an opportunity for mobile fitness applications to show users real-time feedback on their current fitness activity. For such applications, it is essential to accurately track the user’s current fitness activity using available mobile sensors, such as inertial measurement units (IMUs). Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been shown to produce strong results in different time series classification tasks, including the recognition of activities of daily living. However, fitness activities can present unique challenges to the human activity recognition task (HAR), including greater similarity between individual activities and fewer available data for model training. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of CNNs to the fitness activity recognition task (FAR) using IMU data and determine the impact of input data size and sensor count on performance. For this purpose, we adapted three existing CNN architectures to the FAR task and designed a fourth CNN variant, which we call the scaling fully convolutional network (Scaling-FCN). We designed a preprocessing pipeline and recorded a running exercise data set with 20 participants, in which we evaluated the respective recognition performances of the four networks, comparing them with three traditional machine learning methods commonly used in HAR. On our data set, all CNN architectures significantly outperformed traditional machine learning methods, reaching up to 97.14±1.36% classification accuracy on the test set for ResNet. Whereas a reduced input data size invariably led to a performance loss, removing specific sensors improved the performance of all CNN architectures, with our Scaling-FCN reaching the highest accuracy of 99.86±0.11%. Our results suggest that CNNs are generally well suited for fitness activity recognition, and noticeable performance improvements can be achieved if sensors are dropped selectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1548.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial analysis; Traditional Financial Ratios; Cash Flow Ratios; Redictive Efficacy; Fiscal Health; Systematic Review; PRISMA 2020; Financial Stability
Online: 23 November 2023 (16:59:32 CET)
In exploring the intricacies of financial analysis, this study delves into the efficacy of traditional financial ratios versus cash flow ratios in foreseeing a company's fiscal well-being. By harnessing the PRISMA 2020 framework, an exhaustive and systematic dissection of diverse scholarly articles was embarked upon. The quest was to unearth the more reliable predictor of financial stability among these two sets of ratios. With a methodical examination of academic writings, this inquiry juxtaposed various models, scrutinizing their foresight capabilities. The revelations were telling; cash flow ratios emerged as more potent forecasters compared to their traditional counterparts. Intriguingly, models that blend both ratio types showed a marked improvement in predictive accuracy, hinting at a synergistic effect. This underscores the insight that while traditional ratios are informative, their amalgamation with cash flow ratios yields a richer, more rounded grasp of a company’s fiscal state. Conclusively, for stakeholders, especially investors, adopting this dual-ratio approach is pivotal for enlightened decision-making. This research enriches the financial analysis domain by spotlighting the salience of cash flow ratios, advocating for their integration with conventional methods for a sharper financial health appraisal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: scope creep; software engineering; software project management; work breakdown structure; agile method; traditional methodology; functional point analysis; stakeholders
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:20:06 CET)
Scope, time, and cost permanently effects each other and most of Information Technology projects fails due to these three factors. Scope shifting mostly occur due to time and cost. At project start, lack of understanding of project and product scope is focal involvement that leads to unsuccessful projects. Complete software scope definition determines quality of project. Defining the customer requirement and the definite scope of project has key role for implementation of project management. The complications originates when systems are developed from impractical expectations and misunderstanding requirements. These problems are cause of many changes, occurs in system development and leads to poor scope management. Scope creep is one of the momentous prompting parameter on the success of project. The failure in manage scope creep leads for 80 percent of software projects failure. However, using agile approach the impact of scope creep on projects become insignificant. A correctly distinct scope tends us to develop a quality product, within identified plans and decided cost to the stake-holders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: traditional dry fermented sausages; protection policy; desired microbiota; lactic acid bacteria; coagulase negative staphylococci; autochthonous cultures; safety; sensory quality
Online: 16 March 2023 (09:02:51 CET)
Traditional dry fermented meat products are obtained artisanally in many countries, where they represent a gastronomic heritage well distinguished from industrial counterparts. This food category is most often obtained from red meat, a food commodity that is under attack because of evidences of increased risk of cancer and degenerative diseases with high consumption. However, traditional fermented meat products are intended for moderate consumption and gastronomic experience and, as such, their production must be continued also to safeguard culture and economy of the geographical areas of origin. In this review, the main risks attributed to these products are considered and how these risks are minimized by following precise production norms, respectful of the ancient manufacturing processes is described. Moreover, results obtained in studies reporting use of autochthonous microbial cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Debaryomyces hansenii and Penicillium nalgiovense to improve safety and quality of traditional fermented meats are summarized. The role of these products as a source of microorganisms that can be beneficial to the host are also considered. From the results of the studies reviewed here it appears that the development of autochthonous cultures for these foods ensure safety and stabilize sensory characteristics with possibility to be extended to the large variety of traditional productions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Convention on Biological Diversity; Nagoya Protocol; ABS access and benefit sharing; Brazil ABS law; genetic resources; associated traditional knowledge.
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:52:23 CET)
This study presents a detailed assessment on the impact of the Brazilian legal framework related to the access and benefit sharing provisions of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. The research is based on a comprehensive dataset that was systematically collected over several years, directly from the official government bodies responsible for its implementation. The aim of the study is to contribute to a fact-based discussion on the effectiveness of national ABS laws, focusing on the Brazilian legal framework, first established in the year 2000 and revised in 2015, as a case example. This study balances the costs and benefits of the Brazilian ABS system and assesses the regulatory challenges it poses to individuals, companies, and institutions that perform research, share knowledge, develop, manufacture or market products derived from Brazilian biodiversity. The study indicates that, after over 22 years of operation, the regulatory challenges are still real and relevant, and that the significant volume of data collected from users on access, prior commercialization and shipment of genetic materials abroad was never systematically assessed by the agencies in charge. Besides, it shows that the costs incurred by the government in managing the policy itself have been higher than the economic benefits it has made possible, and that the institutional mechanisms in place since 2015 have not been able to allocate the monetary benefits contributed by users to the National Benefit Sharing Fund to any projects aimed at developing sustainable uses or preserving Brazilian biodiversity.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: lying posture tracking; traditional machine learning; ensemble classification; deep neural network models; long short-term memory sequence classification model
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:57:42 CEST)
Automated lying-posture tracking is important in preventing bed-related disorders such as pressure injuries, sleep apnea, and lower-back pain. Prior research studied in-bed lying posture tracking using sensors of different modalities (e.g., accelerometer and pressure sensors). However, there remain significant gaps in research about how to design efficient in-bed lying posture tracking systems. These gaps can be articulated through several research questions as follows. First, can we design a single-sensor, pervasive, and inexpensive system that can accurately detect lying postures? Second, what computational models are most effective in the accurate detection of lying postures? Finally, what physical configuration of the sensor system is most effective for lying posture tracking? To answer these important research questions, in this article, we propose a comprehensive approach to design a sensor system that uses a single accelerometer along with machine learning algorithms for in-bed lying posture classification. We design two categories of machine learning algorithms based on deep learning and traditional classification with handcrafted features to detect lying postures. We also investigate what wearing sites are most effective in accurate detection of lying postures. We extensively evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms on nine different body locations and four human lying postures using two datasets. Our results show that a system with a single accelerometer can be used with either deep learning or traditional classifiers to accurately detect lying postures. The best models in our approach achieve an F-Score that ranges from 95.2% to 97.8% with a coefficient of variation from 0.03 to 0.05. The results also identify the thighs and chest as the most salient body sites for lying posture tracking. Our findings in this article suggest that because accelerometers are ubiquitous and inexpensive sensors, they can be a viable source of information for pervasive monitoring of in-bed postures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2245.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: solid precipitation and type measurements; solid precipitation catch efficiency; snow gauges; non-traditional solid precipitation censors; visibility in snow; aviation
Online: 8 August 2023 (08:43:11 CEST)
Accurate measurement of solid precipitation (S) has a critical importance for proper understanding of the Earth’s hydrological cycle, validation of emerging technologies and weather prediction models, and developing parameterizations of severe weather elements such as visibility (Vis). However, measuring S is still a challenging problem mainly because of wind effects. The wind effects are normally mitigated by using a Double-Fence Automated Reference (DFAR) system to reduce the wind speed (Ug). To contribute towards addressing some of these issues we have analyzed data sets collected at a site located in Southern Ontario, Canada using several instruments. The instruments include two Geonor gauges, one placed inside a DFAR (SDFAR) and the other inside a double Alter shield (DASG), a Pluvio2 gauge inside a single Alter shield (SASP), a HotPlate, a PARSIVEL2 Disdrometer that measures S and fall velocity (V), and a FD12P senor that measures S and type and Vis. The results show that for the Ug observed in this study (Ug < 6 ms-1), both DASG and SASP have similar collection efficiency (CE) of near 70%. The transfer functions (TF) for DASG and SASP as a function of Ug and also Ug, and V have been derived. The TF for the DASG that includes both Ug and V showed better agreement with observation than just Ug alone. The S measured using all the other instruments were correlated well with SDFAR, but the PARSIVEL2 and FD12P overestimated and underestimated the snow amount respectively as compared the SDFAR. However, the HotPlate captured similar amount of S as the SDFAR. According to this study, the SDFAR showed good correlation with Vis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0401.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Modern Technology; Traditional Technology; Technology Renascence; E-Banking; Ecommerce; Education; Energy; Economy and Other E-Technologies; Artificial Intelligence; Business Intelligence
Online: 17 July 2020 (16:14:26 CEST)
Abstract: The human race has always innovated, and in a relatively short time went from building fires and making stone-tipped arrows to creating smartphone apps and autonomous robots. Today, technological progress will undoubtedly continue to change the way we work, live, and survive in the coming decades. Since the beginning of the new millennium, the world has witnessed the emergence of social media, smartphones, self-driving cars, and autonomous flying vehicles. There have also been huge leaps in energy storage, artificial intelligence, and medical science. We are facing immense challenges in global warming and food security, among many other issues. While human innovation has contributed to many of the problems we are facing, it is also human innovation and ingenuity that can help humanity deal with these issues “New directions in science are launched by new tools much more often than by new concepts. The effect of a concept-driven revolution is to explain old things in new ways. The effect of a tool-driven revolution is to discover new things that have to be explained”. (F. Dyson, 1997 In this article, we review the impact of technology as evolving at beginning of 21st Century on future prospect of Energy demand either renewable or non-renewable form, Economy, to Ecommerce, Education and any other E-related of Modern Technology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: castor bean; cancer therapy; immunotoxins; plant toxins; ribosome-inactivating proteins; ricin; rRNA N-glycosylase activity; traditional medicine; folk medicine; bioterrorism.
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:54:43 CEST)
The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) has been known since time immemorial in traditional medicine in the pharmacopeia of Mediterranean and eastern ancient cultures. Moreover, it is still used in folk medicine worldwide. Castor bean has been mainly recommended as anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, anti-bacterial, laxative, abortifacient, for wounds, ulcers, and many other indications. Many cases of human intoxication occurred accidentally or voluntarily with the ingestion of castor seeds or derivatives. Ricinus toxicity depends on several molecules, among them the most important is ricin, a protein belonging to the family of ribosome-inactivating proteins. Ricin is the most studied of this category of proteins and it is also known to the general public, having been used for biocrimes in several cases. Here, the main steps of ricin research are reported with particular regards to its enzymatic activity, structure and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we discuss ricin toxicity for animals and humans, as well as the relation amongst bioterrorism and ricin and its impact on environmental toxicity. Ricin has also been of great utility to develop a number of immunotoxins specific for the elimination of unwanted cells, mainly cancer cells; some of these immunotoxins gave promising results also in clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0950.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: fasting; caloric restriction; osteoarthritis; dietary intervention; fasting-mimicking diet; integrative medicine; complementary medicine; Traditional European Medicine; nutrition; multimodal in-tegrative treatment
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:52:40 CEST)
Preliminary clinical data suggest pain reduction through fasting in different diagnoses. This uncontrolled observational clinical study examined the effects of prolonged modified fasting on pain and functional parameters in hip and knee osteoarthritis. Patients admitted to the inpatient department of Internal Medicine and Nature-based Therapies of the Immanuel Hospital Berlin between February 2018 and March 2020, answered questionnaires at the beginning and end of inpatient treatment, as well as 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge. Additionally, selected blood and anthropometric parameters were routinely assessed during the inpatient stay. Fasting was performed as part of a multimodal integrative treatment program, with daily caloric intake of <600 kcal for 7.7 ± 1.7 days. N=125 consecutive patients were included. Results revealed an amelioration of overall symptomatology (WOMAC Index score: -14.8±13.31; p<0.001; d=0.78), and pain alleviation (NRS Pain: -2.7±1.98, p<0.001, d=1.48). Pain medication was reduced, stopped, or replaced by herbal remedies in 36% of patients. Improvements were also observed in secondary outcome parameters, including increased quality of life (WHO-5: +4.5±4.94, p<0.001, d=0.94), reduced anxiety (HADS-A: -2.1±2.91, p<0001, d=0.55) and depression (HADS-D: -2.3±3.01, p<0.001, d=0.65), decreases in body weight (-3.6 kg ± 1.65, p< 0.001, d=0.21), and blood pressure (systolic: -6.2±15.93, p<0.001, d= 0.43; diastolic: -3.7±10.55, p<0.001, d=0.43). Results suggest that patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremities may profit from a prolonged fast embedded in a multimodal integrative treatment regarding quality of life, pain, and disease-specific functional parameters. Confirmatory RCTs are warranted to further investigate these hypotheses.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; skills development; online distance learning; credentials; open badges; blockchain; sustainable livelihoods; sustainable mountain development; traditional knowledge; culture; Kyrgyzstan; Central Asia
Online: 27 March 2020 (03:07:11 CET)
Mountain and pastoralist societies around the world have for centuries sustained their livelihoods and cultures by accumulating specialist knowledge about their local and regional socio-ecological environments. Developing traditional knowledge and customary practices takes time, sometimes spanning across generations. As macro-level changes to social and natural environment are now taking place, such as globalization and climate change, local communities could potentially also benefit from complementary, suitably adapted educational opportunities for sustainable development. However, access to education has often required moving to urban centres, which can weaken community structures and cohesion, and could also foster increased dependence on external specialists, providers or decision-makers. Careful introduction of emerging Educational Technologies could alleviate and possibly reverse such trends as mobile Internet access spreads to remote areas. This paper examines the role of education in sustainable development and specifically explores the potential for two educational innovations, open badges and blockchain, to provide a new construct for transformation in sustainable development amongst mountain and pastoralist societies. These technologies could not only facilitate education through online distance learning, but also allow geographically remote populations to highlight the value of their traditional knowledge and to engage more comprehensively in their changing worlds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ethnobotany; traditional ecological knowledge; Waorani; indigenous communities; Ecuadorian Amazon; medicinal plants; loss of knowledge; globalization; global change; acculturation; socio-cultural changes
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:59:53 CEST)
This paper explores how the medicinal plant knowledge of the Waorani indigenous society in Ecuador varies in accordance with both socio-economic and demographic factors. Medicinal plant knowledge was compared at both individual and community levels. Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews (men n = 30, women n = 29) were performed with people between fifteen and seventy years old in five Waorani communities located within the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Results show a positive correlation between an individual’s medicinal plant knowledge and age, a negative correlation between medicinal plant knowledge and the years of schooling, and differences among isolated and easily accessible communities. Reasons behind these findings are seen in the rapid socio-cultural changes of the Waorani society due to globalization processes. Increased accessibility to health centers, improved transportation infrastructure and changes in how knowledge is transmitted to young people all result in a loss of ethnobotanical knowledge. Policymakers need to take action in order to ensure the maintenance of ethnoecological knowledge among the Waorani.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0921.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Stenomesson miniatum; Amaryllidaceae alkaloids; Urceolina peruviana; 13C-NMR-based dereplication; A431 human epidermoid carcinoma; skin cancer; Jurkat cells; artefact; Andean traditional medicine
Online: 12 May 2023 (10:12:45 CEST)
The fresh bulbs of Stenomesson miniatum, a plant belonging to Amaryllidaceae family with a poorly investigated phytochemical profile, were traditionally employed by Andean healers to treat tumors and abscesses. The aims of this study were to characterize the alkaloid extract from the bulbs of S. miniatum and test its cytotoxic and antibacterial potential. The alkaloid extract was characterized by dereplication using various techniques (CPC, NMR, UPLC-HRMS) and referring to in-home or online databases for spectroscopic data matching. Cytotoxic activities were evaluated on A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells through a metabolic assay, and on Jurkat human acute T-leukemia cells through a cell-impermeant fluorescent nuclear probe. Antibacterial assays were carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes by using a standardized microdilution broth method 96-well plate. Eleven known Amaryllidaceae alkaloids were identified together with another compound determined as being an extraction artefact. The alkaloid extract showed good cytotoxic activity against both the tumor cell lines, reaching an IC50 of 3.3 µg/mL against A431 cells and of 10.9 µg/mL against Jurkat cells. The analysis of the fractions allowed the activity to be attributed to the presence of pretazettine and haemathamine. Conversely, no antibacterial activities were recorded for any of the samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0378.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: therapeutic landscapes; therapeutic environments; Indigenous knowledge; Mātauranga Māori; Rongoā Māori; traditional healing; health and well-being; cultural landscapes; cultural geography; landscape architecture
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:12:15 CET)
Although research has long established that the interaction with the natural environment is associated with better overall health and well-being outcomes, the Western model mainly focuses on treating the symptoms. In Aotearoa-New Zealand, the Indigenous Māori have long demonstrated significantly more negative health outcomes than non-Māori. Little research has examined the causes compared to Western populations or the role of the natural environment in health outcomes for Māori. An exploration of rongoā Māori (traditional healing system) was conducted to ascertain the importance of landscape in the process of healing. Eight rongoā healers or practitioners took part in semi-structured narrative interviews from June to November 2020. Transcribed interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis and Kaupapa Māori techniques. The findings show how rongoā is underpinned by a complex set of cultural values and beliefs, drawing from the connection to wairua (spirit), tinana (body), tikanga and whakaora (customs and healing), rākau (plants), whenua (landscape) and whānau (family). Incorporating such constructs into the landscape can foster our understanding of health and well-being and its implications for conceptualising therapeutic environments and a culturally appropriate model of care for Māori and non-Māori communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0414.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ethnobotanical indices; ethnobotanical uses; native and exotic species; local community; semi-structured interviews; natural resources in mountains areas; traditional knowledge and manage-ment; ornamental plants
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:51:58 CEST)
Iturbide is located in the Northeast of Mexico, it has a rich native and exotic flora, however, there are no ethnobotanical records, therefore, it requires attention in the documentation of traditional practices and uses of its botanical resources. In 2021, twelve field trips were carried out, applying 110 semi-structured interviews. Plant samples were collected, identified and deposited in an herbarium. We used the Chi-square test to compare ethnobotanical uses with respect to others reported in Mexico. To determine the cultural importance, three ethnobotanical indices were applied (UVI, ICF and FL). We recorded 250 species with ethnobotanical uses associated with 121 genera and 83 families, including 140 native and 110 exotic species. The most common plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Fabaceae. The main uses were ornamental, medicinal and food. The species with the highest UVI values were Lepidium peruvianum, Ocimum basilicum and Rosmarinus officinale. The multifunctionality of the native and exotic flora demonstrates the extensive knowledge associated with botanical resources. Examples, the role of ornamental plants, with a direct impact on human well-being, the resilience of healers and traditional inhabitants by using different species for the treatment of various ailments. or indigenous edible plants in the daily diet.