REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute leukemia; chronic leukemia; cutis; diagnosis; pathogenesis; prolympchocytic leukemia; Richter transformation; skin lesions; treatment
Online: 10 October 2023 (05:36:42 CEST)
Leukemia cutis (LC) is defined as leukemic infiltration of the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue. Leukemia cutis may follow or occur simultaneously with the diagnosis of systemic leukemia. However, cutaneous lesions are occasionally diagnosed as the primary manifestation of leukemia. Leukemic skin infiltrations demonstrate considerable variation regarding number of changes, distribution, and morphology. The highest incidence of LC is observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, monocytic and myelomonocytic acute myeloid leukemia, and in T-cell lineage leukemia. Although the pathogenic mechanism of the invasion of leukemic cells into the skin is not well understood, chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules as well as genetic characteristics of leukemia are thought to play a role. Leukemic skin lesions may be localized or disseminated and may occur alone or in combination on any site of the skin, most frequently in the trunk and extremities. The most common clinical presentations of leukemia cutis are papules, nodules, macules, plaques, and ulcers. In most patients, complete or partial resolution of cutaneous infiltrations occurs simultaneously with hematologic remission. However, in patients with resistant disease or recurrent skin infiltration, local radiotherapy can be used. This review presents recent data on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of leukemic skin involvement in different types of leukemia
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Acalabrutinib; Bruton’s tyrosine kinase; BTK; CLL; Covalent inhibitors; COVID-19; Ibrutinib; Non-covalent inhibitors; Fenebrutinib; MK1026; Pirtobrutinib; Spebrutinib; Tirabrutinib; Zanubrutinib
Online: 16 December 2021 (16:13:54 CET)
The use of the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors has changed the management and clinical history of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). BTK is a critical molecule that interconnects B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. BTKIs are classified into two categories: irreversible (covalent) inhibitors and reversible (non-covalent) inhibitors. Ibrutinib is the ﬁrst irreversible BTK inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2013 as a breakthrough therapy in CLL patients. Subsequently, several studies evaluated the efﬁcacy and safety of new agents with reduced toxicity when compared with ibrutinib. Two other irreversible, second-generation BTK inhibitors, acalabrutinib and zanubrutinib, were developed to reduce ibrutinib-mediated adverse effects. Additionally, new reversible BTK inhibitors are currently under development in an early phase studies to improve their activity and to diminish adverse effects. This review summarizes the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, dosing, drug-drug interactions associated with the treatment of CLL with BTK inhibitors, and examines its further implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0714.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma; Brentuximab vedotin; CD30 positive lymphomas; Diagnosis; Lymphomatoid papulosis; Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; Treatment
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:27:17 CET)
One of the most common subgroups of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas is the that of primary cutaneous CD30 positive lymphoproliferative disorders. The group includes lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL), as well as some borderline cases. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the genetics and treatment of these disorders. This review article summarizes the clinical evidence supporting the current treatment options in these diseases. Recent years have seen the introduction of novel agents into clinical practice; most of these target CD30, such as anti-CD30 monoclonal antibodies and conjugated antibodies (brentuximab vedotin), bispecific antibodies and cellular therapies, particularly anti-CD30 CAR-T cells. This paper briefly reviews the biology of CD30 that makes it a good therapeutic target, and describes the anti-CD30 therapies that have emerged to date.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biology; drug resistance; gene expression profiling; mRNA; multiple myeloma; prognosis; treatment
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:20:44 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically complex disease that results from a multistep transformation of normal to malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and heterogeneous evolution of MM remain largely unknown. A fundamental step needed to understand the oncogenesis of MM and its response to therapy is the identification of driver mutations. The introduction of gene expression profiling (GEP) in MM was an important step in elucidating the molecular heterogeneity of MM and its clinical relevance. Since some mutations in myeloma occur in non-coding regions, studies based on the analysis of mRNA provide more comprehensive information on the oncogenic pathways and mechanisms relevant to MM biology. In this review, we discuss the role of gene expression profiling in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma together with the clinical manifestation of the disease, as well as its impact on treatment decisions and future directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: BRAF; cladribine; dabrafenib; hairy cell leukemia; moxetumomab pasudotox; rituximab; vemurafenib
Online: 3 June 2021 (08:09:13 CEST)
The purine nucleoside analogues cladribine and pentostatin are highly-active first-line therapeutic treatments for hairy cell leukemia (HCL), resulting in complete response rates of 80 to 90%. However, HCL patients continue to relapse, and sooner or later, most require subsequent lines of treatment. This report presents the relapsed patients with classic HCL who were treated with vemurafenib (mostly at the low dose of 240 mg twice daily for 16 weeks) combined with rituximab after the failure of several lines of therapy including cladribine with or without rituximab and moxetumomab pasudotox. Two patients achieved CR MRD (-) after combined treatment with vemurafenib and rituximab, with a hematologic response ongoing after 38 months from the end of treatment in one patient and a relapse of cytopenias occurring after 13 months in the other patient. A third patient normalized her blood counts and this hematologic response, which was not evaluated in the bone marrow at the end of treatment, was lost after 18 months. The last patient died due to infection and multi-organ failure, too early to verify response to vemurafenib. Two patients who had relapsed after vemurafenib and rituximab derived meaningful clinical benefit from retreatment with the same agents, but eventually relapsed again and started indefinite therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib with normalization of the blood counts despite heavy bone marrow infiltration in the only patient so far evaluable. The outcomes of these cases indicate that novel targeted agents, and in particular vemurafenib combined with rituximab, improve the prognosis of HCL patients, even those heavily pretreated with PNAs and moxetumomab pasudotox
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1468.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: CLL; atypical CLL; CD5; CD23; CLL differential diagnosis.
Online: 21 July 2023 (09:07:06 CEST)
A diagnosis of typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) requires the presence of ≥5000 clonal B-lymphocytes/μL with the coexistence of CD19, CD20, CD5, and CD23 and the restriction of light chain immunoglobulin, and the lack of expression of antigens CD22 and CD79b. Atypical CLL (aCLL) can be distinguished from typical CLL morphologically and immunophenotypically. Atypical CLL cells are defined as prolymphocytes; morphologically, these present as deeply-clefted lymphocytes which are larger than those in typical CLL, with condensed chromatin and without prominent nucleoli. However, current aCLL diagnostics rely more on immunophenotypic characteristics rather than atypical morphology. Immunophenotypically, atypical CLL differs from classic CLL in the lack of expression of one or fewer surface antigens, most commonly CD5 and CD23, and the patient does not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of any other B-cell lymphoid malignancy. Morphologically atypical CLL has more aggressive clinical behavior and worse prognosis than classic CLL. Patients with aCLL are more likely to display markers associated with poor prognosis, including trisomy 12, unmutated IGVH, and CD38 expression compared with classic CLL. However, no standard or commonly-accepted criteria exist for differentiating aCLL from classic CLL and the clinical significance of aCLL is still under debate. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the morphological, immunophenotypic and genetic abnormalities of aCLL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: complication; dexamethasone; IMiD; infection; lenalidomide; multiple myeloma; neutropenia; Rd
Online: 1 September 2022 (09:46:28 CEST)
Lenalidomide-based regimens are effective treatment options for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). However, they are associated with an increased risk of infectious complications. This study examines the clinical factors influencing the occurrence of infection in MM patients treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd). A retrospective analysis of all patients who received the Rd regimen between 2017-2021 at our institution was performed. The study group consisted of 174 patients and the median age was 65 years. Most patients (n=110, 63.2%) received the Rd treatment in second-line treatment. The majority of patients (64.3%) received bortezomib-based regimens in the first line of treatment. The median progression-free survival was 12.6 (95% CI: 9.5 – 16.2) months, and the median overall survival was 22.3 (95% CI: 15.9 – 28.6) months. The overall response rate was 64.1%, 12.7% of patients achieved complete response and 20.4% had a very good partial response. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, hypoalbuminemia (OR 4.2, 95%CI:1.6-11.2, p= 0.0039), autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) before Rd (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.0- 6.7, p= 0.048) and anemia grade ≥3 (OR 5.0, 95%CI: 1.8-14.0, p= 0.002) were independent factors related to the occurrence of infections. In conclusion, in this large cohort of RRMM patients, AHSCT before Rd regimen therapy, hypoalbuminemia and anemia during treatment were identified as three independent factors influencing the frequency of infections during Rd therapy. Patients with established risk factors may benefit from optimal supportive therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; early mortality; blood plasma; circulating miRNA; hematological malignancies; molecular biomarker; multiparametric model; prognosissurvival
Online: 4 July 2022 (05:59:59 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Despite the progress made in treatment, some MM patients still die within the first year of diagnosis. Numerous studies investigating microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns suggest they may be good prognostic markers. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the expression of selected miRNAs in the serum of MM patients subsequently treated with bortezomib-based regimens and determine their potential to predict early mortality. The study was conducted in 69 prospectively-recruited patients with newly-diagnosed MM admitted to the Department of Hematology of the Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Lodz (Poland) between 2017 and 2021. Among them, 17 patients experienced death within 12 months of diagnosis. The expression of 31 selected miRNAs was determined using miRCURY LNA miRNA Custom PCR Panel. The obtained clinical data included patient characteristics on diagnosis, treatment regimen, response to treatment, and follow-up. Differential expression analysis found two miRNAs to be significantly downregulated in the early mortality group: hsa-miR-328-3p (fold change- FC: 0.72, p=0.0342) and hsa-miR-409-3p (FC: 0.49, p=0.0357). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the early mortality rate. The final model consisted of hsa-miR-409-3p, hsa-miR-328-3p, age and R-ISS 3. It yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.863 (95%CI: 0.761-0.965) with 88.2% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity. Further external validation of our model is necessary to confirm its clinical value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: bortezomib; IL-13; IL-1Ra; IL-4; multiple myeloma; OS; PFS
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:31:50 CET)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow with an elevation in monoclonal paraprotein, renal impairment, hypercalcemia, lytic bony lesions, and anemia. Immune cells and associated cytokines play a significant role in MM growth, progression, and dissemination. While some cytokines and their clinical significance are well described in MM biology, others remain relatively unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of pretreatment serum levels of 27 selected cytokines on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MM patients before first-line therapy with bortezomib-based regimens. Serum cytokine levels were assayed with a Bio-Rad Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine 27-Plex Assay on the MAGPIX Multiplex Reader and the Bio-Plex® 200 System (Bio-Rad) including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, Eotaxin, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF-α, and VEGF. A total of 61 MM patients were examined. Most patients received a bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) chemotherapy regimen. In the final multivariate model, IL-13 cytokine level (HR 0.1411, 95% CI: 0.0240-0.8291, p = 0.0302), and ASCT (HR 0.3722, 95% CI: 0.1826-0.7585, p=0.0065) significantly impacted PFS. Furthermore, ASCT (HR 0.142, 95% CI: 0.046-0.438, p=0.0007), presence of bone disease at diagnosis (HR 3.826, 95% CI: 1.471-9.949, p=0.0059) and two cytokine levels- IL-1Ra (HR 1.017, 95% CI: 1.004-1.030, p= 0.0091) and IL-4 (HR 0.161, 95% CI: 0.037-0.698, p = 0.0147) were independent predictors of OS. Three clusters of MM patients were identified with different cytokine profiles. In conclusion, serum pretreatment levels of IL-13 and IL-4 are predictors of better PFS and OS, respectively, whereas IL-1Ra pretreatment levels negatively impact OS in MM patients treated with bortezomib-based chemotherapy. Cytokine signature profile may have a potential influence on the outcome of patients treated with bortezomib.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0287.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ABCB1; bortezomib; CXCR4; gene expression; MAF; MARCKS; multiple myeloma; mRNA; POMP; PSMB5; refractory; RPL5; TXN; XBP1; sensitive
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Proteasome inhibitors, like bortezomib, play a key role in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM); however, most patients eventually relapse and eventually show multiple drug resistance, and the molecular mechanisms of this resistance remain unclear. The present study examines the expression of previously-described genes that may influence resistance to bortezomib treatment at the mRNA level (ABCB1, CXCR4, MAF, MARCKS, POMP, PSMB5, RPL5, TXN and XBP1). mRNA expression was determined in 73 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens (30 bortzomib-sensitive and 43 bortezomib-refractory patients) and 11 healthy controls. RPL5 was significantly down-regulated in multiple myeloma patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, POMP was significantly up-regulated in MM patients refractory to bortezomib-based treatment. In multivariate analysis, high expression of PSMB5 and CXCR and autologous stem cell transplantation were independent predictors of progression-free survival, and high expression of POMP and RPL5 was associated with shorter overall survival.