ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1455.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: near-earth remote sensing; network intrusion; temporal features; spatio-temporal graph attention network
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:27:46 CEST)
With the rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT)-based near-earth remote sensing technology, the problem of network intrusion for near-earth remote sensing systems has become more complex and large-scale. Therefore, it is essential to seek an intelligent, automated, and robust network intrusion detection method. In recent years, network intrusion detection methods based on graph neural networks (GNNs) have been proposed. However, there are still some practical issues with these methods. For example, they have not taken into consideration the characteristics of near-earth remote sensing systems, the state of the nodes, and the temporal features. Therefore, this article analyzes the characteristics of existing near-earth remote sensing systems and proposes a spatio-temporal graph attention network (N-STGAT) that considers the state of nodes. The proposed network applies spatiotemporal graph neural networks to the network intrusion detection of near-earth remote sensing systems and validates the effectiveness of the proposed method on the latest flow-based dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0422.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: spatio-temporal; lightning; elevation; Uganda
Online: 27 October 2021 (18:13:44 CEST)
Lightning has received a lot of attention in scientific literature during the recent decade, not only because it is an impressive atmospheric phenomenon but also its associations with severe storms that cause unprecedented damages to agriculture, electric power networks, property, and life. This study assessed the Spatio-temporal characteristics of lightning occurrence with elevation in Uganda using lightning flash and elevation datasets for a period of fifteen years (1998-2013). Datasets used in this study included daily lightning flashes as captured by Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard on Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite and elevation data in form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Spatio-temporal results indicated that ~80% of areas with an elevation that ranges from 800-1200 m above mean sea level (masl) in Uganda had severe lightning occurrences and ~20% of areas with an elevation greater than 1200 m (masl) had severe lightning occurrences. The country received an enhanced number of lighting events with the highest number in 1999. Subsequently, a reduced trend was observed from 2002 to 2007 followed by an increment in the number of lightning events in (2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013). The intensity of the events decreased gradually though two peaks were observed, (1998-2001) and (2010-2013). Furthermore, results indicate escalations in the frequency and duration of lightning events from 60 times in 1998 to approximately 200 times in 2013 and from 1000 microseconds in 1998 to more than 2000 microseconds in 2013. Generally, the country experienced an enhanced increase in lighting occurrences over the study period which therefore calls for urgent actions to combat the root cause and also provide effective measures to reduce the impacts of lightning strikes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2035.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: multifractal spectrum; generalized correlation dimension; urban morphology; spatio-temporal evolution; spatio-temporal variation; dynamics
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:46:28 CEST)
Urban morphology exhibits fractal characteristics, which can be described by multifractal scaling. Multifractal parameters under positive moment orders primarily capture information about cen-tral areas with relatively stable growth, while those under negative moment orders mainly reflect information about marginal areas with more active growth. However, effectively utilizing mul-tifractal spectrums to uncover the spatio-temporal variations of urban growth remains a challenge. To addresses this issue, this paper proposes a multifractal measurement by combining theoretical principles and empirical analysis. To capture the difference between growth stability in central areas and growth activity in marginal areas, an index based on generalized correlation dimension Dq is defined. This index takes the growth rate of Dq at extreme negative moment order as the numerator, and that at extreme positive moment order as the denominator. During the stable stage of urban growth, the index demonstrates a consistent pattern over time. While during the active stage, the index may exhibit abnormal fluctuations or even jumps. This indicates that the index can reveal spatio-temporal information about urban evolution that cannot be directly observed through multifractal spectrums alone. By integrating this index with multifractal spectrums, we can more comprehensively characterize the evolutionary characteristics of urban spatial structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0950.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: snow cover; downscaling; Patagonia; spatio-temporal
Online: 14 August 2023 (08:53:11 CEST)
Seasonal snow cover is a fundamental component of both the global energy budget and the water cycle. Its properties such as fractional snow cover or albedo are particularly affected by climate change. Several methods based on satellite data products are available to estimate these properties, each one with its pros and cons. This work presents a novel methodology that integrates three indexes applied to MODIS satellite data (Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA), Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and Melt Area Detection Index (MADI)), to perform a spatio-temporal reconstruction of the fractional snow cover and albedo at 250 m spatial resolution in the Brunswick Peninsula, southwest Patagonia during the cold season (April-October) for the period 2000-2020. Three main steps are included: (1) the increase of the spatial resolution of MODIS (MOD09) data to 250 m using a spectral fusion technique; (2) the snow-cloud discrimination; (3) the daily spatio-temporal reconstruction of snow extent and its albedo signature with subpixel detection using the endmembers extraction and spectral mixture analysis. The results show a 98% agreement between MODIS snow detection and ground-based snow measurement at the automatic weather station Tres Morros (53.3174 °S, 71.2790 °W), with fractional snow cover values between 20% and 50%, showing a close relationship between snow and vegetation type. The number of snow days compiled from the MODIS data indicates a good performance (Pearson correlation of 0.9) compared with the number of skiing days at Cerro Mirador ski centre near Punta Arenas. Although the number of seasonal snow days show a significant increase trend of 0.54 days/year in Brunswick Peninsula during the 2000-2020 period a significant decreasing trend of -4.64 days/year was detected during 2010-2020, and also below the 400 m a.s.l. elevation, which is the most affected area. A reconstruction of the monthly mean temperature using the ERA5 Land reanalysis product shows a significant warming trend in May (0.068 ºC/year) and October (0.098 ºC/year) in the 2000-2020 period. Under the future emission scenario RCP8.5, the regional climate model RegCM4 predicts further warming during 2020-2050 of 0.059 ºC/year in July, 0.088 ºC/year in August, and 0.019 ºC/year in October, which will further reduce snow cover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: motion; superpixel; temporal features; video classification
Online: 24 September 2018 (09:54:01 CEST)
Superpixels are a representation of still images as pixel grids because of their more meaningful information compared with atomic pixels. However, their usefulness for video classification has been given little attention. In this paper, rather than using spatial RGB values as low-level features, we use optical flows mapped into hue-saturation-value (HSV) space to capture rich motion features over time. We introduce motion superpixels, which are superpixels generated from flow fields. After mapping flow fields into HSV space, independent superpixels are formed by iteration of seeded regions. Every grid of a motion superpixel is tracked over time using nearest neighbors in the histogram of flow (HOF) for consecutive flow fields. To define the temporal representation, the evolution of three features within the superpixel region, namely the HOF, HOG, and the center of superpixel mass are used as descriptors. The bag of features algorithm is used to quantify final features, and generalized histogram-kernel support vector machines are used as learning algorithms. We evaluate the proposed superpixel tracking on first-person videos and action sports videos.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0254.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Logic Artificial Intelligence; Knowledge Bases; Query Plan; Temporal Logic; Conformance Checking; Temporal Data Mining; Intraquery Parallelism
Online: 13 January 2023 (11:07:20 CET)
This paper extends our seminal paper on KnoBAB for efficient Conformance Checking computations performed on top of a customised relational model. After defining our proposed temporal algebra for temporal queries (xtLTLf ), we show that this can express existing temporal languages over finite and non-empty traces such as LTLf . This paper also proposes a parallelisation strategy for such queries thus reducing conformance checking into an embarrassingly parallel problem leading to super-linear speed up. This paper also presents how a single xtLTLf operator (or even entire sub-expressions) might be efficiently implemented via different algorithms thus paving the way to future algorithmic improvements. Finally, our benchmarks remark that our proposed implementation of xtLTLf (KnoBAB) outperforms state-of-the-art conformance checking software running on LTLf logic, be it data or dateless.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Temporal processing of information, surprisal, temporal coupling; sparse coding, Shannon information, time-dimension in the brain
Online: 18 February 2019 (10:08:19 CET)
Perception and motor interaction with physical surroundings can be analyzed by the changes in probability laws governing two possible outcomes of neuronal activity, namely the presence or absence of spikes (binary states). Perception and motor interaction with physical environment are accounted partly by the reduction in entropy within the probability distributions of binary states of neurons in distributed neural circuits, given the knowledge about the characteristics of stimuli in physical surroundings. This reduction in the total entropy of multiple pairs of circuits in networks, by an amount equal to the increase of mutual information among them, occurs as sensory information is processed successively from lower to higher cortical areas or between different areas at the same hierarchical level but belonging to different networks. The increase in mutual information is partly accounted by temporal coupling as well as synaptic connections as proposed by Bahmer and Gupta . We propose that robust increases in mutual information, measuring the association between the characteristics of sensory inputs and neural circuits connectivity patterns, are partly responsible for perception and successful motor interactions with physical surroundings. It is also argued that perception from a sensory input is the result of networking of many circuits to a common circuit that primarily processes the given sensory input.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0199.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: urban structure, remote sensing, temporal change, NYC
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:26:15 CEST)
Surface temperature influences human health directly and alters the biodiversity and productivity of the environment. While previous research has identified that the composition of urban landscapes influences the physical properties of the environment such as surface temperature, a generalizable and flexible framework is needed that can be used to compare cities across time and space. This study employs the Structure of Urban Landscapes (STURLA) classification combined with remote sensing of New York City’s (NYC) surface temperature. These are then linked using machine learning and statistical modeling to identify how greenspace and the built environment influence urban surface temperature. It was observed that areas with urban units composed of largely the built environment hosted the hottest temperatures while those with vegetation and water were coolest. Likewise, this is reinforced by borough-level spatial differences in both urban structure and heat. Comparison of these relationships over the period between2008 and 2017 identified changes in surface temperature that are likely due to the changes in prevalence in water, lowrise buildings, and pavement across the city. This research reinforces how human alteration of the environment changes ecosystem function and offers units of analysis that can be used for research and urban planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0094.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: GIR; TIR; NLP; spatiotemporal information; temporal inference
Online: 22 October 2016 (10:55:08 CEST)
Historic expeditions are events that are flavored by exploratory, scientific, military or geographic characteristics. Such events are often documented in literature, journey notes or personal diaries. A typical historic expedition involves multiple site visits and their descriptions contain spatiotemporal and attributive contexts. Expeditions involve movements in space that can be represented by triplet features (location, time and description). However, such features are implicit and innate parts of textual documents. Extracting the geospatial information from these documents requires understanding the contextualized entities in the text. To this end, we developed a semi-automated framework that has multiple Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing components to extract the spatiotemporal information from a two-volumes historic expedition gazetteer. Our framework has three basic components, namely, the Text Preprocessor, the Gazetteer Processing Machine and the JAPE (Java Annotation Pattern Engine) Transducer. We used the Brazilian Ornithological Gazetteer as an experimental dataset and extracted the spatial and temporal entities from entries that refer to three expeditioners’ site visits and mapped the trajectory of each expedition using the extracted information. Finally, one of the mapped trajectories was manually compared with a historical reference map of that expedition to assess the reliability of our framework. The reference map was manually prepared in previous research work by others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1284.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ozone formation regime; Spatio-temporal change; TROPOMI; BTH
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:11:10 CEST)
Abstract: In recent years, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in China has decreased significantly, whereas the concentration of surface ozone (O3) has increased. The formation regime of ozone is closely related to the ratio of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to nitrogen oxides (NOx). To reveal the reasons for this increase in ozone, we determined the sensitivity of ozone generation by determining the regional threshold of the ratio of formaldehyde to nitrogen dioxide (HCHO/NO2) in the satellite troposphere. The different FNR(HCHO/NO2) ratio ranges indicate three formation regimes: VOC-limited, transitional, and NOx-limited. The range of the transitional regime plays a crucial role in identifying the regime of ozone formation. Currently, the key threshold for ozone generation in China remains unclear. Polynomial fitting models were used to determine the threshold range for the transitional regime in the BTH region [2.0,3.1]. The ozone formation regime in the BTH region mainly exhibited a transitional and NOx-limited regime, and the overall concentration changes of the HCHO and NO2 columns in the BTH region showed a fluctuating trend from 2019 to 2022. However, compared to 2019, the ozone precursors and FNR showed varying degrees of decline in 2022. The concentration changes of NO2 were high in winter and low in summer, whereas the trend of HCHO and FNR changes was the opposite to that of NO2, being high in summer and low in winter. The concentrations of HCHO and NO2 in the BTH region showed a trend of urban agglomeration areas>urban expansion areas>non-urban areas in different land types from 2019 to 2022, whereas the FNR showed an opposite trend in urban agglomeration areas<urban expansion areas<non-urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1711.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: competition; scale insects; mutualism; temporal dynamics; xerophytic shrubland
Online: 25 July 2023 (11:12:59 CEST)
Interspecific competition between herbivorous insects is a major selection pressure affecting the distribution, abundance, and structure of their populations. Facilitator-mediated interactions, such as mutualism, can influence competition. Furthermore, the temporal dynamics of competitive relationships affect the interaction’s outcome. Here, we re-evaluated the data on the competition for space between two herbivorous insects commonly known as scales (Toumeyella martinezae and Opuntiaspis philococcus) in either the presence or absence of Liometopum apiculatum (a mutualistic species of T. martinezae) and its variations over time. We selected 27 Myrtillocactus geometrizans plants on which the studied insects were present; the plants were classified into one of five different conditions: either of the scale species were present on the plant, without its competitor; T. martinezae with neither its mutualistic species nor the competitor; and both scale species competing in either presence or absence of the mutualistic species. We kept a photographic record of each condition, measured the size of (as an indicator of the development stage) and area occupied by the individual scales, estimated the total coverage of each scale species, and assessed their relative occupation of space and their competitive intensity. We found temporal variations in competitive intensity. T. martinezae occupied more space during the first months, whereas O. philococcus did so towards the end of the study period. The population structure changed over time and between species, affecting the competitive interactions. In conclusion, the dynamics of competition change over time, and the mutualistic species has a positive effect on T. martinezae when the scales are in competition. However, temporal variations resulting from changes in the life cycle of the scales allow the two competitors to coexist in the same place at the same time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Leishmania donovani; Geographical; Temporal diversity; Epidemic; Transmission cycle
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a global spread that affects both domestic and wild animals in addition to people. Leishmania donovani is the suspected anthroponotic cause of VL in India, where it is an endemic disease. The reservoir hosts play a crucial role in the life cycle of the Leishmania parasite. The complicated connection between the pathogen, vector, and reservoir exhibits geographical and temporal diversity. Human-to-human and, to a lesser extent, human-to-animal transmission is the principal mechanism for the maintenance of anthroponotic diseases. Scope and approach: A deliberate, systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar using keywords such as "Leishmania donovani," "zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis," and "wild animal reservoir for leishmania donovani." 530 potentially significant references were obtained from these 507 were disallowed due to copy avoidance, irrelevant titles, research publications from nations other than India, or modified compositions. The remaining 20 investigations were later rejected because they did not meet the criteria for inclusion. Finally 3 research papers with 867 goats, 161 cattles, 106 chickens, 26 sheep, 3 buffaloes, 406 dogs and 309 rats were reported. Conclusion: According to the review, goats are the epidemic's primary host and possible reservoir in several regions of India. In the endemic regions of the disease, some species of rodents along with the canines appear to be maintaining the L. donovani transmission cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SWMM; Low-impact development; Satellite observations; Temporal downscaling
Online: 20 January 2022 (10:13:05 CET)
Urban floods are typical urban disasters that threaten the economy and development of cities. Sponge cities can improve the flood resistance ability and reduce the floods by setting low-impact development measures (LID). Evaluating the floods reduction benefits is the basic link in the construction of sponge cities. Therefore, it is of great significance to evaluate the benefits of sponge cities from the perspective of different rain patterns. In this study, we investigated the urban runoff of various rainfall patterns in Mianyang city using the Strom Water Management Model (SWMM). We employed 2–100-year return periods and three different temporal rainfall downscaling methods to evaluate rain patterns and simulate urban runoff in Mianyang, with and without the implementation of sponge city measures. After calibration, model performance was validated using multi-source data concerning flood peaks and inter-annual variations in flood magnitude. Notably, the effects of peak rainfall patterns on historical floods were generally greater than the effects of synthetic rainfalls generated by temporal downscaling. Compared to the rainfall patterns of historical flood events, the flood protection capacities of sponge cities tended to be overestimated when using the synthetic rainfall patterns generated by temporal downscaling. Overall, an earlier flood peak was associated with better flood sponge city protection capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0483.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Spatio-temporal; Drought; Climate Change; SPI; RCP; Rakai
Online: 25 August 2021 (10:45:01 CEST)
Drought occurrences in Rakai district take a strange model and it has been rampantly increasing causing reduced income levels for farmers, reduced farm yields, increased food insecurity and migration, wetland degradation, illness and loss of livestock. The purpose of this study was to investigate past and future characteristics of drought due to climate change in Rakai district. Datasets used include dynamically downscaled daily precipitation and temperature data from Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) at 0.44°×0.44° resolution over the Africa domain. R software (Climpact2 package), was used to generate SPI values, Mann Kendall trend test and Inverse Distance Weighting methods were used to examine temporal and spatial drought characteristics respectively. Results depicted more extreme and severe drought conditions for SPI12 under historical compared to SPI3,Kakuto, Kibanda and Lwanda sub counties were the most drought hot spot areas, positive trends of drought patterns for both time scales were observed, though only significant under SPI12. Projected results revealed extreme and severe drought conditions will be observed under RCP8.5 SPI12, and the least will be under RCP8.5 SPI3 and SPI12. Results further reveal that Kakuto, Kibanda, Kiziba, Kacheera, Kyalulangira, Ddwaniro and Lwanda sub counties will be the most drought hot spot sub counties across all time scales. Generally projected results reveals that the district will experience more drought conditions under RCP8.5 compared to RCP4.5 for time scale SPI12 and therefore urgent actions are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0480.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: GIS; RUSLE; Sediment Yield; Spatial Variation; Temporal Variation
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:57:30 CET)
Sediment accumulation in a dam reservoir is a common happening environmental problem throughout the world. Topographic conditions, land use land cover change, the intensity of rainfall, and the soil characteristics are the major driving factors for sedimentation to occur. The effect of sedimentation in a dam reservoir is very visible in the watershed as a result of hilly topographic conditions, high rainfall intensity, thin land cover, and less soil infiltration capacity. In this paper, an integrated RUSLE and GIS technique was implemented to estimate a mean annual sediment yield based on spatial and temporal variations in Nashe dam reservoir situated in Fincha catchment, Abaya River basin, Ethiopia. Spatial and temporal estimation of mean annual sediment yield was estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and GIS. Historical 6-year (2014-2019) rainfall for the temporal variations and other physical factors such as soil erodibility, slope and length steepness, management and land used land cover, and support practice for spatial variations were used as sediment driving factors. The mean annual sediment yield ranges from 0 to 2712.65 t ha-1 year-1 was seen. Spatially, Very high, high, moderate, low, and very low sediment yield severity with total area coverage with 25%, 10%, 30%, 15%, and 20% in 2017, 2015, 2019, 2014, and 2018 respectively. The information about the spatial and temporal variations of the severity of sediment yield in RUSLE model has a paramount role to control the entry of sediment into the dam reservoir in this watershed. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the watershed for planning strategies for dam reservoirs in the catchment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0339.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID19; Bounce Back Loans; BBLS; Clustering, Geospatial; Temporal
Online: 18 January 2021 (13:13:23 CET)
Bounce Back Loan is amongst a number of UK business financial support schemes launched by UK Government in 2020 amidst pandemic lockdown. Through these schemes, struggling businesses are provided financial support to weather economic slowdown from pandemic lockdown. £43.5bn loan value has been provided as of 17th Dec2020. However, with no major checks for granting these loans and looming prospect of loan losses from write-offs from failed businesses and fraud, this paper theorizes prospect of applying spatiotemporal modelling technique to explore if geospatial patterns and temporal analysis could aid design of loan grant criteria for schemes. Application of Clustering and Visual Analytics framework to business demographics, survival rate and Sector concentration shows Inner and Outer London spatial patterns which historic business failures and reversal of the patterns under COVID-19 implying sector influence on spatial clusters. Combination of unsupervised clustering technique with multinomial logistic regression modelling on research datasets complimented by additional datasets on other support schemes, business structure and financial crime, is recommended for modelling business vulnerability to certain types of financial market or economic condition. The limitations of clustering technique for high dimensional is discussed along with relevance of an applicable model for continuing the research through next steps
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Precision diagnosis; Personalised interventions; Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)
Online: 13 November 2020 (14:15:57 CET)
A 12 year old boy was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) along with mesial temporal sclerosis based on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) results. The diagnosis was further confirmed by genetic analysis. He also had minor psychiatric symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorders and mood swings. After 4 years of treatment with Sodium Valproate no change in symptoms was observed. Genetic testing along with deep phenotyping revealed altered glutamate pathway and metabolism. Post genetic testing the patient was put on a combination of Sodium Valproate and Valproic acid along with supplementation of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Cyanocobalamin, Pyridoxine and Cholecalciferol. Within three months of this combined therapy the patient experienced complete elimination of seizures and drastic improvement in mood and social behaviour. The case report highlights the importance of precision diagnosis in understanding the underlying perturbed pathways in structural epilepsy like TLE and demonstrates the importance of non-invasive targeted therapy in such cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Economic Dispatch; Spatio-temporal kriging; Wind power; Uncertainty
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:08:13 CET)
The incorporation of wind generation introduces challenges to the operation of the power system due to its uncertain characteristics. Therefore, the development of methods to accurately model the uncertainty is necessary. In this paper, the spatio-temporal Kriging and analog approaches are used to forecast wind power generation and used as input to solve an economic dispatch problem, considering the uncertainties of wind generation. Spatio-temporal Kriging takes into account the spatial and temporal information given by the database to enhance wind forecasts. We evaluate the performance of using the spatio-temporal Kriging, and comparisons are carried out versus other approaches in the framework of the economic power dispatch problem, for which simulations are developed on the modified IEEE 3-bus and IEEE 24-bus test systems. The results show that the use of Kriging-based spatio-temporal models in the context of economic power dispatch can provide an opportunity for lower operating costs in the presence of uncertainty when compared to other approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: hox genes; temporal collinearity; axial patterning; gastrulation; xenopus
Online: 11 June 2019 (04:03:46 CEST)
Kondo and collaborators recently reported the absence of Hox temporal collinearity in Xenopus tropicalis. They found none in the initiation of accumulation of Hox transcripts (detected via RNA seq). And none in the initial expression sequence of primary unprorocessed transcripts (Identified by using qRT-PCR against introns or intron-exon boundaries). Nor in the initial acquisition by Hox gene DNA of a mark for active chromatin. These findings are in conflict with the idea that temporal collinearity has to do with the initiation of Hox gene transcription or with the opening of and a progression from repressed to active states in Hox chromatin. But collinear acquisition of the same active chromatin mark has been shown by others in murine 5’ Hoxd cluster genes.The reason for this difference is unknown . This careful study thus indicated that the initiation phase of Hox expression shows no temporal collinearity in X. tropicalis. A previous study in X. laevis from the same group also showed that the sequence of times for reaching (normalised) half maximal Hox expression showed no temporal collinearity. These conclusions are likely to be correct. These authors do however also conclude that “experimental evidence for the temporal collinearity hypothesis is not strong” There is however strong evidence that Hox temporal collinearity does occur in early vertebrate embryos. Below. I present and discuss 3 lines of evidence to resolve the present conflict I argue that Hox temporal collinearity actually does exist and that it is part of a central mechanism in early development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0187.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: remote sensing; multi-temporal; Landsat; age; canopy; FCD
Online: 9 October 2018 (11:33:18 CEST)
In the oil palm industry, stands age is an important parameter to monitor the sustainability of cultivation, to develop the growth yield model, to identify the disease or stressed area, and to estimate the carbon storage capacity. This research is focused to estimate and distinguish oil palm stands age based on crown/ canopy density obtained using Forest Canopy Density (FCD) model derived from four indices as follows; Advanced Vegetation Index, Bare Soil Index, Shadow Index, and Thermal Index. FCD model employs multi temporal image analysis resulting four classes of oil palm stands age categorized as seed with FCD value of 29–56% (0 years), young with FCD value of 56–63% (1–9 years), teen with FCD value of 63–80% (10–15 years), and mature with FCD value of >80% (>15 years). Minimum canopy density value is 29% even in the zero years old indicates incomplete land clearance or the type of seed planted in the land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0167.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: spatio-temporal pattern; land cover; mountainous city; Chongqing
Online: 10 May 2018 (14:59:19 CEST)
The urban heat island (UHI) becomes more and more serious with the acceleration of urbanization. Many researchers have shown interest in studying the UHI by using remote sensing data. But these studies rarely examine the mountainous cities. The studies on UHI in mountainous cities often used empirical parameters to estimate the land surface temperature (LST), and lacked satellite-ground synchronous experiment to test the accuracy. This paper revised the parameters in mono-window algorithm used to retrieve the LST according to the characteristics of mountainous cities. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the UHI intensity in Chongqing, a typical mountainous city, and its relationship with land cover from 2007 to 2011 based on the Landsat TM data and the improved method. The accuracy of the LST derivation increased by about 1°C compared to the traditional method. The high LST areas increased and extended from the downtown to suburban area each year, but the rate of change decreased. The UHI is dramatically impacted by the rivers. There is a good relationship between the urban sprawl and the UHI. The LST was reduced by about 1°C within a 300m distance from large urban fringe green spaces. The urban landscape parks had a strong effect relieving the UHI at a 100m distance. The LST was reduced by about 0.5°C. The study greatly improves the accuracy of LST derivation, and provides a reliable parameters for the UHI researched in mountainous city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0065.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: generalized estimating equations; overdispersion; poisson; spatio-temporal; Leishmaniasis
Online: 13 March 2017 (09:30:11 CET)
This paper is motivated by spatio-temporal pattern in the occurrence of Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan and the relatively high number of zero counts. We hold the view that correlations that arise from spatial and temporal sources are inherently distinct. Our method decouples these two sources of correlations, there are at least two advantages in taking this approach. First, it circumvents the need to inverting a large correlation matrix, which is a commonly encountered problem in spatio-temporal analyses. Second, it simplifies the modelling of complex relationships such as anisotropy, which would have been extremely difficult or impossible if spatio-temporal correlations were simultaneously considered. We identify three challenges in the modelling of a spatio-temporal process: (1) accommodation of covariances that arise from spatial and temporal sources; (2) choosing the correct covariance structure and (3) extending to situations where a covariance is not the natural measure of association. Moreover, because the data covers a period that overlaps with the US invasion of Afghanistan, the high number of zero counts may be the result of no disease incidence or lapse of data collection. To resolve this issue, a model truncated at zero built on a foundation of the generalized estimating equations was proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0051.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: classical gauge theory; pair creation/annihilation; temporal paradoxes
Online: 8 March 2017 (09:06:25 CET)
Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron (SHP) electrodynamics formalizes the distinction between coordinate time (measured by laboratory clocks) and chronology (temporal ordering) by defining 4D spacetime events xμ as functions of an external evolution parameter τ. Classical spacetime events xμ (τ) evolve as τ grows monotonically, tracing out particle worldlines dynamically and inducing the five U(1) gauge potentials through which events interact. Since Lorentz invariance imposes time reversal symmetry on x0 but not τ, the formalism resolves grandfather paradoxes and related problems of irreversibility. The action involves standard first order field derivatives but includes a higher order τ derivative that while preserving gauge and Lorentz invariance removes certain singularities and makes the related QFT super-renormalizable. The resulting field equations are Maxwell-like but τ-dependent and sourced by a current that represents a statistical ensemble of instantaneous events distributed along the worldline. The width λ of this distribution defines a correlation time for the interactions and a mass spectrum for the photons that carry the interaction. As λ becomes very large, the photon mass goes to zero and the field equations become τ-independent Maxwell’s equations. Maxwell theory thus emerges as an equilibrium limit of SHP, in which λ is larger than any other relevant time scale. Particles and fields are not constrained to mass shells in SHP theory, and by exchanging mass may produce pair creation/annihilation processes at the classical level. On-shell evolution with fixed particle masses is restored through a self-interaction associated with the 5D wave equation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1422.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: temporal downscaling; U-Net; flow regularization; residual blocks; ERA5
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:36:54 CEST)
Temporal downscaling of gridded geophysical data is essential for improving climate models, weather forecasting, and environmental assessments. However, existing methods often could not accurately capture multi-scale temporal features, affecting their accuracy and reliability. To address this issue, we introduce an Enhanced Residual U-Net architecture for temporal downscaling. The architecture, which incorporates residual blocks, allows for deeper network structures without the risk of overfitting or vanishing gradients, thus capturing more complex temporal dependencies. The U-Net design inherently could capture multi-scale features, making it ideal for simulating various temporal dynamics. Moreover, we implement a flow regularization technique with advection loss to ensure that the model adheres to physical laws governing geophysical fields. Our experimental results across various variables within the ERA5 dataset demonstrate an improvement in downscaling accuracy, outperforming other methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1546.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Brazil; control measures; COVID-19; spatial analysis; temporal analysis
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:39:45 CEST)
Data on the temporal and spatial evolution of Sars-Cov-2, local control measures and their effects on morbidity and mortality patterns in rural Brazil are scarce. We analyzed data from case notification systems, epidemiological investigation reports, and municipal decrees in a small municipality in northeast Brazil. For spatial analysis, cases and deaths in the urban area were mapped. There were a total of 3,020 cases of COVID-19 from April 2020 to December 2021; 135 (4.5%) died. The cumulative incidence and mortality rates were 5,650.3 cases and 252.6 deaths per 100,000 population, respectively. The index case of Sars-Cov-2 in the city was diagnosed in March 2020. The first peak of cases and deaths occurred in May 2020. The second wave of infection peaked in May 2021, with the highest number of deaths in March 2021. In spatial analysis, the highest density of cases and deaths occurred in the urban area. The municipal government issued 69 decrees on restriction measures, surveillance, and maintenance of social isolation to address the spread of SarsCov-2. The spread of the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic in Itapajé mirrored the behavior observed in large metropolitan regions, from central neighborhoods to the periphery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1205.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: multi-modal; social media; spatio-temporal information extraction; inundation
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:26:36 CEST)
With the proliferation and development of social media platforms, social media data has become an important source for acquiring spatio-temporal information on various urban events. Providing accurate spatio-temporal information for events contributes to enhancing the capabilities of urban management and emergency response. However, existing research on mining spatio-temporal information of events often focuses solely on textual content, neglecting data from other modalities such as images and videos. Therefore, this study proposes an innovative spatio-temporal information extraction method for multi-modal social media data (MIST-SMMD), which extracts the spatio-temporal information of events from multi-modal data on Weibo at coarse and fine-grained hierarchical levels, serving as a beneficial supplement to existing urban event monitoring methods. This paper takes the "July 20th Zhengzhou Heavy Rainfall" incident as an example, to evaluate and analyze the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results indicate that in the coarse-grained spatial information extraction using only textual data, our method achieves a Spatial Precision of 87.54% within a 60m range, and reaches 100% Spatial Precision for ranges beyond 200m. For fine-grained spatial information extraction, the introduction of other modal data such as images and videos results in a significant improvement in Spatial Error. These results demonstrate the ability of the MIST-SMMD method to extract spatio-temporal information from urban events at both coarse and fine levels, and confirms the significant advantages of multi-modal data in enhancing the precision of spatial information extraction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: pneumococcal disease; serotype; geographic differentiation; vaccination; temporal variation; recombination
Online: 1 May 2023 (10:15:32 CEST)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Since 1998, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been used for identifying the genotypes of strains of S. pneumoniae and helped reveal a diversity of local and regional epidemiological patterns for IPD, resulting in an archived MLST dataset of over 74,000 isolates. However, the global patterns of MLST sequence type (ST) and allele type (AT) distributions remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of AT and ST distributions of S. pneumoniae. We extracted S. pneumoniae MLST data from PubMLST.org and conducted various population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses demonstrated both shared and unique distributions of STs and ATs among continental and national/regional populations. Among the 17915 STs in the dataset, 36 STs representing 15263 isolates were broadly shared among all six continents, consistent with recent gene flow and clonal dispersal of this pathogen. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that >96% genetic variations were found within individual continental and national/regional populations. However, though low (<4%), statistically significant genetic differentiation among continental and national populations were observed. Comparisons between non-clone-corrected and clone-corrected datasets showed that localized clonal expansion contributed significantly to the observed genetic differentiations among continents and countries/regions. Temporal analyses of the isolates showed that implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine impacted the distributions of STs. Linkage disequilibrium analyses identified evidence for non-random recombination in all continental populations of this species. We discussed the implications of our analyses to the global epidemiology and future vaccine developments for S. pneumoniae.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: oscillations, theta rhythm, gamma rhythm, coherence, temporal lobe epilepsy
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:11:23 CET)
The dentate gyrus (DG) is part of the hippocampal formation and is essential for important cognitive processes such as navigation and memory. The oscillatory activity of the DG network is believed to play a critical role in cognition. DG circuits generate three main rhythms: theta, beta, and gamma, which participate in the specific information processing performed by DG neurons. In the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), cognitive abilities are impaired, which may be due to drastic alterations in the DG structure and network activity during epileptogenesis. The theta rhythm and theta coherence are especially vulnerable in dentate circuits; disturbances in DG theta oscillations and their coherence may be responsible for general cognitive impairments observed during epileptogenesis. Some researchers suggested that the vulnerability of DG mossy cells is a key factor in the genesis of TLE, but others did not support this hypothesis. The aim of the review is not only to present the current state of the art in this field of research but to help pave the way for future investigations by highlighting the gaps in our knowledge to completely appreciate the role of DG rhythms in brain functions. Disturbances in oscillatory activity of the DG during TLE development are described in detail that may be a diagnostic marker in the treatment of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0376.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: free will; undecidability; temporal asymmetry; compatibilism; predictability; dynamic systems
Online: 23 August 2022 (11:28:17 CEST)
One of the central criteria for free will is “Could I have done otherwise?” But because of a temporal asymmetry in human choice, the question makes no sense. The question is backward-looking, while human choices are forward-looking. At the time when any choice is actually made, there is as of yet no action to do otherwise. Expectation is the only thing to contradict (do other than). So the ability to do something not expected by the ultimate expecter, Laplace’s demon, is a better criterion for free will. If human action is fundamentally unpredictable, then we have free will. Scientists have studied a form of fundamental unpredictability, known as undecidability. The features that make a system capable of undecidable dynamics have been identified: program-data duality; potential to access an infinite computational medium; and the ability to implement negation. Humans have all three of these features, so we very likely are fundamentally unpredictable, so we have free will.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0438.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: drones; UAV; bathymetry; shallow water; multispectral; multi-temporal; geomorphology
Online: 28 July 2022 (09:28:41 CEST)
Short-term changes in shallow bathymetry affect the coastal zone and therefore their monitoring is an essential task in coastal planning projects. This study provides a novel approach for monitoring shallow bathymetry change based on drone multispectral imagery. Particularly we apply a shallow water inversion algorithm on two composite multispectral datasets being acquired five months apart in a small Mediterranean sandy embayment (Chania, Greece). Initially, we perform radiometric corrections using proprietary software and following we combine the bands from standard and multispectral cameras resulting in a six-band composite image suitable for applying the shallow water inversion algorithm. Bathymetry inversion results showed good correlation and low errors (< 0.3m) with sonar measurements collected with an uncrewed surface vehicle (USV). Bathymetry maps and true-color orthomosaics assist in identifying morphobathymetric features representing crescentic bars with rip channel systems. The temporal bathymetry and true-color data reveal important erosional and depositional patterns, which were developed under the impact of winter storms. Furthermore, bathymetric profiles show that the crescentic bar appears to migrate across and along-shore over the 5-months period. Drone-based multispectral imagery proves to be an important and cost-effective tool for shallow seafloor mapping and monitoring when it is combined with shallow water analytical models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0767.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: COVID 19; Temporal and Spatial Effects; ANCOVA and MANCOVA
Online: 29 April 2021 (07:57:56 CEST)
This paper presents a two-way factor design incorporating both spatial and temporal variation in the prediction of COVID 19 in Africa. In line with this, the impact of COVID-19on the GDP in Africa is well scrutinized. In contrast to the existing works [1–3], this work also extends the two-factor design into the one-way factor design through incorporating covariates into spatial effects. The data rely on the spatial and temporal obtained from WHO datasets [4, 5]. The one-factor design with more covariates is taken into consideration to identify the major potential predictor variables responsible for the deaths and confirmed cases due to COVID 19 in Africa. The MANCOVA considered population density, temperature, humidity; perception, and wind are all considered as co-variates. Simulations show that the two-way analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the spatial (Fcal= 8.2704, Pvalue= 3.099∗10−6)and temporal (Fcal= 48.7964, Pvalue= 9.147∗10−16) effects. South Africa and Nigeria are highly influencing due to the pandemic where their GDP also relatively mostly declined. A significant economic change is observed before the pandemic and after the outbreak of the pandemic(tcal= 2.9548, Pvalue= 0.01805). COVID 19 negatively influenced the economy of1 most of the African countries. The population density, temperature, and wind are found to be statistically significantly associated with COVID 19 cases and deaths.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0450.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hox gene collinearity; spatial temporal collinearity; vertebrates; Noether theory
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:01:59 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important in embryogenesis. It relates entities and events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and in embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in linear size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order (Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 …) along the 3’ to 5’ direction of DNA in the genome and a corresponding sequence of ontogenetic units (E1, E2, E3, …) located along the Anterior – Posterior axis of the embyo. Expression of Hox1 occurs in E1. Hox2 in E2, Hox3 in E3… Besides SC, a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is Hox1 expressed in E1, later is Hox2 expressed in E2, followed by Hox3 in E3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) was formulated and tested during the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. Symmetry is a physical-mathematical property of Matter that was explored in depth by Noether who formulated a ground-breaking theory that applies to all sizes of Matter. This theory applied to Biology can explain the origin of HGC as applied not only to animals developing along the A/P axis but also to animals with circular symmetry.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: nNOS; Temporal lobe epilepsy; Interneuron; Synaptic transmission; Mouse models
Online: 25 November 2020 (10:19:05 CET)
Excitation-inhibition imbalance of GABAergic interneurons is predisposed to develop chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We have previously shown that virtually every neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive cell is a GABAergic inhibitory interneuron in the denate gyrus. The present study was designed to quantify the number of nNOS-containing hilar interneurons using stereology in pilocapine- and kainic acid (KA)-exposed transgenic adult mice that expressed GFP under the nNOS promoter. In addition, we studied the properties of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) and paired-pulse response ratio (PPR) of evoked EPSC in nNOS interneurons using whole cell recording techniques. Results showed that there were fewer nNOS-immunoreactive interneurons of chronically epileptic animals. Importantly, patch-clamp recordings revealed reduction in mEPSC frequency, indicating diminished global excitatory input. In contrast, PPR of evoked EPSC following the granule cell layer stimulation was increased in epileptic animals suggesting reduced neurotransmitter release from granule cell input. In summary, we propose that impaired excitatory drive onto hippocampal nNOS interneurons may be implicated in the development of refractory epilepsy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0086.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: action recognition; spatio-temporal features; convolution network; transfer learning
Online: 7 December 2019 (00:57:34 CET)
This paper introduces a fusion convolutional architecture for efficient learning of spatio-temporal features in video action recognition. Unlike 2D CNNs, 3D CNNs can be applied directly on consecutive frames to extract spatio-temporal features. The aim of this work is to fuse the convolution layers from 2D and 3D CNNs to allow temporal encoding with fewer parameters than 3D CNNs. We adopt transfer learning from pre-trained 2D CNNs for spatial extraction, followed by temporal encoding, before connecting to 3D convolution layers at the top of the architecture. We construct our fusion architecture, semi-CNN, based on three popular models: VGG-16, ResNets and DenseNets, and compare the performance with their corresponding 3D models. Our empirical results evaluated on the action recognition dataset UCF-101 demonstrate that our fusion of 1D, 2D and 3D convolutions outperforms its 3D model of the same depth, with fewer parameters and reduces overfitting. Our semi-CNN architecture achieved an average of 16 – 30% boost in the top-1 accuracy when evaluated on an input video of 16 frames.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0335.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: big data; maturity model; temporal analytics; advanced business analytics
Online: 18 August 2018 (11:05:24 CEST)
The main aim of this paper is to explore the issue of big data and to propose a conceptual framework for big data, based on the temporal dimension. The Temporal Big Data Maturity Model (TBDMM) is a means for assessing organization’s readiness to fully profit from big data analysis. It allows the measurement of the current state of the organization’s big data assets and analytical tools, and to plan their future development. The framework explicitly incorporates a time dimension, providing a complete means for assessing also the readiness to process temporal data and/or knowledge that can be found in modern sources, such as big data ones. Temporality in the proposed framework extends and enhances the already existing maturity models for big data. This research paper is based on a critical analysis of literature, as well as creative thinking, and on the case-study approach involving multiple cases. The literature-based research has shown that the existing maturity models for big data do not treat the temporal dimension as the basic one. At the same time, dynamic analytics is crucial for a sustainable competitive advantage. This conceptual framework was well received among practitioners, to whom it has been presented during interviews. The participants in the consultations often expressed their need of temporal big data analytics, and hence the temporal approach of the maturity model was widely welcomed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0107.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: dynamic speckle; activity; temporal history speckle pattern; Varnish; Cyclododecane
Online: 16 November 2017 (07:14:44 CET)
Dynamic laser speckle is applied as a reliable sensor of activity in all sort of material. Traditional applications are based on a time rate that is usually higher than 10 frames-per-second (FPS). Even in drying processes, where there is a high activity in the first moments after the painting and a slow activity after some minutes or hours, the process is based on the acquisition of images in a time rate that is the same in both moments of high and low activity. In this work, we present an alternative approach to follow the drying of paint and the other processes related to restauration of paintings that takes long-term to reduce the activity. We illuminated, using three different wavelength lasers, an accelerator (Cyclododecane) and a varnish used in restauration of paintings and monitor them at long-term drying using an alternative fps, comparing the results to the traditional method. The work also presents a way to do the monitoring using a portable equipment. The results present the feasibility to use the portable device and show the improvement in the sensitivity of the dynamic laser speckle to sense long-term process regarding the drying of Cyclododecane and Varnish used in restauration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0117.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: multi-temporal; seasonal; vegetation; palaeo-river; Indus civilisation; archaeology
Online: 27 June 2017 (04:41:04 CEST)
Remote sensing has considerable potential to contribute to the identification and reconstruction of lost hydrological systems and networks. Remote sensing-based reconstructions of palaeo-river networks have commonly employed single or limited time-span imagery, which limits their capacity to identify features in complex and varied landscape contexts. This paper presents a seasonal multi-temporal approach to the detection of palaeo-rivers over large areas based on long-term vegetation dynamics and spectral decomposition techniques. The use of multi-temporal data has allowed the overcoming of seasonal cultivation patterns and long-term visibility issues related to crop selection, large-scale irrigation and land use patterns. The application of this approach on the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve (northwest India), a core area for the Bronze Age Indus Civilisation, has enabled the reconstruction of an unsuspectedly complex palaeo-river network comprising more than 8000 kms of palaeo-channels. It has also enabled the definition of the morphology of these relict courses, which provides insights into the environmental conditions in which they operated. These new data will contribute to a better understanding of the settlement distribution and environmental settings in which this, often considered riverine, civilisation operated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0128.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Precipitation; Tibetan Plateau; trends; temporal-spatial distribution; hydrological cycle;
Online: 29 January 2017 (09:43:00 CET)
The Tibetan Plateau(TP) is known as ‘the water tower of Asian’, its precipitation variation play an important role in the eco-hydrological processes and water resources regimes. based on the monthly mean precipitation data of 65 meteorological stations over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding areas from 1961-2015,variations, trends and temporal-spatial distribution were analyzed, furthermore, the possible reasons were also discussed preliminarily. The main results are summarized as follows: the annual mean precipitation in the TP is 465.54mm during 1961-2015, among four seasons, the precipitation in summer accounts for 60.1% of the annual precipitation, the precipitation in summer half year (May.- Oct.) accounts for 91.0% while that in winter half year (Nov.- Apr.) only accounts for 9.0%; During 1961-2015, the annual precipitation variability is 0.45mm/a and the seasonal precipitation variability is 0.31mm/a, 0.13mm/a, -0.04mm/a and 0.04mm/a in spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively on the TP; The spatial distribution of precipitation can be summarized as decreasing from southeast to northwest in the TP, the trend of precipitation is decreasing with the increase of altitude, but the correlation is not significant. The rising of air temperature and land cover changes may cause the precipitation by changing the hydrologic cycle and energy budget, furthermore, different pattern of atmospheric circulation can also influence on precipitation variability in different regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0095.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: particulate matter; temporal variation; urban area of Athens; Greece
Online: 18 December 2016 (10:51:57 CET)
The main objective of this work is to investigate the temporal variation of PM10 concentrations within the urban area of Athens during the years 2001-2015. For this purpose, the time series of the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10μm (PM10) is recorded for a 15-year period (2001-2015) in two different monitoring stations located in the urban area of Athens. The results show a totally different behavior of PM10 concentrations between the Athens city center and the suburban areas. It seems that in the city center the main sources of PM10 are traffic and heating systems especially during the cold period of the year. Furthermore, in the city center a significant seasonal variation was found with high concentrations during the cold period of the year and lower concentrations during the warm period of the year. Moreover, it was found that during the weekends, there is a decrease in PM10 concentrations probably due to the fact that majority of people do not use their vehicles. Finally, for both locations a significant temporal decreasing trend of the mean annual PM10 concentrations was found which indicates that during the last years, there have been improvements towards a better air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1061.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: urban blue space; spatio-temporal analysis; mechanism simulation; landscape analysis
Online: 15 August 2023 (03:02:23 CEST)
With the rapid development in Beijing, there is a critical need to explore the circumstance and reveal the mechanisms of precious urban natural resources. In this context, urban blue space has attracted more and more attention by driving microcirculation, cooling heat islands, and relaxing residential. We extracted the UBS at Beijing using remote sensing, explored the spatial and temporal development in the last two decades via USDA methods, uncovered the full spectrum of landscape patterns from an ecological perspective, and simulated the mechanisms of the UBS area and the landscape quantitatively. We found that: (1) The UBS area in Beijing increased with fluctuation from 2000 to 2020. (2) The spatial clustering has distributed stable with some subtle changes. (3)The ecological circumstance has improved in the last 21 years in Beijing, with the increasing habitat diversity and richness, while the inferior landscape fragmentation has indicated some severe challenges. (4) Natural factors impact urban blue space areas more than social ones, while both similarly influence the UBS landscape. (5) Vegetation circumstances and precipitation are the most important natural factors on both area and landscape of UBS, and population and artificial surface are the most important social factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0647.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land surface temperature; downscaling; ERA5 reanalysis data; MODIS; temporal alignment
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:19:55 CEST)
Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical parameter for the dynamic simulation of land surface processes and for analyzing variations on regional or global scales. Obtaining LST with high spatiotemporal resolution is a subject of intensive and ongoing research. This study proposes a pixel-wise temporal alignment iterative linear regression model for downscaling based on MODIS LST products. This approach allows us to address the problem of high temporal resolution but low spatial resolution of the ERA5 reanalysis LST product, while remaining immune to pixel loss caused by clouds. The hourly ERA5 LST of the study area for 2012–2021 was downscaled to 1000 m resolution, and its accuracy was verified by comparison with measured data from meteorological stations. The downscaled LST offers intricate details and is faithful to the LST characteristics of distinct land-cover categories. In comparison with other downscaling techniques, the proposed technique is more stable and preserves the spatial distribution of ERA5 LST with minimal missing pixels. The pixel-wise average R-squared and mean absolute error for MODIS view times are 0.87 and 2.7 K, respectively, for cloud-free conditions at a 1000 m scale. Accuracy verification using data from meteorological stations indicates that the overall error is lower during cloudless periods rather than during overcast periods, during the night rather than during the day, and at MODIS view times rather than at non-view times. The maximum and minimum mean errors are 0.13 K for cloud-free periods and −0.98 K for cloudy periods, indicating a slight underestimation and overestimation, respectively. Conversely, the maximum and minimum mean absolute errors are 2.01 K for the daytime and 0.85 K for the nighttime. Therefore, the model ensures higher accuracy during cloudy periods with only clear sky LST as input data, making it suitable for long-term, all-weather ERA5 LST downscaling.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: VNS; temporal lobe epilepsy; vagus nerve; interoception; hippocampus; medial septum
Online: 2 May 2023 (07:05:43 CEST)
Seizure development relies on two factors. One is the existence of an overexcitable neuronal network and the other is a trigger that switches normal activity of that network into a paroxysmal state. While mechanisms of local overexcitation have been the focus of many studies, the process of triggering remains poorly understood. We suggest that, apart from the known exteroceptive sources of reflex epilepsy – visual, auditory or olfactory, there is a range of interoceptive triggers, relevant for seizure development in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE). The hypothesis proposed here aims to explain the prevalence of epileptic activity in sleep and in drowsiness states and provide a detailed mechanism of seizure triggering by interoceptive signals.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0477.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cross-country skiing; temporal event detection; wearable sensors; field analysis
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:09:08 CET)
The aim of this study was to adapt a treadmill-developed method for determination of inner-cycle parameters in cross-country roller ski skating for a field application. The method is based on detecting initial and final ground-contact of poles and skis during cyclic movements. Eleven athletes skied four laps of 2.5 km at low and high endurance-intensity, using two types of skis with different rolling coefficients. Participants were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to their wrists and skis, while insoles with pressure sensors and poles with force measurements were used as reference systems. The method based on IMUs was able to detect more than 97% of the temporal events compared to the reference system. The inner-cycle temporal parameters had a precision ranging from 49 to 59 ms, corresponding to 3.9% to 13.7% of the corresponding inner-cycle duration. Overall, this study showed good reliability of using IMUs on athlete’s wrists and skis to determine temporal events, inner-cycle parameters and the performed sub-techniques in cross-country roller ski skating in field-conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality monitoring; wetland ecosystem services; spatial variation; temporal variation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:46:13 CEST)
Stream chemistry effectively integrates watershed ecosystem processes on both spatial and temporal scales. Streams of coastal areas integrate a more homogeneous, flat topography wherein there can be interactions between the stream and the body of water into which it drains, especially where tidal fluxes occur. The present study assessed water quality of Thompson Bayou, which comes to the campus of the University of West Florida in a wetland after flowing through 4 km of commercial and private property with associated impacts on water quality. Sampling was carried out for one year at eight discrete sites along Thompson Bayou from the UWF campus to the Escambia River. We used a portable field meter to measure temperature, pH, dissolved O2 (DO), and specific conductivity (SC). Except for temperature, all variables exhibited a spatial pattern of significant variation with distance, with consistent increases in DO and SC as the stream approached the river. These variables also exhibited a temporal pattern of significant seasonal variation, including—and especially—temperature. Data suggest that spatial and temporal patterns of water quality of Thompson Bayou are determined by (1) processing of water by the wetland, (2) interactions of the stream channel with upland forest stands, and (3) the tidal hydrology of the Escambia River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0437.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; LaLiga; sports; spatial and temporal analysis; serological status
Online: 26 August 2022 (02:59:56 CEST)
Objectives: COVID-19 pandemic interrupted the Spanish professional football competition until May 2020, when it was restarted following a surveillance protocol established by LaLiga. The aims were to describe the infective and serological status of professional football players (PLY) and staff (STF) between May 5th 2020 until April 22nd 2021, to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of the COVID-19 disease in this cohort and its comparison to the Spanish population. Methods: a prospective observational cohort study was carried out. Differences between PLY and STF were assessed by Chi-squared test and test of equality of proportions. Pearson correlation test was used to measure the presence of an association between the percentages of positivity in population and LaLiga cohort. Results: 137,420 RT-PCR and 20,376 IgG serology tests were performed in 7,112 professionals. Positive baseline serology was detected in 10.57% of PLY and 6.38% of STF. Among those who started the follow-up as not infected and before STF vaccination, 11.87% of PLY and 5.03% of STF became positive. Before summer 2020 the prevalence of infection was similar than the observed at national level. The percentage of positivity in the Spanish population was higher than in LaLiga cohort, but both series showed a similar decreasing trend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0454.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: LaiPen; Management Tools; Remote sensing; Vegetation indices; Spatio-temporal changes
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:26:34 CEST)
The leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation biophysical index that provides broad information on the dynamic behavior of ecosystems productivity and related climate, topography, and edaphic impacts. The spatio-temporal changes of LAI were assessed throughout Ardabil Province, a host of relevant plant communities within the critical ecoregion of a semi-arid climate. In a comparative study, novel data from Google Earth Engine- GEE was tested against traditional ENVI measures to provide LAI estimations. Besides, it is of important practical significance for institutional networks to quantitatively and accurately estimate LAI at large areas in a short time and using appropriate baseline vegetation indices. Therefore, LAI was characterized for ecoregions of Ardabil Province using remote sensing indices extracted from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), including Enhanced Vegetation Index calculated in GEE (EVIG) and ENVI5.3 software (EVIE), as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index estimated in ENVI5.3 software (NDVIE). Besides, a new field measurement method, i.e., the LaiPen LP 100 portable device (LP 100), was used to evaluate the accuracy of the derived indices. Accordingly, the LAI was measured on June and July 2020 in 822 ground points distributed in 16 different ecoregions-sub ecoregions having various Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the shrub, bush, and tree. The analyses revealed heterogeneous spatial and temporal variability in vegetation indices and LAIs within and between ecoregions. The mean (standard deviation) value of EVIG, EVIE, and NDVIE at Province scale yielded 1.1 (0.41), 2.20 (0.78), and 3.00 (1.01), respectively in June, and 0.67 (0.37), 0.80 (0.63), and 1.88 (1.23), in that respect in July. The highest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June are found in Meshginshahr (1.40), Meshginshahr (2.80), and Hir (4.33) ecoregions and in July are found in Andabil ecoregion respectively with values of 1.23, 1.5, and 3.64. The lowest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June were observed for Kowsar (0.67), Meshginshahr (1.8), and Neur (2.70), ecoregions and in July were for Bilesavar ecoregion respectively with values of 0.31, 0.31, and 0.81. High correlation and determination coefficients (r>0.83 and R2>0.68) between LP 100 and remote sensing derived LAI were observed in all three PFTs (except for NDVIE-LAI in June with r=0.56 and R2=0.31). On average, all three examined LAI measures tended to underestimation compared to LP 100-LAI (r>0.42). The findings of the present study can be promising for effective monitoring and proper management of vegetation and land use in Ardabil Province and other similar areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0105.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Built-up land; Fourier transformation; high-accuracy mapping; temporal correcti
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:58:42 CET)
Long-term, high-accuracy mapping of built-up land dynamics is essential for understanding urbanization and its consequences for the environment. Despite advances in remote sensing and classification algorithms, built-up land mapping using early satellite imagery (e.g., from the 2000s and earlier) remains prone to uncertainty. We mapped the extent of built-up land in the North China Plain, one of China’s most important agricultural regions, from 1990 to 2019 at three-year intervals. Using dense time-stack Landsat data, we applied discrete Fourier transformation to create temporal predictors and reduce mapping uncertainties for early years. We improved overall accuracy by 8% compared to using spectral and indices predictors alone. We implemented a temporal correction algorithm to remove inconsistent pixel classifications, further improving accuracy to a consistently high level (>94%) across years. A cross-product comparison showed that our study achieved the highest levels of accuracy across years. Total built-up land in the North China Plain increased from 37,941 km2 in 1990–1992 to 131,578 km2 in 2017–2019. Consistent, high-accuracy built-up land mapping provides a reliable basis for policy planning in one of the most rapidly urbanizing regions of the planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: spatiotemporal; time series; bi-temporal; ground-based LiDAR; tree growth
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:56:08 CEST)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been adopted as a feasible technique to digitize trees and forest stands, providing accurate information on tree and forest structural attributes. However, there is limited understanding on how a variety of forest structural changes can be quantified using TLS in boreal forest conditions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy and feasibility of TLS in quantifying changes in the structure of boreal forests. We collected TLS data and field reference from 37 sample plots in 2014 (T1) and 2019 (T2). Tree stems typically have planar, vertical, and cylindrical characteristics in a point cloud, and thus we applied surface normal filtering, point cloud clustering, and RANSAC-cylinder filtering to identify these geometries and to characterize trees and forest stands at both time points. The results strengthened the existing knowledge that TLS has the capacity to characterize trees and forest stands in space and showed that TLS could characterize structural changes in time in boreal forest conditions. Root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) in the estimates for changes in the tree attributes were 0.99-1.22 cm for diameter at breast height (Δdbh), 44.14-55.49 cm2 for basal area (Δg), and 1.91-4.85 m for tree height (Δh). In general, tree attributes were estimated more accurately for Scots pine trees, followed by Norway spruce and broadleaved trees. At the forest stand level, an RMSE of 0.60-1.13 cm was recorded for changes in basal area-weighted mean diameter (ΔDg), 0.81-2.26 m for changes in basal area-weighted mean height (ΔHg), 1.40-2.34 m2/ha for changes in mean basal area (ΔG), and 74-193 n/ha for changes in the number of trees per hectare (ΔTPH). The plot-level accuracy was higher in Scots pine-dominated sample plots than in Norway spruce-dominated and mixed-species sample plots. TLS-derived tree and forest structural attributes at time points T1 and T2 differed significantly from each other (p < 0.05). If there was an increase or decrease in dbh, g, h, height of the crown base, crown ratio, Dg, Hg, or G recorded in the field, a similar outcome was achieved by using TLS. Our results provided new information on the feasibility of TLS for the purposes of forest ecosystem growth monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy; antioxidants; oxidative stress; neuroimmune; major depression; schizophrenia
Online: 19 March 2020 (02:11:32 CET)
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common focal epilepsy subtype in adults and is frequently accompanied by depression, anxiety and psychosis. Aberrations in total paraoxonase (PON)1 status may occur in TLE and those psychiatric conditions. Methods: We examined paraoxonase (PON)1 status, namely Q192R PON1 genotypes and PON1 enzymatic activities, in 40 normal controls and 104 TLE patients, 27 without comorbidities, and 77 with comorbidities including mood disorders (n=25), anxiety disorders (n=27) and psychosis (n=25). Outcomes: CMPAase and arylesterase activities were significantly lower in TLE and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) with and without psychiatric comorbidities than in normal controls. The areas under the ROC curve of CMPAase were 0.893 (0.037) for TLE and 0.895 (±0.037) for MTS. Partial Least Squares (PLS) path analysis showed that there were specific indirect effects of PON1 genotype on TLE severity (p<0.0001) and psychopathology (p<0.0001), which were both mediated by lowered CMPAase activity, while arylesterase activity was not significant. The severity of TLE was significantly associated with psychopathology scores. Furthermore, PON1 CMPAase activity was inversely associated with Mini Mental State Examination scores. Interpretation: The severity of TLE and comorbidities are to a large extent explained by lowered PON1 enzyme activities and by effects of the Q192R genotype which are mediated by lowered CMPAase activity. Total PON1 status plays a key role in the pathophysiology of TLE, MTS and psychiatric comorbidities by increasing the risk of oxidative toxicity. PON1 enzyme activities are new drug targets in TLE to treat seizure frequency and psychiatric comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0096.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Energy demand; Temporal convolutional network; Time series forecasting
Online: 5 March 2020 (15:02:37 CET)
Modern energy systems collect high volumes of data that can provide valuable information about energy consumption. Electric companies can now use historical data to make informed decisions on energy production by forecasting the expected demand. Many deep learning models have been proposed to deal with these type of time series forecasting problems. Deep neural networks, such as recurrent or convolutional, can automatically capture complex patterns in time series data and provide accurate predictions. In particular, Temporal Convolutional Networks (TCN) are a specialised architecture that has advantages over recurrent networks for forecasting tasks. TCNs are able to extract long-term patterns using dilated causal convolutions and residual blocks, and can also be more efficient in terms of computation time. In this work, we propose a TCN-based deep learning model to improve the predictive performance in energy demand forecasting. Two energy-related time series with data from Spain have been studied: the national electric demand, and the power demand at charging stations for electric vehicles. An extensive experimental study has been conducted, involving more than 1900 models with different architectures and parametrisations. The TCN proposal outperforms the forecasting accuracy of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent networks, which are considered the state-of-the-art in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0285.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: laser hardening; temporal-temperature profile; solid phase transformation; heat treatment
Online: 24 November 2019 (14:38:37 CET)
A novel mathematical model is developed to calculate the temperature distribution on the surface and bulk of a steel plate under the laser hardening process. The model starts with the basic heat equation then it is developed into a volumetric form and is connected to the various solid existing phases. The proposed model is based on three influencing parameters of the laser hardening process which are the velocity of the laser spot and irradiation time. The results are compared with the available experimental data reported in the literature. The volumetric model provides an assessment of temperature distribution in both the vertical and horizontal axis. Laser irradiation at sufficiently high fluence can be used to create a solid-state phase change on the surface. Primary calculations show that the temperature profile has a Gaussian distribution in horizontal x and y-axis and presents an exponentially decreasing in the horizontal and vertical depth directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0185.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: rainfall-runoff; multiple temporal scales; non-linearity; small catchments; Mediterranean
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:56:57 CET)
Mediterranean catchments are characterized by significant spatial and temporal hydrological variability caused by the interaction of natural as well human-induced abiotic and biotic factors. This study investigates the (non-)linearity rainfall-runoff relationship at multiple temporal scales in representative small Mediterranean catchments (i.e., < 10 km2) to achieve a better understanding of the hydrological response. Rainfall-runoff relationship was evaluated in 44 catchments at annual and event –203 events in 12 of these 44 catchments– scales. A linear rainfall-runoff relation was observed at annual scale with higher scatter in pervious than impervious catchments. Larger scattering was observed at event scale, although pervious lithology and agricultural land use promoted significant rainfall-runoff linear relations in winter and spring. These relationships were particularly analysed during five hydrological years in Es Fangar catchment (3.35 km2; Mallorca, Spain) as a temporal downscaling to assess intra-annual variability in which antecedent wetness conditions played a significant role in runoff generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0028.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: GPS trajectory; GPS sensor; trajectory similarity measure; spatial-temporal data
Online: 6 March 2017 (06:51:37 CET)
With the rapid spread of built-in GPS handheld smart devices, the trajectory data from GPS sensors has grown explosively. Trajectory data has spatio-temporal characteristics and rich information. Using trajectory data processing techniques can mine the patterns of human activities and the moving patterns of vehicles in the intelligent transportation systems. A trajectory similarity measure is one of the most important issues in trajectory data mining (clustering, classification, frequent pattern mining, etc.). Unfortunately, the main similarity measure algorithms with the trajectory data have been found to be inaccurate, highly sensitive of sampling methods, and have low robustness for the noise data. To solve the above problems, three distances and their corresponding computation methods are proposed in this paper. The point-segment distance can decrease the sensitivity of the point sampling methods. The prediction distance optimizes the temporal distance with the features of trajectory data. The segment-segment distance introduces the trajectory shape factor into the similarity measurement to improve the accuracy. The three kinds of distance are integrated with the traditional dynamic time warping algorithm (DTW) algorithm to propose a new segment–based dynamic time warping algorithm (SDTW). The experimental results show that the SDTW algorithm can exhibit about 57%, 86%, and 31% better accuracy than the longest common subsequence algorithm (LCSS), and edit distance on real sequence algorithm (EDR) , and DTW, respectively, and that the sensitivity to the noise data is lower than that those algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0522.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban vitality; social media; subdistrict form; subdistrict function; spatio-temporal heterogeneity
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:28:56 CEST)
Urban vitality is an important reflection of a city's development potential and urban quality. This study uses exploratory spatio-temporal big data such as social media check-ins to portray the spatio-temporal evolution of urban vitality at the subdistrict scale in Changsha, a city in central China, from 2013-2021, and finds that urban vitality in Changsha exhibits central agglomeration and outward circling expansion over time; and then use Geodetector and spatial regression analyses are used to explain the interactive effects and spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the spa-tial elements of subdistrict form, subdistrict function and subdistrict economy on urban vi-tality. The results show the following: (1) The subdistrict form and subdistrict function dimen-sions have a significant effect on urban vitality, and the effect of the economic dimension of the subdistrict is not significant. (2) The interaction effect of the density of entertainment and leisure facilities and the density of business office facilities in subdistrict function is the dominant factor in the change of urban vitality. (3) Under the spatio-temporal effect, land use diversity and park facility density have the strongest positive effect on urban vitality; road density and shopping facility density have the weakest effect. The study aims to provide a reference for the optimization and allocation of spatial elements of subdistricts in sustainable urban development and urban renewal, to achieve the purpose of urban vitality creation and enhancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1863.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: fovea detection, foveal ROI; temporal direction; cup disc; optic disc; morphology
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:27:47 CEST)
Accurate localization of the fovea in fundus images is essential for diagnosing retinal diseases. Existing methods often require extensive data and complex processes to achieve high accuracy, posing challenges for practical implementation. In this paper, we propose an effective and efficient approach for fovea detection using simple image processing operations and a geometric approach based on the optical disc's position. A key contribution of this study is the successful determination of the temporal direction by leveraging readable asymmetries related to the optical disc and its surroundings. We discuss three methods based on asymmetry conditions, including blood vessel distribution, cup disc inclination, and optic disc location ratio, for detecting the temporal direction. This enables precise determination of the optimal foveal region of interest (ROI). Through this optimized fovea region, fovea detection is achieved using straightforward morphological and image processing operations. Extensive testing on popular datasets (DRIVE, DiaretDB1, and Messidor) demonstrates outstanding accuracy of 99.04% and a rapid execution time of 0.251 seconds per image. The utilization of asymmetrical conditions for temporal direction detection provides a significant advantage, offering high accuracy and efficiency while competing with existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Functional Connectivity; EEG Signals; Temporal patterns; Visual events; Discrimination; Brain regions
Online: 3 July 2023 (10:43:29 CEST)
To investigate the intricate dynamics of brain activity when interacting with a dynamic environment, it is imperative to continuously generate and update expectations regarding forthcoming events and their corresponding sensory and motor responses. This study aims to explore the interconnectivity in time perception across predictable and unpredictable conditions. The necessary data for this study were acquired from EEG signals, sourced from an existing database that involved an experiment conducted on a group of healthy participants. The individuals were subjected to two distinct conditions, predictable and unpredictable, encompassing various time delays. The functional connectivity between brain regions was estimated using a method known as the phase lag index. This method was employed to discern disparities in time perception between the two conditions. A comprehensive comparison of the two conditions across different delays demonstrated noteworthy variations, particularly in the gamma, beta, and theta frequency bands. The differences between delays were more pronounced in the predictable condition. Subsequently, an in-depth analysis was conducted to scrutinize the dissimilarities between the conditions within each delay. Notably, significant differences were observed across all delays. In the unpredictable condition, an increase in connectivity was detected within the alpha band during the 400-ms delay, specifically between occipital and temporal regions. Moreover, the mean connectivity in the unpredictable condition surpassed that of the predictable condition. In the delta band, distinct connectivity patterns were observed across different delays, involving connections between central and frontal regions. Specifically, a heightened connectivity between central and prefrontal regions was noted during the 83-ms delay. Notably, the right hemisphere of the prefrontal cortex played a vital role in time perception. Furthermore, a decline in connectivity across the delta, theta, and beta bands was observed in both conditions during the longest delay (800 ms) when compared to other delays
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: spatial proteomics; spatial resolution; temporal resolution; super-resolution microscopy; fluorescence microscopy,
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:54:20 CEST)
Dawn of the omics revolution in biological sciences meant that we seek to understand more and in greater detail the molecular constituents of cells and biological systems. While we have gained significant insights from conventional omics tools, we now seek to understand the spatial dimensions of the data where subcellular localisation may impact on cellular physiology and phenotype. This review paper seeks to address current questions in the new field of image-based spatial proteomics as well as outline future challenges of the field. At first glance, spatial proteomics offers enormous potential to expand our understanding of different cell types in different disease and cell states. But limitations in types of fluorophores and issues with spectral overlap significantly hampers the practical implementation of the technique. On the other hand, while we have super-resolution microscopy techniques such as STED, PALM and STORM able to achieve 10 to 20 nm spatial resolution in single molecule localisation, problems with slow image acquisition limits high temporal resolution tracking of multiple protein targets in live cell imaging. Hence, the field of spatial proteomics is a mix of promises and challenges where we could image, in multi-colour, upwards of 10 well-chosen proteins that could inform on the molecular mechanisms of selected biological processes, but, at present, the method could not tackle larger scale questions. In essence, current implementation of image-based spatial proteomics is useful, but it is unable to fulfil the mission of large-scale projects such as the Human Protein Atlas or Human Cell Atlas. Future challenges in the field includes the development of more fluorophores (especially photoswitchable and photoactivable ones) for single molecule localisation microscopy, as well as seeking to improve temporal resolutions to the sub-millisecond range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Temperature Humidity Index; Milk Production; Milk Composition; Temporal and Periodic Variation
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:32:11 CET)
Global warming has been increasing heat stress threat in animals which can be monitored by Temperature Humidity Index (THI). The present study describes the relationship of THI, calculated using 35 years period weather station data, and production performances of dairy cattle in a se-lected area of Bangladesh. The month January and June were identified as the coolest and hottest, respectively. Based on this outcome, every year in the month of January and June production performances of 10 crossbred cows with homogenous characteristics were monitored for a period of 5 years. The average THIMEAN value was found 17% higher in June as compared to January, and with this increment of THIMEAN average milk production was decreased 24.4% (p<0.05). The milk fat and protein content were also reduced (p<0.05) by 14.5 and 15.2%, respectively suggesting negative correlation as like as milk production. However, ash content was increased 15.3% that indicates a positive correlation. In addition, multiple regression analysis revealed each point increase in THIMEAN and rectal temperature, there was a decrease in milk yield 0.04 and 1.17 kg ECM, respectively. In contrary, each point increase in THIMEAN resulted 0.059 C increase of rectal temperature. Taken together, THIMEAN value calculated using metrological station data has distinct relationship with the production performances of lactating crossbred dairy cows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0271.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; human mobility; spatial autocorrelation; temporal autocorrelation; Facebook mobility data
Online: 19 September 2022 (09:33:10 CEST)
COVID-19 is the most severe health crisis of the 21st century. COVID-19 presents a threat to almost all countries world-wide. The restriction of human mobility is one of the strategies used to control the transmission of COVID-19. However, it has yet to be determined how effective this restriction is in controlling the rise in COVID-19 cases, particularly in major capital cities such as Jakarta, Indonesia. Using Facebook's mobility data, our study explores the impact of restricting human mobility on COVID-19 case control in Jakarta. Our main contribution is showing how the restriction of human mobility data can give important information about how COVID-19 spreads in different places. We proposed modifying a global regression model into a local regression model by accounting for the spatial and temporal interdependence of COVID-19 transmission across space and time. We applied Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatiotemporal models with spatially varying regression coefficients. We estimated the regression parameters using an Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation. We found that the local regression model with spatially varying regression coefficients outperforms the global regression model based on DIC, WAIC, MPL, and R2 criteria for model selection. In Jakarta's 44 districts, the impact of human mobility varies significantly. The impacts of human mobility on the log relative risk of COVID-19 range from –4.445 to 2.353. The prevention strategy involving the restriction of human mobility may be beneficial in some districts but ineffective in others. Therefore, a cost-effective strategy had to be adopted.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HOX gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; TC disappearence; TC reappearence
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:56:27 CEST)
It was observed that a cluster of ordered genes (Hox1, Hox2, Hox3,…) in the genome are activated in the ontogenetic units (1, 2, 3,…) of an embryo along the Anterior/Posterior axis following the same order of the Hox genes. This Spatial Collinearity (SC) is very strange since it correlates events of very different spatial dimensions. It was later observed in vertebrates, that, in the above ordering, first is Hox1expressed in ontogenetic unit 1, followed later by Hox2 in unit 2, and even later Hox3 in unit 3….This temporal collinearity (TC) is an enigma and even to-day is explored in depth. In 1999 T. Kondo and D. Duboule, after posterior upstream extended DNA excisions , concluded that the Hox cluster behaves ‘as if’ TC disappears. Here the consideration of TC really disappearing is taken face value and its repercussions are analyzed. Furthermore, an experiment is proposed to test TC disappearance. An outcome of this experiment could be the reappearance (partial or total) of TC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0348.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: intestinal parasites; spatio-temporal; Poisson-gamma; Bayesian; Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations
Online: 15 November 2018 (06:10:13 CET)
Understanding the spatially varying effects of demographic factors on the spatio-temporal variation of intestinal parasites infections is important for public health intervention and monitoring. This paper presents a hierarchical Bayesian spatially varying coefficient model to evaluate the effects demographic factors on intestinal parasites morbidities in Ghana. The modeling relied on morbidity data collected by the District Health Information Management Systems. We developed Poisson and Poisson-gamma spatially varying coefficient Models. We used the demographic factors, unsafe drinking water, unsafe toilet and unsafe liquid waste disposal as model covariates. The models were fitted using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations (INLA). The overall risk of intestinal parasites infection was estimated to be 10.9 per 100 people with a wide spatial variation in the district-specific posterior risk estimates. Substantial spatial variation of increasing multiplicative effects of unsafe drinking water, unsafe toilet and unsafe liquid waste disposal occurs on the variation of intestinal parasites risk. The structured residual spatial variation widely dominates the unstructured component, suggesting that the unaccounted-for risk factors are spatially continuous in nature. The study concludes that both the spatial distribution of the posterior risk and the associated exceedance probability maps are essential for monitoring and control of intestinal parasites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0150.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water quality indices; spatio-temporal analysis; ébrié lagoon; surface water; Abidjan
Online: 17 January 2018 (07:54:12 CET)
For decades, the Ébrié Lagoon in Côte d'Ivoire has been the receptacle of wastewater effluent and household waste transported by runoff water. This work assesses the spatio-temporal variability of the Ébrié lagoon water quality at the city of Abidjan. The methodological approach used in this study is summarized in three stages: the choice and standardization of the parameters for assessing water quality for uses such as aquaculture, irrigation, watering, and sports and recreation; the weighting of these parameters using the Hierarchical Analysis Process (AHP) of Saaty; and finally, the aggregation of the weighted parameters or factors. Physicochemical and microbiological analysis data on the waters of the Ébrié lagoon for June and December of 2014 and 2015 were provided by the Ivorian Center for Anti-Pollution (Centre Ivoirien Anti-Pollution, CIAPOL) and the concentrations of trace elements in sediments (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn) were used. The aggregation of standardized and weighted parameters allowed the determination of the Water Quality Indices (WQI) by usage for each bays of the lagoon. The results show that in both 2014 and 2015, the waters of the Ébrié lagoon were generally of poor quality for the different uses examined in this study (aquaculture, irrigation, watering and sport and recreation) with an accentuation in 2015. However, some bays of the lagoon have waters of dubious to satisfactory quality. This study contributes an improved evaluation of the Ébrié lagoon waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1592.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: digital economy; industrial carbon emission efficiency; spatio-temporal patterns; panel quantile regression
Online: 23 August 2023 (03:26:40 CEST)
In the pursuit of China’s dual carbon goals, identifying spatio-temporal changes in industrial carbon emission efficiency and their influencing factors in cities at different stages of development is the key to effective formulation of countermeasures to promote the low-carbon transformation of Chinese national industry and achieve high-quality economic development. In this study, we used balanced panel data of 270 Chinese cities from 2005 to 2020 as a research object: (1) to show spatio-temporal evolution patterns in urban industrial carbon emission efficiency; (2) to analyze the aggregation characteristics of industrial carbon emission efficiency in Chinese cities using Global Moran's I statistics; and (3) to use the hierarchical regression model for panel data to assess the non-linear impact of the digital economy on the industrial carbon emission efficiency of cities. The results show the following: (1) the industrial carbon emission efficiency of Chinese cities exhibited an upward trend from 2005 to 2020, with a spatial distribution pattern of high in the south and low in the north; (2) China's urban industrial carbon emission efficiency is characterized by significant spatial autocorrelation, with increasing and stabilizing correlation, and a relatively fixed pattern of spatial agglomeration; (3) there is a significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between the digital economy and the industrial carbon emission efficiency of cities. The digital economy increases carbon emissions and inhibits industrial carbon-emission efficiency in the early stages of development, but inhibits carbon emissions and promotes industrial carbon emission efficiency in mature developmental stages. Therefore, cities at all levels should reduce pollution and carbon emissions from high-energy-consuming and high-polluting enterprises, gradually reduce carbon-intensive industries, and accelerate the digital transformation and upgrading of enterprises. Western, central and eastern regions especially should seek to promote the sharing of innovation resources, strengthen exchanges and interactions relating to scientific and technological innovation, and jointly explore coordinated development routes for the digital economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0957.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Frost; Cold region; M-K test; Meteorological factors; Temporal and spatial variations
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:40:26 CEST)
In this study, based on frost formation data provided by Harbin Meteorological Bureau, combined with geographical factors, temperature and population density, linear fitting, Mann-Kendall mutation test, pettitt method and sliding T test were used to analyze the spatio-temporal variation characteristics of frost date in Harbin Municipality and the effects of geographical factors, temperature and population density on frost regularity. The results showed that (1) The earliest year of FSD appeared was 1966 and 1967, on the 255th, i.e., August 18th, and the latest was 283 days, i.e., October 10th, 2006. The earliest year in which the FED appeared was April 24th of 2015, the 114th day of that year, and the latest was April 21st of 1974, the 141st day of that year. The year with the most frost was 2012, with 161 days, and the year with the shortest was 1966, with 123 days. (2) Throughout the study period, FSD increased by 7.8 days at a rate of -1.27d/10a, FED increased by 10.9 days at a rate of 1.77d/10a, and FFS increased by 18.9 days at a rate of 3.05d/10a. The tendency rate of FSD and FFS at each site in Harbin showed an increasing trend. For FED, the tendency rate of some sites showed an increasing trend. In general, FSD showed a delayed trend, FED showed an advanced trend, and FFS showed a prolonged trend. Using the method of unary linear regression, FSD of each site showed an increasing trend, FFS showed an increasing trend, and FED showed a decreasing trend in general. (3) Throughout the study period, FSD was mutated in 2000, and the arrival time of it in the study area averaged the 265th, i.e., September 22nd, and after that, the arrival time of it changed to the 272nd, i.e., September 29th of that year. FED was mutated in 2006, and the arrival time of it in the study area averaged 128th, i.e., April 8th. After the mutation, the arrival time of FED changed to 121st, i.e., April 1st of that year. FFS was mutated in 2004. Before the mutation, with an average arrival time of 137days in the study area .But after that, the time changed to 150 days.(4) FSD and FFS in Harbin Municipality were negatively correlated with latitude and positively correlated with temperature, while FED was positively correlated with latitude and negatively correlated with temperature. The FSD, FED and FFS in the central part of Harbin Municipality were the earliest, the latest and the longest, respectively, so the Pearson correlation coefficient method and the influence of longitude could not be reflected in the multiple regression. Several factors were judged by grey correlation analysis method. The longitude is significantly related to FSD, FED and FFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0699.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Frontal Temporal Dementia; Comorbidity; Breast cancer; COVID-19; Differential Gene expression analysis
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:04:32 CEST)
Frontal Temporal Dementia (FTD) is a neurological disorder known to have less therapeutic options. So far only a few biomarkers are available for FTD that can be used as potential comorbidity targets. To this end, in the present study we aim to identify potential biomarkers or susceptible genes for FTD that show comorbidities with diseases such as COVID-19 and Breast Cancer. Gene expression Omnibus datasets containing FTD expression profiles from African American and white ethnicity background were included in our study. In FTD samples of GSE193391 dataset, we identified 305 DEGs with 168 genes being up-regulated and 137 genes being down-regulated. We conducted comorbidity analysis for COVID-19 and Breast cancer followed by analysis of potential drug interactions, pathogenicity, analysis of genetic variants and functional enrichment analysis. Resulting genes AKT3, GFAP, ADCYAP1R1, VDAC1, and C4A showed significant transcriptomic alterations in FTD and significant comorbidity status with COVID-19 and Breast cancer. Functional pathway analysis revealed that these comorbid genes were significantly enriched in the pathways such as glioma, JAK/STAT signaling, systematic lupus erythematosus, neurodegeneration-multiple diseases and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. Overall, from these results, we concluded that these genes could be recommended as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of comorbidities in FTD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1590.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ontology; spatial-temporal ontology; ocean circulation; semantic analysis; Web Ontology Language (OWL)
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:12:42 CEST)
Ocean circulation serve as the primary channels for transporting material and energy flows throughout the entire ocean system, which plays a crucial role in shaping Earth’s climate, weather patterns, and marine ecosystems. The ocean movements have far-reaching impacts on both the environment and human life. An effective method for semantically modeling the ocean circulation is urgently required to be established. To achieve a unified description of ocean circulation at the semantic level, this paper introduces the theory and methodology of ocean ontology, which is developed through an analysis of domain knowledge in ocean circulation. We focus on analyzing the concepts, temporal relationships, and spatial relationships of ocean circulation. By defining classes, properties, relationships, instances, and constraint conditions within the logical structure of an ontology, it is feasible to formalize the expression of conceptual elements and their relationships. Additionally, semantic inference rules are established to finalize the construction of the ocean circulation ontology. The effectiveness of ontology construction has been verified through practical examples. Furthermore, a specialized knowledge base framework has been developed upon the ontology description of ocean circulation. Some examples of knowledge base queries have been articulated and verified. The results demonstrate that this ontology can effectively represent the relevant knowledge in the domain of ocean circulation and provide a meaningful strategy for investigating semantic integration and knowledge sharing in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0274.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; rural revitalization; spatio-temporal evolution; Gini coefficient; GWR model
Online: 19 July 2022 (04:12:41 CEST)
Using the 2011-2020 digital inclusive finance data released by Peking University and the index system constructed by the Blue Book of China Rural Revitalization and Development Index (2018), this paper analyzes the dynamic evolution of the digital inclusive finance and the rural revitaliza-tion from time and space dimensions with the help of kernel density estimation, Markov chain and Moran index. Using The Gini coefficient decomposition method to analyze the source of differ-ences in digital inclusive finance, and then using the spatial autoregressive (SAR) model and ge-ographically weighted regression (GWR) model to study the boosting effect of digital inclusive finance on rural revitalization from the perspective of spatial aggregation and spatial differentia-tion, respectively. The results show that: (1) The growth rate of China's digital inclusive finance slows down year by year, and the inter-provincial differences increase year by year and show gradient characteristics, indicating that there may be a trend of multipolar differentiation. The overall level of Rural Revitalization shows an increasing trend, and the gap between provinces is still apparent. (2) The evolution of digital inclusive finance and rural revitalization is a slow ad-justment process, and there has been no cross-level jump in the past ten years. In digital inclusive finance, the liquidity from the highest and lowest levels to the medium level is high. However, the liquidity in the states of rural revitalization development level is not high. (3) Rural revitalization has a positive spatial spillover effect. The level of rural revitalization in the western area is signif-icantly lower than in the eastern area. At the same time, there is no significant difference between the east and central areas. The depth of the use of digital inclusive finance has a significant positive impact on the revitalization and development of rural areas, indicating that the further promotion of digital inclusive finance business in rural areas can substantially boost the revitalization of rural areas. (4) The boosting effect of digital inclusive finance on rural revitalization shows prominent spatial differentiation characteristics. The depth of use and the degree of digitization generally show a positive impact. The central and eastern coastal cities have the highest impact, decreasing toward the southwest and northeast. The areas with the lowest usage depth impact are clustered in the northeast, and the areas with the lowest digitization impact are clustered in the southwest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Development economics; China’s fishery industry; development quality; spatio-temporal differentiation; panel data
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:14:26 CET)
By reviewing the research of development economics in recent years, five key terms of ‘innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing’ are extracted, corresponding to the five dimensions of the New Development Concept advocated by China. Based on this, an evaluation index system of the development quality of China's fishery industry is constructed. The spatio-temporal characteristics of China's fishery industry development quality were analyzed by using the provincial panel data from 2007 to 2017. The results show that: i) China's fishery industry overall development quality continues to grow, while the variation of provincial quality is also increasing, and the contribution of innovation quality and sharing quality is increasing, becoming an important sub-dimension leading the overall development quality.ii) there is a significant spatial dependence among provincial quality, and the significance is further strengthening. The Hangzhou Bay area and Bohai Bay area have gradually become a dual-core area where the high-quality development of China's fishery industry agglomeration, and the radiation from the dual-core area to the peripheral areas may still be in the process of enhancement. The spatial and temporal distribution of China’s fishery industry development quality keeps the trend of ‘from northeast to southwest’, which is almost parallel to Hu Huanyong line. The gravity center of its distribution is close to the gravity center of Chinese population and economy, and the development quality experienced a process from relatively concentrated to dispersed and then returned to concentrated, and the development speed in the later period was higher than that in the earlier period. iii) Capital accumulation level is the dominant positive influencing factors, while government support level is the dominant negative influencing factors respectively, and both have significant spatial differentiation among provinces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0458.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: biophoton emission; age; temporal variation; asymmetry; analytical model; photon diffusion; steady-state
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:26:03 CET)
Biophoton emission has been experimented for decades. The photo-genic origin of biophoton has also been attributed to the oxidative stress or free radical production. However, there are considerable gaps in quantitative understanding of biophoton emission. In this work, I propose an analytical hypothesis for interpreting a few patterns of steady-state biophoton emission of human, including the dependency on age, the diurnal variation, and the geometric asymmetry associated with serious asymmetrical pathological conditions. The hypothesis is based on an alternative form of energy state, termed vivo-nergy, which is associated with only metabolically active organisms that are also under neuronal control. The hypothesis projects a decrease of the vivo-nergy in human during growth beyond puberty. The hypothesis also proposes a modification of the vivo-nergy by the phases of systematic or homeostatic physiology. The hypothesis further postulates that the deviation of the physiology-modified vivo-nergy from the pre-puberty level is deteriorated by acquired organ-specific pathological conditions. A temporal differential change of vivo-nergy is hypothesized to proportionally modulate oxidative stress that functions as the physical source of biophoton emission. The resulted steady-state diffusion of the photon emitted from a photo-genic source in a human geometry simplified as a homogeneous spherical domain is modeled by photon diffusion principles incorporating an extrapolated zero-boundary condition. The age and systematic physiology combined determines the intensity of the centered physiological steady-state photo-genic source. An acquired pathology sets both the intensity and the off-center position of the pathological steady-state photo-genic source. When the age-commemorated, physiology-commanded, and pathology-controlled modifications of the steady-state photo-genetic sources are implemented in the photon diffusion model, the photon fluence rate at the surface of the human-representing spherical domain reveals the patterns on age, the temporal variation corresponding to systematic physiology, and the geometric asymmetry associated with significant asymmetric pathological condition as reported for spontaneous biophoton emission. The hypothesis, as it provides conveniences for quantitative estimation of biophoton emission patterns, will be extended in future works towards interpreting the temporal characteristics of biophoton emission under stimulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0031.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: SensorThings API; INSPIRE; download services; spatio-temporal data interoperability; Internet of Things
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:06:28 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0377.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover change detection; adaptive contextual information; bi-temporal remote sensing images
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:52:26 CEST)
Land cover change detection (LCCD) based on bi-temporal remote sensing images plays an important role in the inventory of land cover change. Due to the benefit of having spatial dependency properties within the image space while using remote sensing images for detecting land cover change, many contextual information based change detection methods have been proposed during past decades. However, there is still a space for improvement in accuracies and usability of LCCD. In this paper, a LCCD method based on adaptive contextual information is proposed. First, an adaptive region is constructed by gradually detecting the spectral similarity surrounding a central pixel. Second, the Euclidean distance between pairwise extended regions is calculated to measure the change magnitude between the pairwise central pixels of bi-temporal images. While the whole bi-temporal images are scanned pixel-by-pixel, the change magnitude image (CMI) can be generated. Then, the Otsu or a manual threshold is employed to acquire the binary change detection map (BCDM). The detection accuracies of the proposed approach are investigated by two land cover change cases with Landsat bi-temporal remote sensing images. In comparison to several widely used change detection methods, the proposed approach can achieve a land cover change inventory map with a competitive accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0096.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: complex catchment; weather X-band radars; flash floods; multifractals; spatio-temporal variability
Online: 14 October 2017 (03:10:07 CEST)
This paper presents a comparison between rain gauges, C-band and X-band radar data over an instrumented and regulated catchment of the Paris region, as well as their respective hydrological impacts with the help of flow observations and a semi-distributed hydrological model. Both radars confirm the high spatial variability of the rainfall down to their space resolution (respectively one kilometer and 250 m) and therefore underscore limitations of semi-distributed simulations. The use of the polarimetric capacity of the Météo-France C-band radar was limited to corrections of the horizontal reflectivity and its rainfall estimates are adjusted with the help of a rain gauge network. On the contrary, neither calibration was performed for the polarimetric X-band radar of the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (below called ENPC X-band radar), nor any optimization of its scans. In spite of that and the non-negligible fact that the catchment was much closer to the C-band radar than to the X-band radar (20 km vs. 40 km), the latter seems to perform at least as well as the former, but with a higher scale resolution. This characteristic was best highlighted with the help of a multifractal analysis of the respective radar data, which also shows that the X-band radar was able to pick up a few extremes that were smoothed out by the C-band radar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0583.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Agricultural surface pollution; Yangtze River Economic Zone; spatial and temporal characteristics; threshold effect
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:00:39 CEST)
In order to better realize rural revitalization, this paper analyzes the spatial and temporal char-acteristics and influencing factors of agricultural surface source pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from the three perspectives of government, enterprise and agriculture by using the spatial Durbin model and the dynamic GMM method in the period of 2006-2021, and further re-searches the threshold characteristics of the distortion of the factor market on the agricultural surface source pollution under the different strengths of environmental regulation. The results show that there is a positive spatial correlation between agricultural surface pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and government environmental regulation, input factor market distortion and labor force transfer all have a significant impact on agricultural surface pollution. Among them, factor market distortion has a significant spatial spillover effect on agricultural surface pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Zone, and has a significant single-threshold ef-fect on environmental regulation. Accordingly, the government should strengthen environmental regulation, continuously improve the agricultural factor market mechanism, and pay attention to the construction of talents to provide support for rural revitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0347.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: urbanization quality; ecosystem services; coupling coordination; spatial-temporal variations; Lanzhou-Xining Urban Agglomeration
Online: 14 April 2023 (04:13:31 CEST)
The study of man-land relationship in urbanization process is the current frontier and focus of international research. How to balance urban development and ecosystem conservation in the Upper Yellow River is a key issue for sustainable development in China. In this study, we evaluated the Lanzhou-Xining urban agglomeration （LXUA）by constructing a multi-dimensional assessment system for urbanization quality and ecosystem services. The efficacy function model, entropy weight method, and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model were used to quantitatively assess the subsystems' state of development. Then, the coupling model (CD) and the coordination degree（CCD）model were used to explore the coupling coordination relationship and spatial-temporal change characteristics of the composite system. The findings indicate that: 1）In 2020, the quality of urbanization in LXUA showed the pattern of "double core". The development of urban centers in each city is insufficient, and the proportion of counties with low-level is too high. 2）Integrated ecosystem services showed an increasing distribution pattern from the northeast to the southwest. Water provision services, soil conservation services and carbon fixation services all showed growth trends. 3）Each county’s composite system was in the run-in stage or highly coupled stage. The subsystems were closely related to each other. 4）The CCD was decreased by 6% between two decades. The number of counties on the verge of disorder was the highest. About 80% of the counties are relatively lagging behind in ecosystem services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy; hippocampus; 4-aminopyridine; epilepsy model; long-term potentiation; AMPA receptor.
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:45:31 CEST)
Even brief epileptic seizures can lead to activity-dependent structural remodeling of neural circuitry. Animal models show that the functional plasticity of synapses and changes in the intrinsic excitability of neurons can be crucial for epileptogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis remain unclear. We induced epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices for 15 min using a 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in vitro model and observed hippocampal hyperexcitability for at least 1 hour. We tested several possible mechanisms of this hyperexcitability, including changes in intrinsic membrane properties of neurons, presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations. Neither input resistance nor other essential biophysical properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were affected by epileptiform activity. The glutamate release probability also remained unchanged, as the frequency of miniature EPSCs and the paired amplitude ratio of evoked responses did not change after epileptiform activity. However, we found an increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio, suggesting alterations in the properties of postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors. Thus, the increase in excitability of hippocampal neural networks is realized through postsynaptic mechanisms. In contrast, the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons and the probability of glutamate release from presynaptic terminals are not affected in a 4-AP model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Travel Time Prediction; Deep Learning; Long Short Term Memory Networks; transit; temporal correlation
Online: 9 April 2021 (15:04:06 CEST)
This study introduces a comparative analysis of two deep learning (multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLP-NN) and the long short term memory networks (LSTMN)) models for transit travel time prediction. The two models were trained and tested using one-year worth of data for a bus route in Blacksburg, Virginia. In this study, the travel time was predicted between each two successive stations to all the model to be extended to include bus dwell times. Additionally, two additional models were developed for each category (MLP of LSTM): one for only segments including controlled intersections (controlled segments) and another for segments with no control devices along them (uncontrolled segments). The results show that the LSTM models outperform the MLP models with a RMSE of 17.69 sec compared to 18.81 sec. When splitting the data into controlled and uncontrolled segments, the RMSE values reduced to 17.33 sec for the controlled segments and 4.28 sec for the uncontrolled segments when applying the LSTM model. Whereas, the RMSE values were 19.39 sec for the controlled segments and 4.67 sec for the uncontrolled segments when applying the MLP model. These results demonstrate that the uncertainty in traffic conditions introduced by traffic control devices has a significant impact on travel time predictions. Nonetheless, the results demonstrate that the LSTMN is a promising tool that can has the ability to account for the temporal correlation within the data. The developed models are also promising tools for reasonable travel time predictions in transit applications.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0753.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HOX genes; Hox gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; vertebrates; elongated gene cluster
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:30:15 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important during embryogenesis. It relates events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order H1, H2, H3 … along the 3’ to 5’ direction of the DNA sequence. The corresponding embryonic tissues (E1, E2, E3, …) are activated along the Anterior – Posterior axis in the same order. Besides this collinearity a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is H1 expressed in E1, later is H2 in E2, followed by H3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) has been formulated and tested in the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. In the present work two equivalent realizations of BM are presented which explain the recent findings on TC as observed in the vertebrates.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: headwater catchment; water quality assessment; driving factors; spatial and temporal analysis; Southeast China
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:30:07 CET)
Safety of source water streams is an urgent environmental issue, while protections in monsoon controlled subtropical regions face difficulties because of the lack of small scaled observation and analysis in small source water catchments. Basing on continuous weekly water quality data (2014-2017) in Pingqiao River Catchment, the annual average values of TN, NO3, NH4 and TP are 3.36, 1.64, 0.28 and 0.02 (mg/L) respectively. During dry, normal and wet seasons, the variability of parameters is over 35%, which indicates an obvious seasonality. Multiple methods are combined in order to assess the water quality and find the driving factors during dry, normal and wet seasons. This study suggests precipitation and fertilization are the mainly seasonal factors, which can make water quality better in wet season than dry season due to the dilution effect. The mechanism between seasonality and compound of nutrients can also be traced by log(TN:TP), and log(NO3:NH4). Among six main land use types (forest, tea plantation, cropland (paddy), urban, bare soil and water), the former three ones are influential mostly during dry and wet season. Tea plantation has the largest nutrients discharge amount per area, which is similar to cropland in dry season. By contrary, forest has the double power in reducing nitrogen release in wet and normal seasons. When transformed into paddies, croplands can lower the phosphorus concentration. Conclusions of this study can be used in southeastern China and similar regions on source water protection and agricultural plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1628.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Epidemic Spatial Heterogeneity; Diversity; Spatio-Temporal Patterns; Cluster Analysis
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:45:04 CEST)
Results from an explorative study revealing spatio-temporal patterns of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 epidemic in Germany are presented. We dispense with contestable model assumptions and show the intrinsic spatio-temporal patterns of the epidemic dynamics. The analysis is based on COVID-19 incidence data, which are age-stratified and spatially resolved at the county level, provided by the Federal Government’s Public Health Institute of Germany (RKI) for public use. Although the 400 county-related incidence time series show enormous heterogeneity both with respect to temporal features as well as spatial distributions, the counties’ incidence curves organise into well distinguished clusters that coincide with East and West Germany. The analysis is based on dimensionality reduction, multidimensional scaling, network analysis, and diversity measures. Dynamical changes are captured by means of difference-in-difference methods which are related to fold changes of the effective reproduction numbers. The age-related dynamical patterns suggest a considerably stronger impact of children, adolescents and seniors on the epidemic activity than previously expected. Besides these concrete interpretations, the work mainly aims at providing an atlas for spatio-temporal patterns of the epidemic which serves as a basis to be further explored with the expertise from different disciplines, particularly sociology and policy makers. The study should also be understood as a methodological contribution to getting a handle on the unusual complexity of the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0100.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: dynamic point cloud; augmented reality; virtual reality; pose estimation; 3d skeleton; deformation; temporal prediction
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:50:39 CEST)
This paper proposes an algorithm for transmitting and reconstructing the estimated point cloud using temporally estimating a dynamic point cloud sequence. When a non-rigid 3D point cloud sequence (PCS) is input, the sequence is divided into groups of point cloud frames (PCF), and a key PCF is selected. After the 3D skeleton is predicted through 3D pose estimation, the motion of the skeleton is estimated by analyzing the joints and bones of the 3D skeleton. For the deformation of the non-rigid human PC, the 3D PC model is transformed into a mesh model, and the key PCF is rigged using the 3D skeleton. After deforming the key PCF into the target PCF utilizing the motion vector of the estimated skeleton, the residual PC between the motion compensation PCF and the target PCF is generated. If there is a key PCF, the motion vector of the target PCF, and a residual PC, the target PCF can be reconstructed. Just as compression is performed using pixel correlation between frames in a 2D video, this paper compresses 3D PCF by estimating the non-rigid 3D motion of a 3D object in a 3D PC. The proposed algorithm can be regarded as an extension of the 2D motion estimation of a rigid local region in a 2D plane to the 3D motion estimation of a non-rigid object (human) in 3D space. Experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully compress 3D PC sequences. If it is used together with a PC compression technique such as MPEG PCC (point cloud compression) in the future, a system with high compression efficiency may be configured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0210.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: continuous authentication; touch-gesture biometrics; few-shot anomaly detection; data augmentation; temporal convolution network
Online: 14 September 2022 (15:39:03 CEST)
The rapid growth of smartphone financial services raises the need for secure mobile authentication. Continuous authentication is a user-friendly way to strengthen the security of smartphones by implicitly monitoring a user’s identity through sessions. Mobile continuous authentication can be viewed as an anomaly detection problem in which models discriminate between one genuine user and the rest of the imposters (anomalies). In practice, complete imposter profiles are hardly available due to the time and monetary cost, while leveraging genuine data alone yields poor generalized models due to the lack of knowledge about imposters. To address this challenge, we recast continuous mobile authentication as a few-shot anomaly detection problem, aiming to enhance the inference robustness of unseen imposters by using partial knowledge of available imposter profiles. Specifically, we propose a novel deep learning-based model, namely Local Feature Pooling based Temporal Convolution Network (LFP-TCN), which directly models raw sequential mobile data, aggregating global and local feature information. In addition, we introduce a random pattern mixing augmentation to generate class-unconstrained imposter data for the training. The augmented pool enables characterizing various imposter patterns from limited imposter data. Finally, we demonstrate practical continuous authentication using score-level fusion, which prevents long-term dependency or increased model complexity due to extended re-authentication time. Experiments on two public benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our method and its state-of-the-art performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0633.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Conditional temporal moments; Optimizable support vector machine (SVM); Gearbox fault diagnosis; Vibration analysis.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:57:04 CEST)
Fault diagnosis of the gearbox is a decisive part of the modern industry to find the many gearbox defects like gear tooth crack, chipped or broken, etc. But sometimes, the nonstationary properties of vibration signal and low energy of minimal faults make this procedure very challenging. Previously, many types of techniques have been developed for gearbox condition monitoring. But most of the methods are dealing with conventional techniques of the gearbox condition monitoring, such as time-domain analysis or frequency domain analysis. Most of the conventional methods are not suitable for the nonstationary vibration signal. Thus, this paper presents a novel gearbox fault diagnosis technique using conditional temporal moments and an optimizable support vector machine (SVM). This work also presents an integrated features extraction technique based on the standard features, i.e., statistical and spectral features with the combinations of moment features. The impact of the four conditional temporal moments of each gearbox condition is also presented. This work shows that the proposed method successfully classifies and categorizes the gearbox faults at an early stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0431.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: agricultural eco-efficiency; DEA-SBM model; spatio-temporal evolution pattern; improvement potential; Jiangsu Province
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:34:15 CEST)
Achieving eco-efficiency in agriculture production at low environmental costs is key to sustainable agriculture. Using the DEA-SBM model, this study evaluated the agricultural eco-efficiency of the 77 counties and districts in China’s Jiangsu province from 1999 to 2018 and analyzed its spatio-temporal evolution pattern and influencing factors. The mains conclusions were as follows: (1) The overall agricultural eco-efficiency and its decomposition terms, pure technology efficiency and scale efficiency, exhibited a fluctuating downward trend. The regional inequality in agricultural eco-efficiency had been widening and exhibited a strong positive spatial association. (2) The agricultural eco-efficiency in Jiangsu province presented a “high south and low north” spatial pattern. High-level agricultural eco-efficiency areas were in the Taihu Plain in Sunan, while low-level agricultural eco-efficiency zones are distributed across Subei City. The High-High-type spatial association pattern is concentrated in the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region, while the Low-Low areas are mainly in the coastal regions of Subei and Suzhong. (3) The spatial pattern of PTE and SE generally exhibited a “high south and low north” distribution. Areas with positive growth in agricultural eco-efficiency, PTE, and SE, were situated in Xuzhou, Nanjing city, and the bordering regions between Yangzhou and Huai’an, and Changzhou and Wuxi. (4) The excessive redundant use and application of pesticides, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, land, and agricultural carbon emission have been the primary factor affecting Jiangsu's agricultural eco-efficiency. Irrigation had also signficantly impacted agricultural eco-efficiency, while mechanical power and agricultural film had minimal effect. The majority of counties and districts in Subei, Suzhong, and Ningzhen Yang Hilly region have issues regarding their excessive usage of chemical fertilizer, pesticide, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, and land. The findings of this study can contribute towards a better understanding of agricultural eco-efficiency and spatial association effect and can help policymakers increase agricultural eco-efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0412.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: seismic swarm; relocated aftershocks; transition zone; b-value temporal variation; central Ionian Islands (Greece)
Online: 25 May 2020 (16:47:35 CEST)
A quite energetic seismic excitation consisting of one main and additional three distinctive earthquake clusters that occurred in the transition area between the Kefalonia Transform Fault Zone (KTFZ) and the continental collision between Adriatic and Aegean microplates, is thoroughly studied after high–precision aftershocks’ relocation. The activated fault segments are in an area where historical and instrumental data have never claimed the occurrence of a catastrophic (M>6.0) earthquake. The relocated seismicity initially defines an activated structure extending from the northern segment of the Lefkada branch of KTFZ with the same NNE–SSW orientation and dextral strike-slip faulting and then keeping the same sense of motion its strike becomes NE–SW and its dip direction NW. This provides unprecedented information on the link between the KTFZ and the Collision front and sheds more light on the regional geodynamics. The earthquake catalog, which is specially compiled for this study, starts one year before the occurrence of the Mw5.4 mainshock and adequately provides the proper data source for investigating the temporal variation of the b–value, which might be used for discriminating foreshock and aftershock behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0213.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Temporal-order judgments; modeling; theory of visual attention; TVA; range of indecision; encoding reset
Online: 8 June 2018 (16:12:09 CEST)
Humans are incapable of judging the temporal order of visual events at brief temporal separations with perfect accuracy. Their performance---which is of much interest in visual cognition and attention research---can be measured with the temporal-order judgment task, which typically produces S-shaped psychometric functions. Occasionally, researchers reported plateaus within these functions, and some theories predict such deviation from the basic S shape. However, the centers of the psychometric functions result from the weakest performance at the most difficult presentations and therefore fluctuate strongly, leaving existence and exact shapes of plateaus unclear. This study set out to investigate whether plateaus disappear if the data accuracy is enhanced, or if we are ``stuck on a plateau'', or rather with it. For this purpose, highly accurate data were assessed by model-based analysis. The existence of plateaus is confidently confirmed and two plausible mechanisms derived from very different models are presented. Neither model, however, performs well in the presence of a strong attention manipulation, and model comparison remains unclear on the question which of the models describes the data best. Nevertheless, the present study includes the highest accuracy in visual TOJ data and the most explicit models of plateaus in TOJ studied so far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Blood brain barrier, Gliosis, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Inflammation, Epileptogenesis, Hippocampus, Endothelial cells, Pericytes, Basal membrane
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:26:25 CEST)
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with reorganization of neuronal networks, gliosis, neuroinflammation, loss of integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in the hippocampus in humans and animal models. More than 30% of epilepsies remain intractable and characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in BBB dysfunction is essential to the identification of new therapeutic strategies. In this work, we induced status epilepticus in rats by injection of the proconvulsant drug pilocarpine that leads to TLE. Using RT-qPCR, double immunohistochemistry and confocal imaging, we studied at different time points of epileptogenesis (latent phase, 3, 7, 14 days; chronic phase, 1 and 3 months) the regulation of reactive glia and vascular markers. In the hippocampus, increased expression of mRNA encoding the glial proteins GFAP and Iba1 confirmed neuroinflammatory status. We report for the first time the concomitant induction in endothelial cells, pericytes and basal membrane of the BBB of specific proteins CD31, PDGFR and ColIV, that peaks at the same time points as inflammation. The altered expression of these proteins occurs early in TLE, during the latent phase, suggesting that they could be associated with early rupture and pathogenicity of the BBB that will contribute to the chronic phase of epilepsy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1697.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy; anakinra; lithium–pilocarpine model; behavior; epileptogenesis; hippocampus; spontaneous recurrent seizures; neuronal loss
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:16:16 CEST)
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common, chronic disorder with spontaneous seizures that is often refractory to drug therapy. A potential cause of temporal lobe epilepsy is primary brain injury, making prevention of epileptogenesis after the initial event an optimal method of treatment. Despite this, no preventive therapy for epilepsy is currently available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of anakinra, lamotrigine, and their combination on epileptogenesis using the rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The study showed that the treated and untreated animals showed no significant difference in the number and duration of seizures. However, the severity of seizures was significantly reduced after treatment. Anakinra and lamotrigine, alone or in combination, significantly reduced neuronal loss in the CA1 hippocampus compared to the control group. However, the drugs administered alone were found to be more effective for CA3 than their combination. The treatment alleviated the impairments in activity level, exploratory behavior and anxiety, but had a relatively weak effect on TLE-induced impairments in social behavior and memory. The efficacy of the combination treatment did not differ from that of anakinra and lamotrigine monotherapy. These findings suggest that anakinra and lamotrigine, alone or in combination, may have clinical utility in preventing epileptogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1232.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: lightning prediction; deep learning; spatio-temporal features; convolutional neural networks; long short-term memory networks
Online: 19 September 2023 (13:32:06 CEST)
The escalation of climate change and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events have amplified the importance of precise and timely lightning prediction. This predictive capability is pivotal for the preservation of life, protection of property, and maintenance of crucial infrastructure safety. Recently, the rapid advancement and successful application of data-driven deep learning across diverse sectors, particularly in computer vision and spatio-temporal data analysis, have opened up innovative avenues for enhancing both the accuracy and efficiency of lightning prediction. This article presents a comprehensive review of the broad spectrum of existing lightning prediction methodologies. Starting from traditional numerical forecasting techniques, we traverse the path to the most recent breakthroughs in deep learning research. We encapsulate these diverse methods, shedding light on their progression and summarizing their capabilities, while also predicting their future development trajectories. This exploration is designed to enhance our understanding of these methodologies, allowing us to better utilize their strengths, navigate their limitations, and potentially integrate these techniques to create novel and powerful lightning prediction tools. Through such endeavors, our aim is to bolster our preparedness against the growing unpredictability of our climate and ensure a proactive stance towards lightning prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: spatio-temporal associative memory; STAM; neuroimaging data; spiking neural networks; NeuCube; EEG; fMRI; neuroimage classification
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:46:24 CEST)
Humans learn from a lot of information sources to make decisions. Once this information is learned in the brain, spatio-temporal associations are made, connecting all these sources (variables) in space and time represented as brain connectivity. In reality, to make a decision, we usually have only part of the infor-mation, either as a limited number of variables, or limited time to make the decision, or both. The brain functions as spatio-temporal associative memory. Inspired by the ability of the human brain, a brain-inspired spatio-temporal associative memory was proposed earlier, that utilizes the NeuCube brain-inspired spiking neural network framework. Here we apply the STAM framework to develop STAM for neuroimaging data, on the cases of EEG and fMRI, resulting in STAM-EEG and STAM-fMRI. The paper shows that once a NeuCube STAM classification model is trained on a complete spatio-temporal EEG or fMRI data, it can be recalled using only part of the time series, or/and only part of the used variables. We evaluate accordingly the temporal association accuracy and spatial association accuracy. This is a pilot study that opens the field for the development of multimodal classification systems on other multimodal neuroimaging data, such as the also shown longitudinal MRI data, trained on complete data, but recalled on partial data collected across different settings, in different labs and clinics, that may vary in terms of variables, time of data collection, and other parameters. The proposed methods will allow also for brain diagnostic/prognostic marker discovery using spatio-temporal neuroimaging data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Contact Fatigue; Feature Extraction; Health Index; Degradation Prediction; Temporal Convolutional Network; Convolutional Auto-Encoder Network
Online: 5 July 2023 (14:04:06 CEST)
In order to realize the performance degradation trend prediction accurately, a prediction method based on multi-domain features and temporal convolutional network (TCN) is proposed. Firstly, construct a high-dimensional feature set in the multi-domain of vibration signals, and use comprehensive evaluation indicators to preliminarily screen performance degradation indexes with good sensitivity and strong trend. Secondly, the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) method is adopted to eliminate redundant information between multi-domain features, and construct a health index (HI) based on convolutional auto-encoder (CAE) network. Thirdly, a TCN-based performance degradation trend prediction model is constructed, and direct multi-step prediction is used to predict the performance degradation trend of the monitored object. On this basis, the validity of the proposed method is verified using the bearing public data, and it is successfully applied to performance degradation trend prediction of rolling contact fatigue specimen. The results show that the feature set can be reduced from 14 dimensions to 4 dimensions by using KPCA, while 98.33% of the information of the original feature set is retained. Furthermore, the method of constructing HI based on CAE network is effective. The change process of the HI constructed truly reflects the performance degradation process of the rolling contact fatigue specimen. Compared with the two commonly used HI construction methods, auto-encoding (AE) network and gaussian mixture model (GMM), this method has obvious advantages. At the same time, the prediction model based on TCN can accurately predict the performance degradation of the rolling contact fatigue specimen with the root mean square error 0.0146 and the mean absolute error 0.0105, which has better performance and higher prediction accuracy than the prediction model based on the long short-term memory (LSTM) network and the gated recurrent unit (GRU). This method has general significance and may be extended to the performance degradation prediction of other mechanical equipment/parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Heavy metals; water quality; remediation; water security; ecosystem services; spatio-temporal variation; nature-based solution
Online: 15 May 2023 (14:14:33 CEST)
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a potential accumulator of water pollutants in aquatic ecosystems, and its presence in water systems can affect water quality. This study used different field measurements and laboratory tests of Lake Water to determine the impact of water hyacinth phytoremediation capacity. A total of eight sampling stations used for the two lakes; Lake Koka and Lake Ziway. Sampling stations were selected from sites infested with water hyacinth (low, medium and high) and non-water hyacinth aquatic plants during wet and dry seasons to compare the effects of plants on water quality in the two lakes. All the sampled stations had various human interventions. The water samples were tested for the selected physico-chemical properties namely phosphate, nitrate, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Biological oxygen demand (BOD5), temperature, and heavy metals (Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), and Copper (Cu). These water quality variables were compared by means of ANOVA. Despite the COD of Lake Ziway, this study found no significant (p > 0.05) variation in the concentrations of Cu, EC, pH and temperature between wet and dry seasons in either lake. Variations in Zn concentration and other physico-chemical parameters (EC, BOD, COD, nitrate, phosphate) between low, medium and high levels of water hyacinth were significant in both lakes (p<0.05). Water hyacinth has shown significant phytoremediation nature during wet and dry seasons. The lowest average heavy metal, phosphate, and nitrate concentrations; and significant pH and temperature variations were observed in Lakes Koka and Lake Ziway, among water hyacinth and other grass-infested sites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: astrocyte; gap junction coupling; connexin 43; connexin 30; hippocampus, epilepsy; ep-ileptogenesis; temporal lobe epilepsy
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:07:39 CET)
The gap junction-coupled astroglial network plays a central role in the regulation of neuronal activity and synchronization, but its involvement in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases is not yet understood. Here we present the current state of knowledge about the impact of impaired glial coupling in the development and progression of epilepsy and discuss whether astrocytes represent alternative therapeutic targets. We focus mainly on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is the most common form of epilepsy in adults, characterized by high therapy resistance. Functional data from TLE patients and corresponding experimental models point to a complete loss of astrocytic coupling, but preservation of the gap junction forming proteins connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin30 (Cx30) in hippocampal sclerosis. Several studies further indicate that astrocyte uncoupling represents a causal event in the initiation of TLE, as it occurs very early in epileptogenesis, clearly preceding dysfunctional changes in neurons. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of gap junction channels in epilepsy and to develop safe and effective therapeutic strategies targeting astrocytes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: frailty; muscle volume; nutritional status; prognostic factor; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle mass; stroke; temporal muscle thickness.
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:12:03 CET)
Background: Evaluating muscle mass and function among stroke patients is important. However, evaluating muscle volume and function is not easy due to the disturbance of consciousness and paresis. Temporal muscle thickness (TMT) has been introduced as a novel surrogate marker for muscle mass, function, and nutritional status. We herein performed a narrative literature review on temporal muscle and stroke to understand the current meaning of the TMT in the clinical stroke practice. Methods: The search was performed in PubMed, last updated in October 2021. Report on temporal muscle morphomics and stroke-related diseases or clinical entities were collected. Results: Four studies reported on TMT and subarachnoid hemorrhage, 2 intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 ischemic stroke, 2 standard TMT values, and 2 nutritional status. TMT was reported as a prognostic factor for several diseases, surrogate markers for skeletal muscle mass, and an indicator of nutritional status. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography were used to measure TMT. Conclusions: TMT is gradually used as a prognostic factor of stroke or surrogate marker for skeletal muscle mass and nutritional status. Establishing standard methods to measure TMT and large prospective studies to investigate the further relationship between TMT and diseases are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0065.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: sea surface pCO2; ocean color remote sensing; CatBoost algorithm; temporal and spatial distribution; influencing factors
Online: 2 April 2021 (13:58:50 CEST)
Sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a critical parameter in the quantification of air-sea CO2 flux, which plays an important role in calculating the global carbon budget and ocean acidification. In this study, we use chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla), sea surface temperature (SST), absorption due to dissolved and particulate detrital matter (Adg), diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance at 490nm (Kd) and mixed layer depth (MLD) as input data for retrieving the sea surface pCO2 in the North Atlantic based on a remote sensing empirical approach with the Categorical Boosting (CatBoost) algorithm. The results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) is 8.25μatm, the mean bias error (MAE) is 4.92μatm and the coefficient of determination (R2) can reach 0.946 in the validation set, which mean that the CatBoost model makes an improvement compared to other models in the published studies. In the further analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the sea surface pCO2 in the North Atlantic, it can be found that the North Atlantic sea surface pCO2 has a clear trend with latitude variations and have strong seasonal changes. Furthermore, the sea surface pCO2 in this area is mainly affected by sea temperature and salinity, and influenced by biological activities in some sub-regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0039.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: generative model; human movement; conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network; GAN; spatio-temporal pseudo-image
Online: 2 November 2020 (12:55:22 CET)
Generative models for images, audio, text and other low-dimension data have achieved great success in recent years. Generating artificial human movements can also be useful for many applications, including improvement of data augmentation methods for human gesture recognition. The object of this research is to develop a generative model for skeletal human movement, allowing to control the action type of generated motion while keeping the authenticity of the result and the natural style variability of gesture execution. We propose to use a conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (DC-GAN) applied to pseudo-images representing skeletal pose sequences using Tree Structure Skeleton Image format. We evaluate our approach on the 3D-skeleton data provided in the large NTU RGB+D public dataset. Our generative model can output qualitatively correct skeletal human movements for any of its 60 action classes. We also quantitatively evaluate the performance of our model by computing Frechet Inception Distances, which shows strong correlation to human judgement. Up to our knowledge, our work is the first successful class-conditioned generative model for human skeletal motions based on pseudo-image representation of skeletal pose sequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0118.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: noise disturbances; residents complaints; logistic regression; spatio-temporal effects; socio-demographic and environmental effects; GIS
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:42:05 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the presence of spatial and temporal effects on the calls for noise disturbance service reported to the Local Police of València (Spain) in the time period from 2014 to 2015, and investigate how some socio-demographic and environmental variables affect the noise phenomenon. The analysis is performed at the level of València's boroughs. It has been carried out using a logistic model after dichotomization of the noise incidents variable. The spatial effects consider first and second order neighbours. The temporal effects are included in the model by means of one and two weeks temporal lags. Our model confirms the presence of strong spatio-temporal effects. We also find significant associations between noise incidence and specific age groups, socio-economic status, land uses and recreational activities, among other variables. The results suggest that there is a problem of ``social'' noise in València that is not exclusively a consequence of coexistence between local residents. External factors such as the increasing number of people on the streets during weekend nights or during summer months increase severely the chances of expecting a noise incident.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0612.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: geophysical signal processing; pattern recognition; temporal convolutional neural networks; seismology; deep learning; nuclear treaty monitoring
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:37:48 CET)
The detection of seismic events at regional and teleseismic distances is critical to Nuclear Treaty Monitoring. Traditionally, detecting regional and teleseismic events has required the use of an expensive multi-instrument seismic array; however in this work, we present DeepPick, a novel seismic detection algorithm capable of array-like performance from a single trace. We achieve this directly, by training our single-trace detector against labeled events from an array catalog, and by utilizing a deep temporal convolutional neural network. The training data consists of all arrivals in the International Seismological Centre Catalog for seven seismic arrays over a five year window from 1 Jan 2010 to 1 Jan 2015, yielding a total training set of 608,362 detections. The test set consists of the same seven arrays over a one year window from 1 Jan 2015 to 1 Jan 2016. We report our results by training the algorithm on six of the arrays and testing it on the seventh, so as to demonstrate the transportability and generalization of the technique to new stations. Detection performance against this test set is outstanding. Fixing a type-I error rate of 1%, the algorithm achieves an overall recall rate of 73% on the 141,095 array beam picks in the test set, yielding 102,394 correct detections. This is more than 4 times the 23,259 detections found in the analyst-reviewed single-trace catalogs over the same period, and represents an 8dB improvement in detector sensitivity over current methods. These results demonstrate the potential of our algorithm to significantly enhance the effectiveness of the global treaty monitoring network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0206.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: human psychophysics; apparent motion; temporal integration; cat; retina; neural coding; Hassenstein-Reichardt detector; model analysis
Online: 10 October 2018 (06:31:03 CEST)
Under optimal conditions, just 3–6 ms of visual stimulation suffices for humans to see motion. Motion perception on this time scale implies that the visual system under these conditions reliably encodes, transmits, and processes neural signals with near-millisecond precision. Motivated by in vitro evidence for high temporal precision of motion signals in the primate retina, we investigated how neuronal and perceptual limits of motion encoding relate. Specifically, we examined the correspondence between the time scale at which cat retinal ganglion cells in vivo represent motion information and temporal thresholds for human motion discrimination. The time scale for motion encoding by ganglion cells ranged from 4.6–91 ms, depended nonlinearly on temporal frequency but not on contrast. Human psychophysics revealed that minimal stimulus durations required for perceiving motion direction were similarly brief, 5.6–65 ms, similarly depended on temporal frequency but, above ~10%, not on contrast. Notably, physiological and psychophysical measurements corresponded closely throughout (r = 0.99), despite more than a 20-fold variation in both human thresholds and optimal time scales for motion encoding in the retina. These results demonstrate that neural circuits for motion vision in cortex can maintain and make use of the high temporal fidelity of the retinal output signals.