REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0455.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: abiotic stresses; GWAS; ionomics; omics; phenomics; QTL
Online: 28 June 2018 (04:41:19 CEST)
Abiotic stresses greatly influenced wheat productivity executed by environmental factors such as drought, salt, water submergence, and heavy metals. The effective management at molecular level is mandatory for thorough understanding of plant response to abiotic stress. The molecular mechanism of stress tolerance is complex and requires information at the omic level to understand it effectively. In this regard, enormous progress has been made in the omics field in the areas of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The emerging field of ionomics is also being employed for investigating abiotic stress tolerance in wheat. Omic approaches generate a huge amount of data, and adequate advancements in computational tools have been achieved for effective analysis. However, the integration of omic-scale information to address complex genetics and physiological questions is still a challenge. In this review, we have described advances in omic tools in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to dissect abiotic stress tolerance in wheat. Emphasis was given to approaches such as quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS). Comparative genomics and candidate gene approaches are also discussed considering identification of potential genomic loci, genes, and biochemical pathways involved in stress tolerance mechanism in wheat. This review also provides a comprehensive catalog of available online omic resources for wheat and its effective utilization. We have also addressed the significance of phenomics in the integrated approaches and recognized high-throughput multi-dimensional phenotyping as a major limiting factor for the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in wheat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Abscisic acid biosynthetic genes; aquaporins; Biofilm forming bacteria; growth traits; oxidative injury; Tomato
Online: 8 August 2022 (05:48:17 CEST)
Use of rhizosphere microorganisms provides an alternative or supplement to conventional plant breeding to improve water deficit tolerance of tomato plants. Experiment was carried out to explore the effect of two microbial species, AMF (Rhizophagus irregularis) and Bacillus subtilis, in single and co-application, on growth, colonization, and molecular aspects of tomato plants under drought stress. Co-inoculated plants showed less reduction in growth traits, photosynthetic pigments, colonization rate, and increased compatible solutes like proline which help in sustaining relative water content than non-inoculated plants. Inoculation considerably enhanced proline dehydrogenase activity, and significantly reduced both Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase activity causing lower proline accumulation in inoculated plants under drought stress. Co-inoculated plants showed obvious upregulation of antioxidant system, thus facilitating amelioration of oxidative stress through exclusion of reactive oxygen species. No inoculation under drought stress upregulated abscisic acid related genes expression but have no effect in plants inoculated either sole or mixed inoculation. Expression of aquaporin genes was upregulated in plants co-inoculated and with AMF alone under normal condition. However the expression of aquaporin genes were decreased or unaffected in plants inoculated with Bacillus subtilis but increased in non-inoculated plants. Co-applied AMF and bacillus subtilis substantially increase drought tolerance by upregulating proline metabolism, antioxidant enzymes and aquaporin genes. Therefore our results suggest that co-inoculation mediated drought tolerance is linked with increased proline accumulation, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and differential regulation of ABA biosynthetic and aquaporin genes, which is vital for osmotic adjustment of host plant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Transgender medicine; fertility; fertility preservation; infertility
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:54:13 CEST)
Fertility preservation technologies have existed for decades, and the field is rapidly advancing; limited data exist regarding the use of these technologies by transgender patients. Many options are available for transgender patients who wish to preserve fertility before transitioning. These options include the cryopreservation of gametes, ovarian tissue, or embryos. Currently, ejaculated, or testicular sperm, immature oocytes, and ovarian tissue can be preserved for later use, but no such use option exists for immature testicular tissue. Many financial, sociological, and legal barriers and a lack of awareness among physicians and patients also hindered the utilization of these fertility preservation services. While options are abundant, usage rates are relatively low. The initial data regarding the successful use of preserved tissues appears promising, with birth rates not dissimilar to non-transgender patients. Further investigations into this area are needed. In addition, counseling regarding fertility preservation options should become a significant part of the provider-patient conversation before transitioning therapies.; fertility; transgender; reproductive technology.