ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public-private partnership; rural community development; Taiwanese farmer associations; farmer cooperative organizations
Online: 15 October 2018 (10:22:16 CEST)
This paper discusses a significant public-private partnership (PPP) formed by the government and Taiwanese Farmer Associations. Particularly, it will investigate a pattern of the PPP that has successfully promoted rural development and agricultural modernization in Taiwan since 1950s. Taiwanese Farmer Associations (hereafter TFAs), similar to agricultural cooperatives in South Korea and Japan, have played a policy agent in fostering rural development in this island state since 1950s. TFA’s performance inherently came from Japanese Cooperatives before World War II. The Performances of those farmer organizations are combinations of economic, social, and educational synergies. The rural development experiences in Taiwan demonstrate that success of rural modernization is carried out by a special public-private partnership (PPP). First, this paper discusses formation and development of farmer cooperative organizations in East Asian societies and compare the similarities and differences of practice of those organizations and their relations to the governments among Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan. Secondly, this paper examines collaborative mold and process in which both the government and Taiwan Farmer Associations have been extensively involved. A specific cooperative apparatus between the government and TFA functioning and operating as a perfect PPP has been formed under administrative guidance of the state. Thirdly, this paper looks at input and various supports in financial and policy perspective by the public sector. Fourthly, the paper discusses legal framework, administrative apparatus, and governance pattern for TFA. Fifthly, the paper discuses that a specific PPP successfully involving in rural modernization in Taiwan is significantly derived from the state’ guidance that properly regulates a collaboration between the government and TFA. So-call East Asian model of PPP in agricultural modernization and rural community development may become a valuable experience for most of developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0225.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: hemoglobin; iron nutrition status; metabolic syndrome; metabolic disorders; observational study; Taiwanese Han Chinese; European White
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:03:24 CEST)
Iron overnutrition has been implicated with higher risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, including metabolic syndrome (MetS), while iron deficiency anemia exacerbates many underlying chronic conditions. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the blood, which reflects a major functional iron (i.e., heme iron) in the body, may serve as a surrogate of iron nutrition status. We conducted sex-specific observational association studies where we carefully titrated the association between Hb deciles and MetS and its components among the Taiwanese Han Chinese (HC) from the Taiwan Biobank and Europeans of White ancestry from the UK Biobank, representing two large ethnicities. Our data show that at higher-than-normal levels of Hb, increasing deciles of Hb concentration were significantly associated with MetS across all sex subgroups in both ethnicities, with the highest deciles resulting in up to three times greater risks than the reference group [Taiwanese HC: OR=3.17 (95% CI, 2.75-3.67) for Hb >16.5 g/dL in men, OR=3.11 (2.78-3.47) for Hb >14.5 g/dL in women; European Whites: OR=1.89 (1.80-1.98) for Hb >16.24 g/dL in men, OR=2.35 (2.24-2.47) for Hb >14.68 g/dL in women]. The association between stronger risks and increasing Hb deciles was similarly observed with all metabolic components except diabetes. Here we found that both the highest Hb decile groups and contrarily the lowest ones, with respect to the reference, were associated with higher odds of diabetes in both ethnic groups [e.g., Taiwanese HC men: OR=1.64 (1.33-2.02) for Hb >16.5 g/dL, OR=1.71 (1.39-2.10) for Hb <13.5 g/dL; European Whites women: OR=1.39 (1.26-1.45) for Hb >14.68 g/dL, OR=1.81 (1.63-2.01) for Hb <12.39 g/dL]. These findings confirm that elevated Hb concentrations, a potential indicator of iron overnutrition, may play a role in the pathophysiology of MetS and metabolic components.