ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Thai START; Forensic psychiatric inpatients; Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data; Violence risk assessment; forensic psychology; Psychometrics
Online: 13 January 2022 (15:57:05 CET)
The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is deemed the most appropriate instrument for assessing violence risks and management because of its balanced approach between dynamic risk and protective factors. Although several facets of reliability and predictive validity of this tool were strong, its inter-rater reliability, construct validity, and implementation in Asian population were under-investigated. The objective of this research was to examine the inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the START: Thai version within forensic psychiatric inpatients. The participants consisted of 118 forensic psychiatric inpatients hospitalized at Galya Rajanagarindra Institute in Thailand. Trained mental health professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, forensic nurses, clinical psychologists, social workers, and occupational therapists) assessed each participant across twenty domains of the Thai START. The inter-rater reliability was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient and a confirmatory factor analysis for ordinal data was used to test the construct validity of the scale. The main finding showed a good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability and supported two relational constructs (i.e., strength vs vulnerability subscales) of the Thai START. The Thai START is a promising tool for using in Thai forensic psychiatric setting but some items were not significant in contributing to the scale. This study also provides the guideline for implementing the tool in non-Western forensic psychiatric populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0338.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Ocimum spp.; essential oil; aromatic profiles; Thai food
Online: 18 September 2018 (09:47:32 CEST)
The research objectives of this study are to analyse the volatile compositions of different basil types available in Thai markets and to descriptively determine their aromatic qualities. Essential oils were hydro-distillated from fresh leaves of 2 Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) varieties namely, white and red and other basil species, including Tree basil (O. gratissimum), Sweet basil (O. basilicum var. thyrsiflorum) and Lemon basil (O. citriodorum). Oil physicochemical characteristics and volatile chromatograms from Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the chemical compositions. Methyl eugenol, estragole and eugenol were among the major chemicals found in the essential oils of these basil types. Classification by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) advised that these Ocimum spp. samples are grouped based on either the distinctive anise, citrus aroma (estragole, geranial and neral) or spice-like aroma (β-methyl eugenol, caryophyllene and α-cubebene). The essential oil was also used for descriptive sensorial determination by five trained panelists, using the following developed terms: anisic, citrus, herb, spice, sweet and woody. The panelists were able to differentiate essential oil of white Holy basil from red Holy basil based on the intensity of the anisic attribute, while the anise and citrus scents were detected as dominant in the Lemon basil, Tree basil and Sweet basil essential oils. The overall benefit from this research was the elucidation of aromatic qualities from Thai common Ocimum species in order to assess their potential as the raw materials for future food research and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0173.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Value creation; Thai herbs; Industry; Patent; Structural equation model
Online: 6 August 2021 (18:10:24 CEST)
The main obstacle affecting the natural and herbal products industry is the infringement of trade patents. This resulted in losing the opportunity to compete with others in this business. Creating additional value to this business is, therefore, a way of leading to patenting for trade protection for entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to develop the structural equation modeling of guidelines for creating additional value for Thai herbs to support trade patent. The study comprises a mixed method with three parts. In the first part, data comes from interviews with selected 9 specialists. The second part was supported by interviews to create the questionnaire and distributed it to 500 entrepreneurs, the next step was the data analysis using structural equation modeling (SEM). The third part used data from the SEM model to discussion focused on developing the conceptual model by 7 experts. The analysis of the developed model passed the criteria for evaluating consistency and empirical data. All hypotheses proposed in this study were supported, the findings revealed that all factors had a direct effect at a statistically significant level of 0.001. Furthermore, this investigation allows knowing the Brand Identity factor were practically important for creating value of Thai herbs leading to patent protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0395.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Keywords: farm contracts, firms, farmers, cultivation production, Thai Binh.
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:51:04 CEST)
In an age of market liberalization, globalization, and expanding agribusiness, there is a danger that small-scale farmers will find difficulty in fully participating in the market economy. One of the solutions to solve the above situation is to strengthen linkages between farmers and firms through contract farming. The purpose of this study is to assess the factors affecting the level of linkages between businesses and farmers in crop development in Thai Binh province, Vietnam. The two main research methods used were exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and regression analysis with survey data which was conducted from 300 farmers, 10 firms, and 15 factors related to contract-farming. The results indicated that there are 5 factors that significantly affect the level of participation of farmers in the linking process, the order of impacts from strong to weak is as follows: (1) Commitment and sharing of benefits and risks between farmers and firms in the linking process, (2) Issues related to management skills and enterprises capacity of link firms, (3) Price issues that farmers are interested in in the process of implementing links with firms, (4) Policy environment - Institutions related to farmer contracts between firms and farmers, (5) Household awareness about the benefits brought about by farmer contracts with firms. Based on results, a number of specific solutions have been proposed to enhance the efficiency of farming contracts between firms and farmers in cultivation production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: feeding trial; growth; maintenance; nutrient evaluation; protein utilization; Thai swamp buffalo
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:23:11 CET)
Interpretation of increased gain in the bovine animals is difficult to be validated due to inherent genetic variation to meet their requirement for energy and protein, and those may relate to the bull species, e.g., Thai swamp buffalo. Therein, the study aimed at investigating and predicting protein requirement systems, with providing abundant energy intake 2.20 Mcal/kg DM for maintenance and growth of Thai swamp buffaloes using the comparative prolonged feeding trial for 90 days. Sixteen bull Thai swamp buffaloes at the initial (Age: 18-24 months; BW: 233 ± 25.0 kg) were as-signed into four treatment groups, four buffaloes each, fed 5.42, 6.96, 8.94, and 10.71% DM crude protein (CP). CP intake, BW, and physiological fluid were determined. The net CP requirements for maintenance and growth of Thai swamp buffaloes were 5.41 g CP/kg W0.75 and 0.46 g CP/g average daily gain (ADG), respectively. Our results indicated that CP requirement increases, when BW increases. An increased dietary CP resulted in an increased number at blood urine nitrogen (N), N absorption, total volatile fatty acid, urinary purine derivative, and the microbial N. Notably, the net CP requirement for growth of Thai swamp buffalo was higher than it reported in NRC, but the maintenance was lower.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0162.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Xinchang Thai; quantile regression; functional classification of government expenditure; Xiao Kang
Online: 15 October 2019 (05:48:07 CEST)
On October 18, 2017, Chinese President Xi Jinping presented the blueprint for building a modernized socialist nation through the realization of the Xiao Kang (Every nation enjoys a peaceful and affluent life, it is meaningless to eliminate the poor) social construction at the 19th Congress of China. Subsequent to the 2008 financial crisis, the world has moved on to the new economic status of the New Normal. China has also entered the era of “Xinchang Thai,” which is moving from the high-growth to the moderate-growth phase. Therefore, the government of China emphasizes privatization, liberalization, and deregulation. China is also influenced by government policies due to the nature of socialism. This study confirms China’s current stage of economic development based on Barro’s theory. Thus, we use a quantile regression model and examine the correlation between economic growth and functional classification of government expenditure during Xi Jinping's term of office. Furthermore, we selected Korea as a comparative country as the two countries have common features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0422.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fresh cassava root; pellet containing high sulfur; ruminal characteristics; blood thiocyanate; Thai native beef cattle
Online: 17 December 2020 (09:16:26 CET)
The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding pellet containing high sulfur (PELFUR) diet and fresh cassava root (FCR) to Thai native beef cattle on feed use efficiency, ruminal characteristics, and blood metabolites. Four male Thai native beef cattle (150 ± 15.0 kg of body weight (BW)) were allocated with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was FCR supplementation at 15 and 20 g/kg of BW. Factor B was the sulfur level in the PELFUR ration at 15 and 30 g/kg of dry matter (DM). No interaction effect was found among FCR supplementation and PELFUR in terms of feed intake and nutrient intake (p > 0.05). Cyanide intake was significantly increased based on FCR supplementation (p < 0.05), whereas sulfur intake was increased by level addition of PELFUR levels (p < 0.05). There were interaction effects among FCR supplementation and PELFUR on digestibility coeﬃcients of DM and organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05). FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg demonstrated the highest digestibility of DM and OM. Moreover, interactions were observed between FCR and PELFUR for bacterial populations (p < 0.01). The populations of bacteria were highest in FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg at various feeding times. An interaction effects from among feeding FCR with PELFUR was found on blood thiocyanate concentrations at various feeding times (p < 0.01). The highest mean values of blood thiocyanate were observed when feeding FCR at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR at 30 g/kg. No interaction effect was found between FCR and PELFUR on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and their profiles (p >0.05). However, the proportions of the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding were increased when FCR at 20 g/kg BW was supplemented (p < 0.01). FCR at 20 g/kg BW could enhance propionate (C3) at 4 h post-feeding when compared with FCR at 15 g/kg BW (p < 0.01). Moreover, supplementation of PELFUR at 30 g/kg increased the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding, whereas the concentration of C3 at 4 h post-feeding was enhanced (p < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found for any parameters among treatments and between the main effect of FCR and PELFUR supplementation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, feeding of two combinations (FCR 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg) could promote the nutrient digestibility, the bacterial populations, and the rate of disappearance of cyanide without having any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antioxidants; Biological System; Caffeic Acid; Callus culture; Chicoric Acid; Phenolics; Plant in vitro Cultures; Rosmarinic Acid; Thai Basil
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:18:48 CEST)
Thai basil is a renowned medicinal plant and a rich source of bioactive antioxidant compounds having several health benefits, with actions to prevent of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Plant cell and tissue culture technologies can be routinely established as an important, sustainable and low-cost biomass source for the production of high-value phytochemicals. The current study aimed at developing an effective protocol for the production of Thai basil leaf derived callus cultures with sustainable and high production of biomass and antioxidants as an alternative of leaves production. MS basal medium with various concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) compatible with nutraceutical applications (i.e., gibberellic acid (GA3) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) either alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)) were evaluated. Among all tested PGRs, the combination BAP:NAA (5 mg/L:1 mg/L) yield maximum biomass accumulation (fresh weight (FW): 190 g/L and dry weight (DW): 13.05 g/L) as well as enhanced phenolic (346.08 mg/L) production. HPLC quantification analysis indicated high productions of chicoric acid (35.77 mg/g DW) and rosmarinic acid (7.35 mg/g DW) under optimized callus culture conditions. Antioxidant potential was assessed using both in vitro cell free and in vivo cellular antioxidant assays. Maximum in vitro antioxidant activity DPPH (93.2 % of radical scavenging activity) and ABTS (1322 µM Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) was also observed for the extracts from callus cultures grown on optimal conditions. In vivo cellular antioxidant activity assay confirmed the effective protection against oxidative stress of the corresponding extract by the maximum inhibition of ROS and RNS production. Compared to commercial leaves, callus extracts showed higher production of chicoric acid and rosmarinic acid associated with higher antioxidant capacity. In addition, this biological system also has a large capacity for continuous biomass production, thus demonstrating its high potential for possible nutraceutical applications.