ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0583.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: CNC Machine Tool; Plasma; Surface Heat Treatment
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:47:11 CEST)
The mechanical engineering requires heat treatment after rough machining to reach the mechanical strength, but the heat treatment can induce workpiece deformation, so that the workpiece cannot be reworked. In this study, the plasma was integrated with a lathe, and the on line heat treatment was performed to achieve the mechanical strength and hardness, so as to reduce the machining process and handling. However, for on line heat treatment, it is important to study the machine and plasma parameters of the lathe and plasma, and the research method is used eventually to optimize the process, reduce the machining cost and machining error. The variable factors in surface on line real-time heat treatment are revolution, feed rate and current, the objective function is the hardness of mechanical properties. In the screening experiment, the interaction of factors was discussed using full factorial experiment. The Central Composite Design was combined with the Lack-of-Fit test for optimization experiment, the R2 coefficient was used to determine whether the regression model is appropriate. The optimum parameters were derived from the contour diagram and response surface diagram. The experimental results show that the significant factors include revolution, feed rate and current, the optimum parameters include revolution 168rpm, feed rate 0.068mm/rev and current 86A. The experimental results of optimum parameters show that the surface hardness is increased from 306HLD to 806HLD, the surface hardening effect is enhanced by 163%, so the on line real-time heat treatment equipment has a best hardening effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: homeobox; oncogenesis; EMT; immunosuppression; IL6
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:56:10 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer, and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths each year. It involves a multi-step progression and is strongly associated with chronic inflammation induced by the intake of environmental toxins and/or viral infections (i.e., hepatitis B and C viruses). Although several genetic dysregulations are considered to be involved in disease progression, the detailed regulatory mechanisms are not well defined. Homeobox (Hox) genes that encode transcription factors with homeodomains control cell growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis in embryonic development. Recently, more aberrant expressions of Hox genes were found in a wide variety of human cancer, including HCC. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence related to the role of Hox genes in the development of HCC. The objective is to determine the roles of this conserved transcription factor family and its potential use as a therapeutic target in future investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SsArf6; hyphal growth; appressorium formation; stress response; virulence; melanin
Online: 20 November 2023 (14:51:57 CET)
The ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6), as the only member of the Arf family III protein, has been extensively studied for its diverse biological functions in animals. Previously, the Arf6 protein in Magnaporthe oryzae was found to be crucial for endocytosis and polarity establishment during asexual development. However, its role remains unclear in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Here, we identified and characterized SsArf6 in S. sclerotiorum using a reverse genetic approach. Deletion of SsArf6 impaired hyphal growth and development, and produced more branches. Interestingly, knockout of SsArf6 enhanced the tolerance of S. sclerotiorum to oxidative stress but the sensitivity to osmotic stress, and increased melanin accumulation, indicative of different roles of SsArf6 in various stress responses. Moreover, the appressorium formation was severely impaired, and fungal virulence to host plants was significantly reduced. Overall, our findings demonstrate the essential role of SsArf6 in hyphal development, stress responses, appressorium formation, and fungal virulence to host plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Thyroid hormones; thyroid hormone transporters; MCT8; OATP1C1; human; monkey; basal ganglia; motor thalamus; MSN cells; nucleus basalis of Meynert
Online: 20 April 2023 (03:25:07 CEST)
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1) are thyroid hormones (TH) transmembrane transporters relevant for the availability of TH in neural cells, crucial for their proper development and function. Mutations in MCT8 or OATP1C1 result in severe disorders with dramatic movement disability related to alterations in basal ganglia motor circuits. Mapping the expression of MCT8/OATP1C1 in those circuits is necessary to explain their involvement in motor control. We studied the distribution of both transporters in the neuronal subpopulations that configure the direct and indirect basal ganglia motor circuits using immunohistochemistry and double/multiple labeling immunofluorescence for TH transporters and neuronal biomarkers. We found their expression in the medium-sized spiny neurons of the striatum (the receptor neurons of the corticostriatal pathway), and in various types of its local microcircuitry interneurons, including the cholinergic. We also demonstrate the presence of both transporters in projection neurons of intrinsic and output nuclei of the basal ganglia, motor thalamus and nucleus basalis of Meynert, suggesting an important role of MCT8/OATP1C1 for modulating the motor system. Our findings suggest that a lack of function of these transporters in the basal ganglia circuits would significantly impact motor system modulation, leading to clinically severe movement impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0808.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; education; international students; personalized learning; adaptive learning; predictive analytics; chatbots
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:57:02 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in education has the potential to revolutionize the learning experience for international students, who face unique challenges when studying in a foreign country. This paper explores various examples of AI applications in education and their potential impact on international students. AI applications such as personalized learning experiences, adaptive testing, predictive analytics, and chatbots for learning and research are examined for their potential to improve learning efficiency and provide customized education support. It also explores the significant risks and limitations associated with AI technologies, such as privacy, cultural differences, language proficiency, and ethical implications. To maximize the potential benefits of AI applications in higher education, it is crucial to implement appropriate safeguards and regulations. This paper provides a starting point for research on the potential impact of artificial intelligence on international students’ educational experiences and how AI may be integrated into educational administration and learning processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0332.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Angiogenesis; Pulmonary hypertension; Endothelium; PHD2 Deficiency; Hypoxia
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:51:47 CET)
Endothelial autocrine signaling is essential to maintain vascular hemostasis. There is limited in-formation about the role of endothelial autocrine signaling in regulating severe pulmonary vas-cular remodeling during the onset of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this study, we employed the first severe PAH mouse model, Egln1Tie2Cre (Tie2Cre-mediated disruption of Egln1) mice, to identify the novel autocrine signaling mediating the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) hyperproliferation and the pathogenesis of PAH. PVECs isolated from Egln1Tie2Cre lung expressed upregulation of many growth factors or angiocrine factors such as CXCL12, and exhib-ited hyperproliferative phenotype in coincident with upregulation of proliferation specific tran-scriptional factor FoxM1. Treatment of CXCL12 on PVECs increased FoxM1 expression, which was blocked by CXCL12 receptor CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 in culture human PVECs. Endo-thelial specific deletion of Cxcl12 (Egln1/Cxcl12Tie2 Cre) or AMD3100 treatment in Egln1Tie2Cre mice downregulated FoxM1 expression in vivo. We then generated and characterized a novel mouse model with endothelial specific FoxM1 deletion in Egln1Tie2Cre mice (Egln1/Foxm1Tie2Cre), and found that endothelial FoxM1 deletion reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular systolic pressure. Together, our study identified a novel mechanism of endothelial autocrine sig-naling in regulating PVECs hyperproliferation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1403.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: oilfield deformation; MSBAS-InSAR; the Qaidam Basin; geophysical models
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:32:43 CET)
Time series ground deformation monitoring and reservoir parameter inversion are crucial for the dynamic assessment of oilfield resources and sustainable exploitation in an oilfield. As one of the regions with the richest oil reserves in China, the oilfield areas in the western Qaidam Basin are selected as a typical study area. Firstly, we used SAR images collected by the Sentinel-1A satellite from January 2021 to December 2022 and applied the Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) method to obtain vertical and east-west deformation measurements. On this basis, a nonlinear Bayesian inversion method was applied to model the shallow reservoir in a series of complex deformation areas, based on a single-source model and a multi-source model, respectively. As a result, the ground deformation monitoring results obtained by long time series InSAR clearly reflect the uneven ground deformation caused by the oil extraction and water injection operation process. There is slight subsidence in the Huatugou oilfield, while significant uplift deformation occurred in the Ganchaigou oilfield and the Youshashan oilfield, with a maximum uplift rate of 48 mm/year. Further analysis indicates that the introduction of the 2D deformation field helps to improve the robustness of oilfield reservoir parameter inversion. Moreover, the dual-source model is more suitable than the single-source model for inverting complex deformation reservoir parameters. This study not only fills the blank of InSAR deformation monitoring for the oilfields in the western Qaidam Basin but also provides a theoretical reference for model and method selection of reservoir parameter inversion in other oilfields.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Embolization; Onyx; SEDAVF; Trans-arterial; VCF; Spine
Online: 14 December 2020 (15:42:16 CET)
Introduction: Spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas (SEDAVFs) are extremely rare and the pathological process still remains unclear. Nevertheless, neurofibromatosis, surgery, as well as trauma have been implicated as causes. Nevertheless, long standing chronic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) as a cause of SEDAVFs has not been reported in literature. Case Presentation: Our cases comprised of a male and female with ages 67 and 62 year respectively. They presented with weakness of bilateral lower extremities and back pain. Their symptoms deteriorated into mild recto-bladder dysfunction as well as hypoesthesia of lower limbs. They both had history of road traffic accidents (RTAs) prior to their symptomatology. In both cases, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed VCFs prior to the above symptomatology. Spinal digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to confirm SEDAVFs in both cases. We utilized the trans-arterial route with Onyx embolization agent to obliterate both fistulae and their symptom resolved after the embolization. Two-years follow-ups revealed no recurrence of their fistulae. Conclusion: The initial long standing VCFs caused by trauma resulted in perforation of the dorsal somatic branches of the radicular artery leading to the occurrences of SEDAVFs in our cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Metronomic Breathing (MB); Cardiac rehabilitation; acute myocardial infarction; efficacy.
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:18:02 CET)
Background: Respiratory rehabilitation is a crucial component of cardiac recovery. This study primarily investigates the effectiveness of a novel respiratory rehabilitation technique known as Metronomic Breathing (MB) on cardiac recovery in post-PCI acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and compliance with home-based rehabilitation compared to traditional respiratory rehabilitation methods. Methods: From June 2022 to March 2023, 55 AMI patients admitted to the Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital Cardiovascular Department were consecutively enrolled. They were randomly divided into the MB and control groups, which underwent conventional abdominal breathing training. Afterwards, hemodynamic indicators and compliance with home-based rehabilitation were compared between the two groups. Results: After the intervention in the MB group, several cardiac functional parameters (SV, SVI, CO, CI, LCW, LCWI), myocardial contractility parameter (VI), and systemic vascular resistance parameters (SVR, SVRI) were significantly higher compared to the pre-intervention levels, with a significant difference (P < 0.05). Furthermore, post-treatment, the MB group exhibited higher values for SV, SVI, CO, CI, and VI, lower SVR, SVRI, and SBP and a lower readmission rate three months later than the control group. Moreover, the MB group displayed higher compliance with home-based cardiac rehabilitation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Compared to conventional respiratory rehabilitation training methods, Metronomic respiratory therapy is more effective in the short term for reducing systemic vascular resistance, enhancing left ventricular ejection function, and increasing home-based rehabilitation compliance in patients following AMI with PCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0245.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: La Palma; volcano eruption; lithosphere; atmosphere; ionosphere; AGW; LAIC
Online: 4 July 2023 (14:02:58 CEST)
On 19 September 2021, La Palma volcano (Canarias Archipelagos) started an eruption that persisted until 13 December 2021. Despite the Volcano Explosive Index (VEI) being estimated equal to 3, corresponding to not so powerful eruption, the long eruption activity posed much scientific in-terest in this natural hazard event. In this paper, we searched for possible effects of this eruption on the atmosphere and ionosphere, investigating the climatological archive and Swarm magnetic satellite data. In particular, we explored Aerosol, Sulphur Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide con-centrations in the atmosphere identifying both the direct emissions from the volcano as well as the plume that drifted toward West-South-West and was reinforced during the eruption period. The vertical profile of temperature from the Saber satellite was analysed to search for the possible presence of acoustic gravity waves induced by volcanic activity. Compared with the year before without eruption in the areas, a lot of Saber profiles present an Energy Potential very much higher than the previous year, proposing the presence of Acoustic Gravity Waves (AGW) induced by volcano eruption activity. We also identified Swarm magnetic disturbances on the day of the eruption and in November. The mechanism of coupling could be different for the latter one, as there is no evidence for AGW. They may be due to a more complex of physical and chemical al-terations that propagate from the lower atmosphere to the upper one into the ionosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1674.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cisplatin resistance; Z-Ligustilide; cell cycle arrest; cell apoptosis; phospholipid synthesis; PLPP1
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:44:55 CEST)
Z-ligustilide is a main active ingredient in the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine. Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapy drug for the treatment of lung cancer. Efficacy is often limited by the development of drug resistance after long-term treatment. Here, we investigated the effect of the combination of Z-ligustilide and cisplatin (Z-ligustilide+cisplatin) on resistance of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells and its action mechanism. Cell viability was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry assay. mRNA and protein levels of factors related to cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis and RNA sequencing in A549, A549/DDP and A549/DDP cells treated with the Z-ligustilide+cisplatin were performed. The expression of PLPP1 was analyzed by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The correlation between PLPP1 and prognosis was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter analysis. We found that Z-ligustilide+cisplatin could decrease the cell viability of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin induced cell cycle arrest, and promoted cell apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. Metabolomics combined with transcriptomics revealed that Z-ligustilide+cisplatin inhibited phospholipid synthesis by upregulating the expression of PLPP1. Furthermore, PLPP1 expression was positively correlated with good prognosis. Knockdown of PLPP1 abolished the effects of Z-ligustilide+cisplatin on cell cycle and apoptosis. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin inhibited the activation of AKT by reducing the levels of PIP3 levels. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cell apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells by inhibiting PLPP1-mediated phospholipid synthesis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: seismic acceleration; Guidonia; earthquake; Benioff cumulative stress; Swarm; pre-earthquake processes
Online: 4 January 2023 (06:08:38 CET)
This communication investigates possible anomalies in the lithosphere atmosphere and ionosphere on the occasion of the ML=3.3 earthquake that occurred on 1st January 2023 close to Guidonia Montecelio (Rome, Italy). This earthquake followed another event on 23 December 2022 of magnitude ML=3.1 with a very close epicentre (distance less than 1km). Seismological investigations clearly show an acceleration of seismicity in the last six months in the area. Two solutions of fitting time to failure power law on the Cumulative Benioff strain curve are the more likelihood: the ML3.3 of 1 January is the mainshock of seismic sequence or incoming earthquakes of a magnitude of about 4.1 provides a slightly better fit of the seismic data. Further investigation are necessary to assess if the accumulated stress have been totally released or not. No atmospheric anomalies related to this seismic activity have been identified even if some SO2 emissions could come from tectonic or volcanic sources in the South-Tyrrhenian Sea. Swarm satellites' magnetic data shows an anomalous track on 16 December 2022, which is temporally compatible with the seismic acceleration but other sources for the anomalous signal are also possible.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: permutation entropy; irreversibility; gait; Alzheimer's disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:24:00 CEST)
Gait is a basic cognitive propositive action that has been shown to be altered in late stages of neurodegenerative dementias. Nevertheless, alterations are less clear in mild forms of dementia, and the potential use of gait analysis as a biomarker of initial cognitive decline has hitherto mostly been neglected. We here report the results of a study of gait kinematic time series for two groups of patients (Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease) and a group of matched control subjects. Two metrics based on permutation patterns are considered, respectively measuring the complexity and irreversibility of the time series. Results indicate that kinematic disorganisation is present at early phases of cognitive impairment; in addition, they depict a rich scenario, in which some joint movements display an increased complexity and irreversibility, while others a marked decrease. Beyond their potential use as biomarkers, complexity and irreversibility metrics can open a new door towards the understanding of the role of the nervous system in gait, as well as its adaptation and compensatory mechanisms.