REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: prostate cancer; ultrasonography; biopsy; micro-ultrasound; elastography; contrast-enhanced ultrasound
Online: 21 March 2022 (04:26:46 CET)
The purpose of this review is to present the current role of ultrasound-based techniques in the diagnostic pathway of prostate cancer (PCa). With overdiagnosis and overtreatment of a clinically insignificant PCa over the past years, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) became recommended for every patient suspected of PCa before performing a biopsy. It enabled targeted sampling of the suspicious prostate regions, improving the accuracy of the traditional systematic biopsy. However, mpMRI is associated with high costs, relatively low availability, long and separate procedure or exposure to the contrast agent. The novel ultrasound modalities such as shear wave elastography (SWE), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) or high frequency micro-ultrasound (MicroUS) may be capable of maintaining the performance of mpMRI without its limitations. Moreover, the real-time lesion visualization during biopsy would significantly simplify the diagnostic process. Another value of these new techniques is the ability to enhance the performance of mpMRI by creating the image fusion of multiple modalities. Such models might be further analyzed by artificial intelligence to mark the regions of interest for investigators and help to decide about the biopsy indications. The dynamic development and promising results of new ultrasound-based techniques should encourage researchers to thoroughly study their utilization in prostate imaging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: STAT3; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; renal cell carcinoma; penile cancer; testicular cancer
Online: 8 August 2022 (15:09:21 CEST)
Nowadays molecular research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and tumor cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) belongs to the family of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors called STATs which comprises seven members: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, STAT6. Those proteins play important role in cytokine-activated gene expression by transducing signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Abnormal prolonged activation results in tumorigenesis, metastasis, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibition of this transcription factor inhibits previously mentioned effects in cancer cells whereas normal cells are not affected. Hence STAT3 might be a viable target for cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node dissection; lymphadenectomy; radical prostatectomy
Online: 16 March 2022 (02:24:15 CET)
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on lymph node dissection (LND) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Despite a growing body of evidence, utility, therapeutic and prognostic value of such approach as well as optimal extent of LND, remain unsolved issues. Although LND is the most accurate staging procedure, the direct therapeutic effect is still not evident from the current literature which limits the possibility of establishing clear recommendations. This indicates the need for further robust and adequately designed high quality clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)
Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: interleukin-17; renal cell carcinoma; immunotherapy; inflammation; tumor microenviroment; tumor development; Th17 lymphocytes
Online: 21 June 2022 (05:11:36 CEST)
Nowadays molecular and immunological research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and immune system action. An example could be renal cell carcinoma (RCC) which has deep interactions with immune mediators such as Interleukin 17 (IL-17) - an inflammatory cytokine reacting to tissue damage and external pathogens. RCC is one of the most fatal urological cancer because of its often late diagnosis and poor susceptibility to therapies. IL-17 and its relation with tumors is extremely complex and constitute a recent topic for numerous research. What is worth highlighting is IL-17 dual character in cancer development - it could be pro- as well as antitumorigenic. The aim of this review is to summarize the newest data considering multiple connections between IL-17 and RCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node invasion; radical prostatectomy
Online: 11 April 2022 (14:13:34 CEST)
Lymph node invasion in prostate cancer is a significant prognostic factor indicating worse prognosis. While it affects significantly both survival rates and recurrence, proper management remains a heated issue. Thorough evaluation of risk factors associated with nodal involvement, such as lymph node density or extracapsular extension, is crucial to establish potential expansion of the disease and to substratify patients clinically. There are multiple strategies that may be taken into consideration for patients with positive lymph nodes. Nowadays therapeutic methods are generally based on observation, radiotherapy, and androgen deprivation therapy. However current guidelines are incoherent in terms of indication of the most effective management approach. Future management strategies will be expected to reach for novel diagnostic tools and therapies, such as photodynamic therapy or diagnostic imaging with prostate specific membrane antigen. Nevertheless, this heterogeneous group of men remains a vast therapeutic concern, and both clarification of the guidelines and optimal substratification of patients is required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CD15; Lewis X; Lex; Cancer; Therapy
Online: 10 March 2022 (04:15:33 CET)
CD15 (Lewis X/Lex) is a fucosyl (3-fucosly-N-acetyl-lactosamine) moiety found on membrane proteins of various cancer cells. These include renal cancer, prostate and bladder cancers, acute leukemias, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer and melanoma. The antigen plays an espe-cially significant role in renal cell carcinoma. Its high expression serves as a good prognostic marker for patients and high hopes are related to its use in the immunotherapy of the tumor. The biological role of CD15 is the interaction with E-, L- and P-selectins (adhesion molecules) and al-lowing for the adhesion with the endothelial cells. In this way, cancer cells start to interact with the endothelium of blood vessels and consequently move out from the blood flow to the sur-rounding tissues. The blockage of antigen’s function results in reduced metastatic potential. Moreover, the molecule may be a therapeutic target against cancer in monoclonal antibod-ies-based therapies. CD15s is a sialyl derivative of CD15, that possess its own unique characteris-tics. Unlike high expression of CD15, which is a prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma, CD15s relate to poor prognosis for the patients. Due to the high abundance in cancer cells, CD15 is con-sidered as a marker of Cancer Stem Cells. This review presents a comprehensive description of the role of CD15 and CD15s in cancer development and metastasis and overviews the clinical appli-cations of the anti-CD15 therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: bladder cancer; clinically positive lymph nodes; diagnosis; treatment; lymphadenectomy
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:05:05 CEST)
The purpose of this review is to present the current knowledge about the diagnostic and treatment options in bladder cancer (BCa) patients with clinically positive lymph nodes (cN+). In this review compaction of CT and MRI performance in preoperative prediction of lymph node invasion (LNI) in BCa patients was presented, along with other diagnostic methods. Most scientific societies do not distinguish cN+ patients in their guidelines, recommendations concern muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and differ between associations. Currently, the standard treatment of patients with MIBC is radical cystectomy (RC) with bilateral pelvic lymph node dis-section (PLND). The template of PLND and its therapeutic value remain debatable. Moreover, most guidelines recommend neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, there is still lack of definitive evidence of the superiority of neoadjuvant chemotherapy over adjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the curative treatment that provides the best long-term survival in cN+ patients is a multimodal approach with a combination of chemotherapy and RC. Recent studies demonstrate the growing importance of immunotherapy. Special attention should be paid to cN+ BCa patients as the oncological outcomes are significantly worse for this group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0387.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: upper tract urothelial carcinoma; radical nephroureterectomy; ureteroscopy; oncological outcomes.
Online: 16 July 2021 (16:17:14 CEST)
Background: The incidence of intravesical recurrence (IVR) following radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is reported in up to 50% of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). It was suggested that preoperative diagnostic ureteroscopy (URS) could increase the IVR rate after RNU, however, the available data are often conflicting. Thus, in this systematic review and meta-analysis we sought to synthesize that available data for the impact of pre-RNU URS for UTUC on IVR and other oncological outcomes; Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was performed in June 2020. Cumulative analyses of hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were conducted. The primary endpoint was intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), with the secondary endpoints being cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS); Results: Among a total of 5489 patients included in the sixteen selected papers, 2387 (43.4%) underwent diagnostic URS before RNU and 3102 (56.6%) did not. Pre-RNU diagnostic URS was significantly associated with worse IVRFS after RNU (HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.29-1.61, p<0.001) than RNU alone. However, subgroup analysis including patients without biopsy during URS revealed no significant impact of diagnostic URS on IVRFS (HR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.90-1.80, p=0.16). The results of other analyses showed no significant differences in CSS (HR=0.94, p=0.63), OS (HR: 0.94, p=0.56), and MFS (HR: 0.91, p=0.37) between patients who underwent URS before RNU and those who did not. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis confirm that diagnostic URS prior to RNU is significantly associated with worse IVRFS, albeit with no concurrent impact on the other long-term survival outcomes. Our results indicate that URS has a negative impact on IVRFS only when combined with endoscopic biopsy. Future studies are warranted to assess the role of immediate postoperative intravesical chemotherapy in patients undergoing biopsy during URS for suspected UTUC.