ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial competency; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial mindset; SEM; sustainable entrepreneurship
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:28:34 CEST)
Entrepreneurship has been viewed as an opportunity for economic development and changing economic scenarios in global markets. Women are viewed as a reservoir of entrepreneurial talent, so they can be growth engines in novel markets. Previous studies have considered entrepreneurship as the most effective way towards the economic empowerment of women. Female students engaged in entrepreneurial education have been addressed persistently, while what transforms them in an education process is still unclear. Considering the transforming global economy and its influence on higher education, this study aims to detect female students transforming entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention into sustainable entrepreneurship. Using a self-compiled survey, we targeted 752 female students to investigate their entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention. SPSS and AMOS were used to transform the data for interpretation. We assumed that the impact of female students’ entrepreneurial competency could be modified by an entrepreneurial mindset and result in entrepreneurial intention. To detect this causal relationship, this study employed reliability, factor, structural equation modeling (SEM), and bootstrap-ping analyses to verify the evidence. The result of the SEM confirms that female students’ entrepreneurial competency will, through their entrepreneurial mindset, impact entrepreneurial intention. With bootstrapping, 5000 samples were collected, and it was demonstrated that the measure constructs were still reliable in the model. This study found that there is a mediation effect between entrepreneurial competency and entrepreneurial intention. The entrepreneurial mindset plays a crucial role in the transformation process. Without an entrepreneurial mindset, entrepreneurial competency cannot exert a significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. The findings can help reinvent related entrepreneurial education in higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: GDP per capita; Gender parity index (GPI); higher education expansion; trend analysis; gross enrollment ratio (GER)
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:37:40 CEST)
Ensuring equal access to affordable higher education for women and men has become a crucial target of UNESCO’s SDG4-Education 2030. Currently, about one-third of the world's college-age population participates in higher education, while the gender disparity persists in various systems. This study employed GDP per capita, gross enrollment ratio (GER), and the gender parity index (GPI) to demonstrate how the education systems have expanded resulting in the transformation of gender parity. We selected Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the UK as research targets using a cross-correlation function and trend analysis to detect concurrent relationships and future trends with GDP per capita, GER, and GPI. The findings suggest Japan, Korea, and the UK continue to show gender disparity and need to respond to this issue in their policy intervention for SDG4-Education 2030. The results reveal a potential problem in the UK when GPI growth might become unlimited with females dominated. This study suggests the higher education expansion phenomenon and gender diversity in mass and universal systems can be detected by the trend analysis with GDP per capita, GER, and GPI in different settings. The design of the study provides an example to explore the gender diversity patterns in higher education systems for sustainable development.