ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0372.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchian; IoT; CoAP; MQTT; REST: Traceability
Online: 20 January 2023 (10:29:38 CET)
IoT is a computational perception that defines a situation, where smart objects are interconnected to the internet/ network. In the last few years, IoT objects have increased in all sectors/ fields and use in all domains of our lives. As the number of devices increases, the privacy of data becomes an important issue. To deal with this issue different techniques have been used by researchers in this field. Unfortunately, these methods have less traceability, privacy of data, and accountability. This paper aims to design a blockchain-based network architecture for Traceability, Data privacy, and Accountability (TDA). Technologies of blockchain are known as a distributed ledger of transactions record, which record the life span information with a timestamp. The major features of blockchain are persistency, decentralization, and audibility. These features help to decrease the budget and increase efficiency. Moreover, to strengthen the TDA architecture, this paper also discusses the performance of the proposed architecture.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: agroecology; participatory research; web application; traceability
Online: 17 December 2021 (15:07:16 CET)
Agroecology, defined as the ecological science of food production is also as practical approach to design food production systems based on local concerted solutions that aim to promote synergy among the diversity of human and non human food systems elements. These two facets makes agroecology a good candidate for participatory research. Information technology should help using this information for the production of structured scientific knowledge. In this respect, there is a need for information technology that is adaptive to encompass the diversity of within and between systems and that provide benefit to farmers that feed it with data. We present MiCampoApp, a webapp that aims to join participatory research and certification in agroecology, with two roles, the farmer and the administrator. The idea to join participatory research for decision support with certification for market differentiation in single system is that much of the certification data harbors information for scientific research, and this incentivize data collection for the interest of the farmer and the community. The administrator create a model for data collection in order to solve a research question of interest for a communities or to produce traceability information to feed participatory guarantee system in a community. The farmer collects information using simple icons and produces traceability pages for research or certification purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Agriculture; Traceability; Food Supply chain; Crops.
Online: 1 November 2021 (16:04:00 CET)
In recent years, Blockchain has been favorably adopted in the Supply Chain industry as it provides guaranteed transparency and traceability. The flexibility of Blockchain allows different applications to enable to exchange information; a significant middleweight layer is responsible for information transfer in the Agricultural Sector. The products that are manufactured at a global level in the agriculture industry are improved in safety, validation of some criteria, and quality. In the agriculture industry, the increasing number of complications associated with food safety and impurity risks needs high-level effective traceability solutions that act as necessary quality management tools to make sure satisfactory safety of crops. The agricultural supply chain today has complex ecosystems, consisting of several stockholders to authenticate criteria which are important like crop development stages, monitoring and validation, and compliance with the quality standard. In this proposed research, a systematic literature review will be done that includes smart contracts, Blockchain, and business transactions exclusively for crop production traceability across the agricultural and food supply chain. By using Blockchain in the agriculture sector, productivity, consistency, safety, reliability, and advanced security are increased. All transactions are kept and recorded on the immutable record of Blockchain associates with a decentralized system. Thus, it provides more traceability and clarity in the agriculture system in asafe, trustworthy, and effective way. A systematic literature review is thus enforced to classify the papers which are selected by the following classification: crop traceability, contribution type, research type, and their approach. For this systematic review, the papers which extracted are classified according to defined criteria. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by collecting and analyzing studies available within the literature aiming to firstly, gain complete insight on the integration of Blockchain in the agriculture sector. Secondly, provide a summary of the present state of research on this area and identify gaps in existing studies. To achieve this aim an SLR was conducted. The findings of this SLR are discussed and researchers were provided with suggestions on possible directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Rice; Supply chain traceability; Quality control
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:34:45 CEST)
Rice is the grain feeds more than half of the world population. It is an important staple food provides twenty percent of the calories consumed worldwide. Food safety affects the health of consumers. Establishing an effective traceability system is one of the primary measures to protect rice quality and food safety. Blockchain-based traceability system has the characteristics of data tamper-proofing, decentralization, and co-governance. This paper proposed a rice traceability scheme based on blockchain technology that selects the critical nodes in the rice industry chain to construct a blockchain network to achieve transparent data sharing. It is meaningful for both enterprises and consumers. It can let enterprises get the real quality information of rice and related raw materials. Consumers can get the true information of rice and rice products to buy safe and healthy food. The scheme is proved feasible by simulating the traceability of the rice supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: traceability; granularity; influence factors; empirical analysis; vegetable companies
Online: 12 April 2023 (05:50:12 CEST)
Evaluating the efficacy of the traceability systems (TS) plays an important role not only for planning system implementation before development, but also for analyzing system performance once the system is in use. In the present work, we evaluate the traceability granularity using a comprehensive and quantifiable model and try find its influencing factors via an empirical analysis with 80 vegetable companies in Tianjin city, China. Granularity indicators were collected mostly by the TS platform to ensure the objectivity of the data, and the granularity score was evaluated by using a TS granularity model. The results show a clear imbalance in the distribution of companies as a function of score. The number of companies (21) scoring in the range [50,60] exceeded the number in the other score ranges. Furthermore, the influencing factors on traceability granularity were analyzed by using a rough set method based on nine factors pre-selected by using a published method. The results show that the factor “number of TS operation staff” is deleted because it is unimportant. The remaining factors rank according to importance as follows: Expected revenue > Supply chain (SC) integration degree > Cognition of TS > Certification system > Company sales > Informationization management level > System maintenance investment > Manager education level. Based on these results, the corresponding implications are given with the goal of (i) establishing the market mechanism of high price with high quality, (ii) increasing government investment for constructing the TS, and (iii) enhancing the organization of SC companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0246.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: food safety; sustainability; RFID; technology; fisheries; consumption; traceability
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:35:05 CEST)
At present, sustainability and emerging technology are the most expressed issues in any supply chain management (SCM) sector. At the same time, pandemic makes consumers more concerned regarding health, and safe food with a sustainable way to access the current market. Thus, supervision and monitoring of product quality with symmetric traceability information in fresh food and fisheries SCM is significant. Research on food safety and traceability systems based on blockchain, internet of service (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSN), and radio frequency identification (RFID) provides the solution of constancy from production to consumption. This review focused on the RFID-based traceability systems in fisheries SCM, which have been employed globally in the last fifteen years to ensure fish quality and security. Additionally, a summarized comparison study has presented different sectors’ traceability systems using RFID and their advantages over real-time applications. The outcome of this study will help future researchers to solve the crisis in terms of trust between consumers and the fisheries SCM. Thus, this review would be a guideline and solution for enhancing the reliability of RFID-based traceability in food SCM systems to ensure the integrity and reducing the opacity and asymmetry in the product information.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: machine tool metrology; temperature; uncertainty; traceability; error sources
Online: 2 May 2017 (04:35:18 CEST)
Errors during manufacture of high value components are not acceptable nowadays in driving industries such as energy and transportation. Sectors such as aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding, nuclear power, large science facilities or wind power manufacture complex and accurate components that demand close measurements and fast feedback into manufacturing processes. New measuring technologies are already available in machine tools, including integrated touch probes and fast interface capabilities. They shall provide the possibility to measure the workpiece during or after the manufacturing process, maintaining the original setup of the workpiece and avoiding the manufacturing process from being interrupted to transport the workpiece to a measuring position. However, the traceability of the measurement process on a machine tool is not ensured yet and measurement data is still not fully reliable for process control or product validation. Due to the similarity between a coordinate measuring machine and a machine tool, some of the methods applied for a correct assessment of uncertainty in coordinate measuring machines are adapted to the challenges of a machine tool. The scientific objective is to determine the uncertainty on a machine tool measurement and, in this way, convert it into a machine integrated traceable measuring process. This paper reviews the fundamentals of machine tool metrology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0355.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Davao Gulf; fisheries management; small-scale fisheries; tuna fisheries; traceability
Online: 19 January 2023 (09:49:02 CET)
Traceability is the ability to determine the path of a product from purchase to consumption to determine when and where it originated. This paper aimed to determine the factors that influence fishers’ decision-making to participate in tuna traceability program, it also explores the determinants of fish catch for small-scale fishers and the feasibility of implementing tuna traceability in the Davao Gulf, Philippines. The result of the interview showed that the significant factors that highly affected the decision-making of fishers in implementating tuna traceability program: boat capacity, fishing hours and communication of fishers (P≤0.05). Household size, years in community, fishing hours, volume of fish sold, and the fishers' communication in the fishing ground (P≤0.05) were other factors that determined the daily catch of the fishers. The results of this study showed that fishers from the Davao Gulf were willing to be part of traceability program that would sustain and increase the value of their fish catch. Moreover, communication was shown to be critically needed in such programs adjusting it for the fish catch to remain fresh or of good quality. Our study will help in deterring and mitigating illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing (IUU) through fish catch traceability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0396.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wind lidar; Doppler lidar; bistatic; metrology; traceability; wind energy; meteorology
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:45:02 CEST)
The high-resolution bistatic lidar developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) aims to overcome the limitations of conventional monostatic lidar technology which is widely used for wind velocity measurements in wind energy and meteorology applications. Due to the large measurement volume of a combined optical transmitter and receiver tilting in multiple directions, monostatic lidar generally has poor spatial and temporal resolution. It also exhibits large measurement uncertainty when operated in inhomogeneous flow, for instance, over complex terrain. In contrast, PTB’s bistatic lidar uses three dedicated receivers arranged around a central transmitter, resulting in an exceptionally small measurement volume. The coherent detection and modulation schemes used allow the detection of backscattered, Doppler shifted light down to the scale of single aerosols, realising the simultaneous measurement of all three wind velocity components. This paper outlines design details and the theory of operation of PTB’s bistatic lidar and provides an overview of selected comparative measurements. The results of these measurements have shown that the measurement uncertainty of PTB’s bistatic lidar is well within the measurement uncertainty of traditional cup anemometers, while being fully independent of its site and traceable to the SI units. This allows its use as a transfer standard for the calibration of other remote sensing devices. Overall, PTB’s bistatic lidar shows great potential to universally improve the capability and accuracy of wind velocity measurements, such as for the investigation of highly dynamic flow processes upstream and in the wake of wind turbines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; confocal microscopy; measurement; calibration; traceability; uncertainty; quality assessment
Online: 12 November 2019 (07:56:55 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a promising new technology that is having a very fast growth from home workshops to high-tech cutting-edge factories. As any manufacturing technique, adequate metrology services are needed to assure the quality of items manufactured by AM. One of the most widely used instruments to measure the characteristics of surfaces manufactured with AM is the confocal microscope. In this paper, authors present a whole calibration procedure for confocal microscopes designed to be implemented preferably in workshops or industrial environments rather than in research and development departments. Because of that, it is as simple as possible. The procedure is designed without forgetting any of the key aspects that need to be taken into account and based on classical reference material standards. These standards can be easily found in industrial dimensional laboratories and easily calibrated in accredited calibration laboratories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0151.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Circular Economy; Traceability; Sustainability; BPMN; Eco-Gamification; Textiles and Clothing Value Chain
Online: 9 February 2023 (01:24:56 CET)
The Textile and Clothing (T\&C) value chain is one of the most polluting in the world and one that produces the most waste. It is, therefore, important to encourage the Circular Economy (CE) model in this sector, to reduce pollution and mitigate the effects of waste production, and consequently increase environmental sustainability. For that, the involvement of the final consumer is essential. And, the final consumer's use of an Eco-gamified application for registering and promoting Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) and Consumer-to-Business (C2B) activities, which extends the life time of textile products, is of utmost importance. In this article, we survey gamification frameworks for analyzing system design level techniques that enable engaging the final consumer in the CE process. Then, we select and use one of such frameworks, Gameful Design Heuristics (GDH), for defining the gamification structure needed to implement on a Business-to-Consumer-to-Consumer (B2C2C) context of a circular economy. As result, we present a B2C2C circular business process model for the T\&C value chain, and propose the design model of a gamified platform for the final consumers, which allows them to register the C2B and C2C activities, from the circular value chain's business process, and benefit from a game-like experience. All model features have been mapped to GDH framework heuristics, validating that it is possible to support a set of defined heuristics of applied gamification for promoting CE in the T\&C value chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0014.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: lattice-based group signatures; verifier-local revocation; anonymity; almost-full anonymity; traceability
Online: 1 August 2018 (10:00:31 CEST)
Efficient member revocation and strong security against attacks are prominent requirements in group signature schemes. Among the revocation approaches Verifier-local revocation is the most flexible and efficient method since it requires to inform only the verifiers regarding the revoked members. The verifier-local revocation technique uses a token system to manage members’ status. However, the existing group signature schemes with verifier-local revocability rely on weaker security. On the other hand, existing static group signature schemes rely on a stronger security notion called, full-anonymity. Achieving the full-anonymity for group signature schemes with verifier-local revocation is a quite challenging task. This paper aims to obtain stronger security for the lattice-based group signature schemes with verifier-local revocability, which is closer to the full-anonymity. Moreover, this paper delivers a new key-generation method which outputs revocation tokens without deriving from the users’ signing keys. By applying the tracing algorithm given in group signature schemes for static groups, this paper also outputs an efficient tracing mechanism. Thus, we deliver a new group signature scheme with verifier-local revocation that satisfies a stronger security from lattices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Locavore, Locally produced foods, Health consciousness, Traceability, Price consciouness, Taste, Social Responsibility.
Online: 17 March 2017 (22:05:04 CET)
ABSTRACT After locavore was chosen as “the best word of the year” in 2007, its popularity increased gradually. Today great number of locavores consciously prefer locally produced food for the benefit of themselves and their community. Undoubtedly this conscious movement has its consequences in marketing discipline. Accordingly, this paper is purposed to examine the how locavore perceptions affect loyalty towards retailers that sell locally produced food. In this context, a survey was applied to people residing in Istanbul and Kocaeli districts to measure the robustness of these effects. Furthermore, attitude towards locavore is used as a control variable to reveal to what extend locavorism affects these proposed connections. According to results, for participants with low attitude, Social Responsibility and Health Consciousness variables have significant effect on local retailer shopping loyalty. However, for participants with high attitude, all independent variables proved to have substantial effect on local retailer shopping loyalty. As the first empirical study in Turkey on the subject, this paper will provide important insight to academia and practicioners due to today’s ever-increasing consciousness in green marketing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Circular Economy; Traceability; BPMN; Blockchain; IoT; Electric and Electronic Equipment; EEE Value Chain
Online: 2 February 2023 (09:28:39 CET)
With the continuous growth of electric and electronic appliances’ usage, the waste produced with obsolete material (e-waste) has an increasing environmental impact. Also, the production of such appliances bears to increased consumption of natural resources and produces a multitude of toxic and hazardous substances, which typically are not properly treated. One of the approaches that may be adopted to reduce such problems relies on the circularization of the current linear model, commonly adopted in the EEE value chain. This includes recovering eol products and reintroducing its parts, components, or raw materials into the value chain (e.g. semiconductors, circuit boards, raw metals, etc.), thus contributing to a more sustainable value chain. In this article, we present a state-of-art review that focuses on approaches and solutions for the EEE value chain traceability, and analyses the technologies that may be beneficial for promoting and implementing the CE model in this value chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0569.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: amino acid analysis; AAA; protein hydrolysis; metrology; traceability; reference materials; internal standards; calibration
Online: 30 November 2022 (09:17:12 CET)
qNMR is a valuable technique for metrological studies due to the uniformity of its signal response for all chemical species of an isotope of interest, which enables compound-independent calibration. However, protein quantification remained challenging as large molecules produce wide, low-intensity signals that reduce the already low sensitivity. Combining qNMR with the hydrolysis of protein samples into amino acids circumvents many of these issues and facilitates the use of NMR spectroscopy for absolute protein and peptide quantification.In this work, different conditions have been tested for quantifying aromatic amino acids and proteins. First, we examined the pH-based signal shifts in the aromatic region. The preferable pH depends on the selection of the amino acids for quantification and which internal standard substance should be used to avoid peak overlap. Several aromatic compounds, such as terephthalic acid, sulfoisophthalic acid, and benzene tricarboxylic acid, have been applied as internal standards. The quantification of amino acids from an amino acid standard, as well as from a certified reference material (bovine serum albumin), was performed. Using the first two suggested internal standards, recovery was ~ 97 % for histidine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine at a concentration of approximately 1 mM in solution. Acidic hydrolysis of a certified reference material (CRM) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and subsequent quantification of Phe and Tyr yielded recoveries of 98 ± 2 and 88 ± 4 %, respectively, at a protein concentration of 16 g/L or 250 µM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0537.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: blockchain; fresh produce; supply chain; food safety; traceability; internet of things; smart contract
Online: 22 November 2018 (05:19:37 CET)
Blockchain is a data management innovation that allows the linkage of successive records regarding a digital entity, and to store them into a shared, decentralized, distributed and retroactively unchangeable data structure. Each bit of information related to the recorded events contains the public key of the owner, therefore, the whole record is formed by a chain of transactions with blocks of information identifying where the transaction was generated from and its current destination (Nakamoto, 2008). Blockchain is the technology behind Bitcoin, an online currency that was first introduced in 2009. The technology makes it possible to conduct business between members within the network without relying on third parties as guarantors to prove transaction integrity, thus increasing speed and reducing cost of transaction. Moreover, the transparency posed by the technology makes it possible to trace goods and services through all stages, making the technology a unique tool that can be assimilated by, for example, the Agro-food supply chain systems. Specifically, Blockchain is being tested in a pilot project in the UK meat (Beef) industry by the FSA (Food Standards Agency) and the slaughterhouses, with IBM Blockchain platform to ensure full transparency and compliance with regulations, (Evenstad, 2018). However, the uptake of Blockchain in the fresh produce (fresh and fresh, short-life processed fruit, vegetables, salads) supply chain is lagging, in the United Kingdom, and remains untested and limited to literature, models and specific case studies in the United States of America and France. The study aims at understanding how prepared stakeholders are in adopting Blockchain for their operations. An inductive qualitative method was employed through non-structured interviews with three companies and one consumer focus group. The interviews were guided by seven (7) open-ended questions, which were unstructured. The collected data was analyzed with axial coding through constant comparative methods. Seven (7) themes were identified as factors influencing the adoption of Blockchain in the fresh produce supply chain in the UK. These are, novelty of the technology, complexity of the fresh produce supply chain in UK, level of product transformation, technological compatibility with operations, cost and value, Customer (retailer) push for adoption, and public/consumers opinion. The adaptation of Blockchain by the current fresh produce supply chain in the UK and the EU at large will come about when concerns on Novelty, and complexity of supply chain systems are fully addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus initiative; Farming; Food traceability; Organic Farming; Rice; Rice paddy fields; Water Management; Sentinels
Online: 20 May 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Whereas a vast literature exists on satellite-based mapping of rice paddy fields in Asia, where most of the global production takes place, little has been produced so far that focuses on the European context. Detection and mapping methods that work well in the Asian context will not offer the same performances in Europe, where different seasonal cycles, environmental contexts, and rice varieties make distinctive features dissimilar to the Asian case. In this context, water management is a key clue; watering practices are distinctive for rice with respect to other crops, and within rice there exist diverse cultivation practices including organic and non-organic approaches. In this paper, we focus on satellite-observed water management to identify rice paddy fields cultivated with a traditional agricultural approach. Building on established research results, and guided by the output of experiments on real-world cases, a new method for analysing time series of Sentinel-1 data has been developed, which can identify traditional rice fields with a high degree of reliability. This work is a part of a broader initiative to build space-based tools for collecting additional pieces of evidence to support food chain traceability; the whole system will consider various parameters, whose analysis procedures are still at their early stages of development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0073.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro onion cultivar; geographical origin; amino acids content; HPLC analysis; statistical evaluations; food traceability
Online: 6 April 2018 (09:04:47 CEST)
In the frame of a broader project, we were interested at comparing the amino acid profile in a specific variety of onion, Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro, produced in two different Italian sites: Cannara (Umbria region) and Imola (Emilia Romagna region). In both places, onions were cultivated and harvested in the same way, and irrigated by water sprinkler method. A further group of Cannara onions, growth by microirrigation, was also evaluated. After the extraction of free amino acid mixture from onion samples, an ion-pairing RP-HPLC method allowed the separation and the evaporative light scattering detection of almost all underivatized proteinogenic amino acids. However, only the peaks corresponding to Leu, Phe, Trp, were present in all the investigated samples and unaffected from matrix interfering peaks. The application of the beeswarm/box plots with the ANOVA/TukeyHSD statistical approach revealed a content of Leu and Phe markedly influenced by the geographical origin of the onions, while not by the irrigation procedure. The developed HPLC method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, LOD and LOQ, accuracy and precision, before the quantitative assay of Leu, Phe and Trp in the onion samples. Although further studies are necessary, these preliminary findings can represent a good starting point for considering the quantity of specific amino acids in the Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro variety as a fingerprint of its geographical origin. In principle, the developed approach might be applied to other onion varieties, thus contributing to their characterization and traceability, also contributing to limit commercial frauds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: essential climate variables; climate data records; earth observation satellites; quality assurance; traceability; user requirements; climate applications; surface albedo; LAI; FAPAR; NO2; HCHO; CO
Online: 11 June 2018 (11:24:59 CEST)
Data from Earth Observation (EO) satellites are increasingly used to monitor the environment, understand variability and change, inform evaluations of climate model forecasts and manage natural resources. Policy makers are progressively relying on the information derived from these datasets to make decisions on mitigating and adapting to climate change. These decisions should be evidence based, which requires confidence in derived products as well as the reference measurements used to calibrate, validate or inform product development. In support of the European Union’s Earth Observation Programmes Copernicus Climate Change Service, the Quality Assurance for Essential Climate Variables (QA4ECV) project fulfilled a gap in the delivery of climate quality satellite derived datasets by prototyping a robust, generic system for the implementation and evaluation of Quality Assurance (QA) measures for satellite-derived ECV climate data record products. The project demonstrated the QA system on six new long-term, climate quality ECV data records for surface Albedo, Leaf Area Index, FAPAR, NO2, HCHO and CO. Provision of standardized QA information provides data users with evidence-based confidence in the products and enables judgement on the fitness-for-purpose of various ECV data products their specific applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Antibody ID; antibody registry; Research Resource Identifier; RRID; reproducibility; quality control; documentation; traceability; clones; biochemical reagents; diagnostics; immunoassays; ELISA; western blot; immunohistochemistry; microarray; biosensor
Online: 15 February 2020 (15:46:27 CET)
Thousands of antibodies for diagnostic and other analytical purposes are on the market. However, it is often difficult to identify duplicates, reagent changes, and to assign the correct original publications to an antibody. This slows down scientific progress and might even be a cause of irreproducible research and a waste of resources. Recently, activities were started to suggest the sole use of recombinant antibodies in combination with the open communication of their sequence. In this case, such uncertainties should be eliminated. Unfortunately, this approach seems to be rather a long-term vision since the development and manufacturing of recombinant antibodies remain quite expensive in the foreseeable future. Also, nearly all commercial antibody suppliers may be reluctant to publish the sequence of their antibodies, since they fear counterfeiting. De-novo sequencing of antibodies is also not feasible today for a reagent user without access to the hybridoma clone. Nevertheless, it seems to be crucial for any scientist to have the opportunity to identify an antibody undoubtedly to guarantee the traceability of any research activity using antibodies from a third party as a tool. For this purpose, we developed a method for the identification of antibodies based on a MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprint. To circumvent lengthy denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and enzymatic digestion steps, the fragmentation was performed with a simple formic acid hydrolysis step. Eighty-nine unknown monoclonal antibodies were used for this study to examine the feasibility of this approach. Although the molecular assignment of peaks was rarely possible, antibodies could be easily recognized in a blinded test, simply from their mass-spectral fingerprint. A general protocol is given, which could be used without any optimization to generate fingerprints for a database. We want to propose that in most scientific projects relying critically on antibody reagents, such a fingerprint should be established to prove and document the identity of the used antibodies and to assign a specific reagent to a datasheet of a commercial supplier, a public database record or an antibody ID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0269.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: radiation thermometry; non-contact thermometry; model of radiation thermometry; direct model of radiation thermometry; inverse model of radiation thermometry; spectral emissivity; effective emissivity; instrumental emissivity; traceability; radiation thermometry for real objects
Online: 16 February 2023 (04:28:36 CET)
Despite great technical capabilities, the theory of non-contact temperature measurement is usually not fully applicable to the use of measuring instruments in practice. While black body calibrations are in practice well established and easy to accomplish, this calibration protocol is never fully applicable to measurements of real objects under real conditions. Currently, the best approximation to real world radiation thermometry is grey body radiation thermometry, which is supported by most measuring instruments to date. Nevertheless, the metrological requirements necessitate traceability, therefore real body radiation thermometry is required for temperature measurements of real bodies. This article documents the current state of temperature calculation algorithms for radiation-thermometers and the creation of a traceable model for radiation thermometry of real bodies that uses a digital twin model of the system of measurement to compensate for the loss of data, caused by spectral integration, which occurs when thermal radiation is absorbed on the active surface of the sensor. To solve this problem, a hybrid model with variable scalar inputs is proposed, in which the scalar input parameters are calculated to correspond to the system of measurement. The method for calculating the effective parameters is proposed and verified with the theoretical model of non-contact thermometry. The sum of effective instrumental parameters is presented for different temperatures to show that the rule of radiation thermometry of grey bodies, according to which the sum of instrumental emissivity and instrumental reflectivity equals to 1, does not hold in radiation thermometry for real bodies. Using the derived models of radiation thermometry, the uncertainty of radiation thermometry due to the uncertainty of spectral emissivity is analysed by simulated measurements along the temperature ranges of various radiation thermometers, enabling traceable non-contact temperature measurements with known measurement uncertainty under any known conditions.