ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Protection Measures; Observational Study; Pandemics
Online: 6 March 2023 (15:36:27 CET)
Preventive behavior is one of the main strategies to contain the spread of the coronavirus, understand the factors that influence adherence or hesitation to protective measures and the way the population behaves during a health crisis is of great importance. Aim: To analyze the factors associated with adherence to protection measures against Covid-19 in Brazil. Method: cross-sectional study, survey type online, between the period of August 2020 and February 2021. The population included in the study were Brazilians, aged 18 years or older. Non-probabilistic sampling was used to obtain the sample. The data was stored on the "Redcap" platform and analyzed in a descriptive and inferential approach. Results: The sample consisted of 1,516 people, women adopted 10% more protective measures than men, people with higher education level and higher income, within the age group between 40-59 years, were those who most adhered to the measures imposed by health agencies. Carrier of Asthma, Diabetes Mellitus, Systemic Arterial Hypertension, Obesity and smoking were factors that increased the adherence of protective measures in the fight against COVID-19. Conclusion: Being female, aged between 40 and 59 years, higher education, smoking, not having a religion, having health insurance, and being a carrier of chronic diseases were associated with greater adherence to protective measures against COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Alcoholism; Illicit drugs; Tobacco use disorder; Spatial analysis
Online: 4 April 2022 (07:22:45 CEST)
(1) Background: tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the leading causes of death by a single in-fectious agent worldwide. This study aimed to identify hotspots of people diagnosed with tu-berculosis and abusive use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs in communities through a geo-spatial intelligence application; (2) Methods: ecological study with a spatio-temporal approach. We considered tuberculosis cases diagnosed and registered in the Notifiable Diseases Information System, which presented information on alcoholism, smoking, and other drugs. Spatial Variations in Temporal Trends (SVTT) and scan statistics were applied for the identification of Hotspots; (3) Results: of 29.499 cases of tuberculosis were identified. And when we applied the STTT for al-coholism, three Hotspots were detected, one of which was protective (RR: 0.08 – CI95%: 0.02 – 0.32) and two at risk (RR:1.42 – CI95%: 1.11 – 1.73; RR: 1.39 - CI95%: 1.28 – 1.50). Regarding smoking, two risk clusters were identified (RR: 1.15 - CI95%: 1.01 – 1.30; RR: 1.68 - CI95%: 1.54 – 1.83). For other drugs, a risk cluster was found (RR: 1.13 - CI95%: 0.99 – 1.29) and two protections (RR: 0.70 - CI95%: 0.63 – 0.77; RR: 0.76 – CI95%: 0.65 – 0.89); (4) Conclusions: it was evidenced in the communities a problem of TB and drug addiction. Use disorder perhaps in a person's brain and behavior and leads to an inability to continue their treatment, putting the community at risk for TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Tuberculosis; Vulnerable populations; Homeless Persons; Substance-Related Disorders
Online: 31 March 2022 (08:05:32 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: tuberculosis presents an epidemiological trend towards inequality, especially among people in social exclusion and situations of vulnerability. To analyze territories where there is a concentration of people diagnosed with tuberculosis, in a street situation, and who make chronic use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. We will also analyze trends in this health condition in southern Brazil; (2) Methods: Ecological study, developed in the 399 municipalities of Paraná, Southern Brazil, with all tuberculosis cases in the homeless population registered in the Information System of Notifiable Diseases between 2014 to 2018. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics, for the time series, the Prais-Winsten autoregression method, whereas for spatial analysis, we used the Getis-Ord Gi technique*; (3) Results: in total, 560 cases were reported. We found a predominance of alcohol, smoking, and illicit drugs users, with an increasing trend in the state and clusters of spatial risk in the East health macro-region; (4) Conclusions: We observed territories with critical levels of highly vulnerable people who use psychoactive substances and are in a street situation. The results highlight the importance of incorporating public policies of social protection to these individuals and resolutive health services that receive and assist in eradicating TB.