ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0182.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: ADAM; Adaptive response; ALK1; ALK5; Bystander effects; Hyper-radiosensitive response; Low-dose radiation; Low dose rate; MMP; TGF-β3
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:25:07 CEST)
Hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) is the increased sensitivity to low doses of ionizing radiation observed in most cell lines. We previously demonstrated that HRS is permanently abolished in cells irradiated at a low dose rate (LDR), in a mechanism dependent on transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3). In this study, we aimed to elucidate the activation and receptor binding of TGF-β3 in this mechanism. T-47D cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of potential receptors and activators of TGF-β3, along with addition of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) from LDR primed cells, before their radiosensitivity was assessed by the clonogenic assay. The protein content of sEVs from LDR primed cells was analyzed with mass spectrometry. Our results show that sEVs contain TGF-β3 regardless of priming status, but only sEVs from LDR primed cells remove HRS in reporter cells. Inhibition of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family prevents removal of HRS, suggesting an MMP-dependent activation of TGF-β3 in the LDR primed cells. We demonstrate a functional interaction between TGF-β3 and activin receptor like kinase 1 (ALK1), by showing that TGF-β3 removes HRS through ALK1 binding, independent of ALK5 and TGF-βRII. These results are an important contribution to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanism behind TGF-β3 mediated removal of HRS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0035.v1
Online: 14 July 2017 (11:59:25 CEST)
Gastric cancer is an intractable disease with a high incidence of peritoneal dissemination and obstructive symptoms (e.g. ileus, jaundice, and hydronephrosis) arising from accompanying marked fibrosis. Microenvironmental interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells are the suggested cause of the disease. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is an intriguing cytokine exhibiting dual roles in malignant disease, acting as an important mediator of cancer invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis as well as exhibiting antitumor functions. Moreover, the TGF-β pathway contributes to the generation of a favorable microenvironment for tumor growth and metastasis throughout the steps of carcinogenesis. Among these effects, TGF-β induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition with prometastatic functions, contributes to the conversion of stromal cells to carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, and suppresses the function of immune cells, which compromises the antitumor immune response, leading to cancer progression and stromal fibrosis. In this review, we address the role of the essential TGF-β signaling pathway in the regulation of the activities of components of the tumor microenvironment of gastric cancer and how this contributes to tumor progression and stromal fibrosis. We then explore the potential to optimize therapy that inhibits TGF-β signaling in the preclinical and clinical settings of gastric cancer.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: transforming growth factor β3; chitosan sponge; human periodontal ligament cells; osteogenic differentiation
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:42:18 CEST)
Abstract: Periodontal disease is the main reason for tooth loss in adults. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are the advanced technologies used to manage soft and hard tissue defects caused by periodontal disease. We developed a transforming growth factor-β3 chitosan sponge (TGF-β3/CS) to repair periodontal soft and hard tissue defects. We investigated the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation behaviors of primary human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) to discuss the bioactivity and application of TGF-β3 in periodontal disease. We separately used Calcein-AM/PI double-labeling or CM-Dil-labeling coupled with fluorescence microscopy to trace the survival and function of the cells after implantation in vitro or in vivo. The mineralization of osteogenic differentiated hPDLSCs was confirmed by measuring ALP activity and calcium content. The levels of COL I, ALPL, TGF-βRI, TGF-βRII, and Pp38/t-p38 were tested using Western blot to explore the mechanism of bone repair prompted by TGF-β3. When hPDLSCs were inoculated with different concentrations of TGF-β3/CS (62.5–500 ng/mL), ALP activity was the highest in TGF-β3 (250 ng/mL) group after seven days (P < 0.05 vs. control); the calcium content in each group increased significantly after 21 and 28 days (P < 0.001 vs. control). The best result was achieved in the TGF-β3 (500 ng/mL) group. All results showed that TGF-β3/CS can promote osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSC and may be involved in the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. TGF-β3/CS has the potential for application in the repair of incomplete alveolar bone defects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cardiology; Oncology; CSC; TNBC; TGF-β
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:19:03 CET)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that disproportionally accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths due to the lack of specific targets for effective treatments. While there is immense focus on the development of novel therapies for TNBC treatment, a persistent and critical issue is the rate of heart failure and cardiomyopathy which is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity amongst cancer survivors. In this review, we highlight mechanisms of cardiotoxicity post-chemotherapeutic exposure, assess how this is assessed clinically and highlight the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-β) pathway and discuss its role as a mediator of cardiomyopathy. We highlight recent findings demonstrating TGF-β inhibition as a potent method to prevent cardiac re-modeling, fibrosis and cardiomyopathy. We describe how dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is associated with negative patient outcomes across 32 types of cancer including TNBC. We then highlight how TGF-β modulation may be a potent method to target mesenchymal (CD44+/CD24-) and epithelial (ALDHhigh) cancer stem cell (CSC) populations in TNBC models. CSCs are associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, relapse, resistance, and diminished patient prognosis; however, due to plasticity and differential regulation these populations remain difficult to target and persist as a major barrier barring successful therapy. TGF-β inhibition represents an intersection of two fields: cardiology and oncology. Through inhibiting cardiomyopathy, cardiac damage and heart failure may be prevented and through CSC targeting, patient prognosis may be improved. Together, both approaches, if successfully implemented would target the two greatest causes of cancer-related morbidity in patients and potentially lead to a breakthrough therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Corrosive burn; esophageal stricture; TGF-β1
Online: 19 November 2021 (09:39:39 CET)
Corrosive burns lead to progressive esophageal stricture and dysphagia. There are many trials to prevent Esophageal stricture formation after corrosive burn. This study aimed to access the effects of EW-7197 on prevention for esophageal stricture formation after corrosive esophageal burn. animal study were classified divided into three groups: a healthy group, a control group (corrosive burn without EW-7197), and a treatment group (corrosive burn with EW-7197). Corrosive esophageal burns were produced using 30% NaOH on the lower esophagus. For 3 weeks, the control group received vehicle and the treatment group received 20 mg/kg/day EW-7197. Treatment efficacy was assessed by measuring the stenosis ratio by esophagogram with contrast media on day 21. histologic staining was performed to evaluate the fibrosis area ratio, and western blotting was performed to evaluate fibrotic markers. Among 20 rats that underwent surgery, 14 survived. Three in the treatment group died because of esophageal perforation, and three in the control group died due to their debilitating status. The esophageal stenosis ratio was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (12.1 ± 9.5% and 42.2 ± 8.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). The histologic fibrosis area ratio was also significantly lower in the treatment group (12.5 ± 3.0% and 21.6 ± 2.1%, respectively; p = 0.001). The treatment group showed lower expressions of profibrogenic proteins such as TGF-β1, pSmad3, and α-SMA. EW-7197 may be a good alternative for the prevention esophageal stricture formation after corrosive burn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0622.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: GPS; TGF; ERA-5; lightning; geostationary; water vapour
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:22:37 CET)
In this article we report the first investigation over time of the atmospheric conditions around TGFs occurrence, using GPS sensors in combination with geostationary satellite observations and ERA5 reanalyses data. The goal is to understand which characteristics are favourable to the development of these events and to investigate if any precursor signals can be expected. A total of 9 TGFs, occurred at a distance lower than 45 km from a GPS sensor, were analysed and two of them are shown here as an example analysis. Moreover, the lightning activity, collected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) was used in order to identify any links and correlations with TGF occurrence and PWV trends. The combined use of GPS and the stroke rate trends identified, for all cases, a recurred pattern in which an increase of PWV is observed on a timescale of about two hours before the TGF occurrence that can be placed within the lightning peak. The temporal relation between the PWV trend and TGF occurrence is strictly related to the position of GPS sensors in relation to TGF coordinates. The life cycle of these storms observed by geostationary sensors, described TGFs producing clouds as intense with a wide range of extensions and, in all cases, the TGF is located at the edge of the convective cell. Furthermore, the satellite data give an added value in associating the GPS water vapor trend to the convective cell generating the TGF. The investigation with ERA5 reanalyses data showed that TGFs mainly occur in convective environment with not exceptional values with respect to the monthly average value of parameters measured in the same location. Moreover the analysis showed the strong potential of the use of GPS data for the troposphere characterization in areas with complex territorial morphology. This study provided indications on the dynamics of convective systems linked to TGFs and will certainly help refine our understanding on their production highlights a potential approach through the use of GPS data to explore the lightning activity trend and the TGFs occurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0516.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ALK5 inhibitor; TGF-β; kinase assay; selectivity; docking
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:52:08 CEST)
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), in which overexpression have been associated with various diseases, has become an attractive molecular target for the treatment of cancers. Three series of 3-substituted-4-(quinoxalin-6-yl) pyrazoles 14a–h, 15a–h, 16a–h, 22a, 22b, 22d, 23a, 23b, 23d, 24b, and 24d were synthesized and evaluated for their activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) and p38α mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitory activity in an enzymatic assays. Among these compounds, the most active compound 16f inhibited ALK5 phosphorylation with an IC50 value of 0.28 µM, with 98% inhibition at 10 µM. Compound 16f also had good selectivity index of >35 against p38α MAP kinase, with 9.0-fold more selective than clinical candidate, compound 3 (LY-2157299). Molecular docking study was performed to identify the mechanism of action of the synthesized compounds and their good binding interactions were observed. ADMET prediction of good active compounds showed that these ones possess good pharmacokinetics and drug-likeness behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0047.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Cancer Stem Cell; TGF-β
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:53:29 CEST)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that disproportionally accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths due to the lack of specific targets for effective treatments. In this review, we highlight the complexity of the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-β) pathway and discuss how the dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway promotes oncogenic attributes in TNBC which negatively affects patient prognosis. Moreover, we discuss recent findings highlighting TGF-β inhibition as a potent method to target mesenchymal (CD44+/CD24-) and epithelial (ALDHhigh) cancer stem cell (CSC) populations. CSCs are associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, relapse, resistance, and diminished patient prognosis; however, due to differential signal pathway enrichment and plasticity, these populations remain difficult to target and persist as a major barrier barring successful therapy. This review highlights the importance of TGF-β as a driver of chemoresistance, radioresistance and reduced patient prognosis in breast cancer and highlights novel treatment strategies which modulate TGF-β, impede cancer progression and reduce the rate of resistance generation via targeting the CSC populations in TNBC and thus reducing tumorigenicity. Potential TGF-β inhibitors targeting based on clinical trials are summarized for further investigation which may lead to the development of novel therapies to improve TNBC patient prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0090.v1
Online: 7 August 2019 (09:42:06 CEST)
Pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamides are novel gene silencers that strongly bind the promoter region of target genes in a sequence-specific manner to inhibit gene transcription. We developed a PI polyamide targeting human TGF-b1 (hTGF-b1). To develop PI polyamide targeting hTGF-b1 (Polyamide) as a practical medicine for progressive renal diseases, we examined the effects of Polyamide in two common marmoset models of nephropathy.We performed lead optimization of PI polyamides targeting hTGF-b1 by the dose-dependent inhibition of the PMA-stimulated expression of TGF-b1 mRNA in marmoset fibroblasts. Marmosets were housed with a 0.05% NaCl and magnesium diet and treated with cyclosporine A (CsA; 37.5 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks) to establish chronic nephropathy. Marmosets with nephropathy were treated with Polyamide (1 mg/kg/week, 4 weeks). We also established a unilateral urethral obstruction(UUO) model and examined the effects of Polyamide (1 mg/kg/week, 4 times) in marmosets.Histologically, the renal medulla from CsA-treated marmosets showed cast formation and interstitial fibrosis in the renal medulla. Immunohistochemistry showed strong staining of Polyamide in the renal medulla from CsA-treated marmosets.Polyamidetreatment (1 mg/kg/week, 4 times) reduced hTGF-b1 staining and urinary protein excretion in CsA-treated marmosets. Polyamide reduced the glomerular injury score (GIS) and tubulointerstitial injury score (TIS) in UUO kidneys from marmosets. Polyamide significantly suppressed the hTGF-b1 and Snail mRNA expressionin UUO kidneys from marmosets.PI polyamide effectively improved CsA- and UUO-associated nephropathy, indicating its potential application in the prevention of renal fibrosis in progressive renal diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SMAD; Sjӧgren’s syndrome; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; fibrosis; TGF-β; inflammation
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:43:37 CET)
There is considerable interest in delineating the molecular mechanisms of action of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), considered as central player in a plethora of human conditions, including cancer, fibrosis and autoimmune disease. TGF-β elicits its biological effects through membrane bound serine/threonine kinase receptors which transmit their signals via downstream signalling molecules, SMADs, which regulate the transcription of target genes in collaboration with various co-activators and co-repressors. Until now, therapeutic strategy for primary Sjӧgren’s syndrome (pSS) has been focused on inflammation, but, recently, the involvement of TGF-β/SMADs signalling has been demonstrated in pSS, although TGFβ family members seems to have ambiguous effects on the function of pSS salivary glands. Based on these premises, this review highlights recent advances in unravelling the molecular basis for the multi-faceted functions of TGF-β in pSS that are dictated by orchestrations of SMADs, and describe TGF-β/SMADs value as both disease markers and/or therapeutic target for pSS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0572.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aging; collagen; extracellular matrix; fibroblast; skin; tenascin C; TGF-β
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:49:54 CET)
Tenascin C (TNC) is an element of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues, including the skin, and is involved in modulating ECM integrity and cell physiology. Although skin aging is apparently associated with changes in the ECM, little is known about the role of TNC in skin aging. Here we found that Tnc mRNA level was significantly reduced in the skin tissues of aged mice compared with young mice, consistent with reduced TNC protein expression in aged human skin. TNC-large (TNC-L; 330-kDa) and -small (TNC-S; 240-kDa) polypeptides were observed in conditional media from primary dermal fibroblasts. Both recombinant TNC polypeptides, corresponding to TNC-L and TNC-S, increased the expression of type I collagen and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in fibroblasts. Treatment of fibroblasts with a recombinant TNC polypeptide, corresponding to TNC-L, induced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3. TNC increased the level of TGF-β1 mRNA and upregulated the expression of type I collagen by activating the TGF-β signaling pathway. In addition, TNC also promoted the expression of type I collagen in fibroblasts embedded in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Our findings suggest that TNC contributes to the integrity of ECM in young skin and to prevention of skin aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: cell migration; hepatic stellate cell; TGF-β1; Rap1; RhoA; NF-κB
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:19:49 CEST)
Although the migration of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is important for hepatic fibrosis, the regulation of HSC migration is poorly understood. Interestingly, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induces monocyte migration to sites of injury or inflammation in the early phase but inhibits cell migration in the late phase. In this study, we investigated the role of RhoA signaling in TGF-β1-induced HSC migration. We found that TGF-β1 increased the protein and mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen type I in HSC-T6 cells. The level of RhoA-GTP in TGF-β1-stimulated cells was significantly higher than that in control cells. Moreover, cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin formation was more strongly detected in TGF-β1-stimulated cells than in control cells. Additionally, TGF-β1 induced the activation of NF-κB and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and several cytokines in HSC-T6 cells. The active form of Rap1 (Rap1 V12) suppressed RhoA-GTP levels, whereas the dominant negative form of Rap1 (Rap1 N17) augmented RhoA-GTP levels. Therefore, we confirmed that Rap1 regulates RhoA activation in TGF-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 regulates Rap1, resulting in RhoA suppression, NF-κB activation and F-actin formation during the migration of HSCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0355.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: TGF-β; cancer; immunosuppression; TAK1; mechanobiology; extracellular matrix; tensegrity; DNA damage
Online: 25 May 2018 (08:37:53 CEST)
TGF-β signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix remodeling. In this article, we will review how TAK1 activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we will discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development will be critical in designing therapeutics which inhibit tumor progression while bolstering the immune response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis
Online: 11 May 2018 (09:49:48 CEST)
Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the interplay between sex and BMP/TGF-β signaling and pose several unanswered questions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: myasthenia gravis; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; regulatory T cells; TGF- β; IL-10
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:00:37 CEST)
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine and is closely related to Interleukin (IL) - 7, and hTSLP can activation through the human thymus dendritic cell in thymic to indirectly promote the differentiation of natural Regulatory T cells (Tregs) of the thymus. In this study, we focused on recombinant TSLP to determine its effects on the differentiation of CD4+CD25-T cells separated from the thymus of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. Our results demonstrated that exogenous TSLP could increase CD4+CD25+T/CD4+T cells ratio, up-regulate the expression of Foxp3 mRNA and protein expression in CD4+CD25+Treg cells. Furthermore, we found that CD4+CD25+ Treg cells induced by exogenous TSLP could secrete IL - 10, Transforming growth factor (TGF) - β and the ability to inhibit CD4+T cell proliferation improved. These results indicate that TSLP may promote the differentiation of thymic CD4+CD25-T cells of MG patient to CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and enhance the function of immune suppression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Human Bregs; IL-10; IL-35; TGF- ß; myasthenia gravis; Bregs expansion
Online: 21 May 2020 (03:55:17 CEST)
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) with immunosuppressive function are critical in maintaining immune tolerance. In recent years, Bregs is an essential part of the study due to its therapeutic relevance and function in immune tolerance. The positive and negative regulatory role of human Bregs in immune tolerance is being discussed in several pathologies, including in autoimmune diseases, cancers, chronic infections, strokes in multiple reports. The negative regulatory roles of human Bregs are associated with lesser numbers and functional abnormalities in most of these studies, including myasthenia gravis (MG). In this review, the potential findings regarding human Bregs in MG, and Bregs mediated potential therapeutic strategies with its pros and cons have been discussed based on previous and current reports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Major depressive disorder (MDD), ketoprofen, TGF-β1, INF-γ, IDO, immune, inflammation
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:52:50 CET)
Major Depression Disorder (MDD) is accompanied by an immune response characterized by increased levels of pro-inflammatory and immune-regulatory cytokines and cytokine-induced stimulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). There is also some evidence that anti-inflammatory drugs may have a clinical efficacy in MDD.The aim of this study is to examine the clinical effects of an eight-week combinatorial treatment of ketoprofen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) combined or not with sertraline, on serum levels of IDO, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in association with changes in the Beck-Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The study included 140 MDD patients and 40 normal controls. The pre-treatment serum levels of IDO, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-4 were significantly higher in MDD patients compared with the control group. Treatment with sertraline with or without ketoprofen significantly reduced the increased baseline production of all 4 biomarkers to levels which were similar as those of normal controls. Ketoprofen add-on had a significantly greater effect on IDO and BDI-II as compared with placebo. The reductions in IDO, IL-4 and TGF-β1 during treatment were significantly associated with those in the BDI-II.In conclusion, the clinical efficacy of both sertraline + ketoprofen may be ascribed at least in part to attenuated IDO levels and immune-inflammatory responses in MDD. Moreover, add-on treatment with ketoprofen may augment the efficacy of sertraline by attenuating IDO. However, these treatments may also significantly reduce the more beneficial properties of T helper-2 and T regulatory (Treg) immune subsets. Future research should develop immune treatments that target the immune-inflammatory response in MDD, while enhancing the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS).
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; WNT3a; WNT5a; beta-catenin; TGF-beta signalling; IL-11; cardiac fibrosis
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:15:00 CEST)
Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological process associated with development of heart failure. TGF-β and WNT signaling have been implicated in pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, however little is known about molecular cross-talk between these two pathways. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous canonical WNT3a and non-canonical WNT5a in TGF-β-activated human cardiac fibroblasts. We found that WNT3a and TGF-β induced -catenin-dependent response, whereas WNT5a prompted AP-1 activity. TGF-β triggered profibrotic signature in cardiac fibroblasts, and co-stimulation with WNT3a or co-activation of the β-catenin pathway with GSK3β inhibitor CHIR99021 enhanced collagen I and fibronectin production and development of active contractile stress fibers. In the absence of TGF-β, neither WNT3a nor CHIR99021 exerted profibrotic response. On a molecular level, in TGF-β-activated fibroblasts WNT3a enhanced phosphorylation of TAK1 and production and secretion of IL-11 but showed no effect on Smad pathway. Neutralization of IL-11 activity with the blocking anti-IL-11 antibody effectively reduced profibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts activated with TGF-β and WNT3a. In contrast to canonical WNT3a, co-activation with non-canonical WNT5a suppressed TGF-β-induced production of collagen I. In conclusion, WNT/β-catenin signaling promotes TGF-β-mediated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition by enhancing IL-11 production. Thus, the uncovered mechanism broadens our knowledge on molecular basis of cardiac fibrogenesis and defines novel therapeutic targets for fibrotic heart diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0171.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Trypanosoma cruzi; TGF-β; heart fibrosis; extracellular matrix; signaling pathways; SMAD2; p-38 MAPK; c-Jun
Online: 14 May 2019 (12:28:59 CEST)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a determinant for inflammation and fibrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscle in Chagas disease. To determine its regulatory mechanisms, we investigated the response of T. cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes (CM), cardiac fibroblasts (CF) and L6E9 skeletal myoblasts to TGF-β. Cultures of CM, CF and L6E9 were infected with T. cruzi (Y strain) and treated with TGF-β (1–10 ng/mL, 1h or 48 h). Fibronectin (FN) distribution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot (WB). Phosphorylated SMAD2 (PS2), phospho-p38 (p-p38), and phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun) signaling were evaluated by WB. CF and L6E9 showed an increase in FN from 1 ng/mL of TGF-β, while CM displayed FN modulation only after 10 ng/mL treatment. CF and L6E9 showed higher PS2 levels than CM, while p38 is less stimulated in CF than CM and L6E9. After T. cruzi infection, localized FN disorganization was observed in infected CF and L6E9. T. cruzi induced an increase in FN in CF cultures, mainly in uninfected cells. Infected CF cultures treated with TGF-β showed a reduction in PS2 and an increase in p-p38 and p-c-Jun levels. Our data suggest that p38 and c-Jun pathways may be participating in the fibrosis regulatory process mediated by TGF-β after T. cruzi infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0563.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Chromosomal instability; FA pathway; Radial figures; TGF pathway; MYC; p53; Bone marrow failure; cancer; physical abnormalities; infertility.
Online: 22 December 2020 (10:58:20 CET)
Abstract: Fanconi anemia (FA), a chromosomal instability syndrome, is caused by inherited pathogenic variants in any of 22 FANC genes, that cooperate in the FA/BRCA pathway. This pathway regulates the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) through homologous recombination. In FA proper repair of ICLs is impaired, and accumulation of toxic DNA double strand breaks occurs. In order to repair this type of DNA damage, FA cells activate alternative error-prone DNA repair pathways, that may lead to the formation of gross structural chromosome aberrations of which radial figures are the hallmark of FA and their segregation during cell division are the origin of subsequent aberrations like translocations, dicentrics and acentric fragments. The deficiency in DNA repair has pleiotropic consequences in the phenotype of patients with FA, including developmental alterations, bone marrow failure and an extreme risk to develop cancer. The mechanisms leading to the physical abnormalities during embryonic development have not been clearly elucidated, however FA has features of premature aging with chronic inflammation mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, that results in tissue attrition, selection of malignant clones and cancer onset. Moreover, the effect of the FA/BRCA pathway in germinal cells, evidenced by infertility in patients with FA attests of chromosomal instability and cell death also occurring in the germinal compartment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0358.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; TGF-β1; cAMP; A-kinase anchoring protein; Ezrin; AKAP95; Yotiao; cigarette smoke; COPD
Online: 31 October 2019 (02:15:56 CET)
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) can inhibit transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mediated EMT. Although compartmentalization via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) is central to cAMP signaling, functional studies on their therapeutic value in the lung EMT process are lacking. Bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B, primary HAE cells) were exposed to TGF-β1. Epithelial (E-cadherin, ZO-1) and mesenchymal markers collagen Ӏ (mRNA, protein) were analyzed. St-Ht31 disrupted AKAP-PKA interactions. TGF-β1 release was measured by ELISA. TGF-β1-sensitive AKAPs Ezrin, AKAP95 and Yotiao were silenced using siRNA. Cell migration was analyzed by wound healing assay, xCELLigence, Incucyte. Prior to TGF-β1, dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP), fenoterol, rolipram, cilostamide, forskolin were used to elevate intracellular cAMP. TGF-β1 induced morphological changes, decreased E-cadherin but increased collagen Ӏ and cell migration, a process reversed by PF-670462. TGF-β1 altered (mRNA, protein) expression of Ezrin, AKAP95 and Yotiao. St-Ht31 decreased E-cadherin (mRNA, protein), but counteracted TGF-β1-induced collagen Ӏ upregulation. Cigarette smoke (CS) increased TGF-β1 release, activated TGF signaling, augmented cell migration and reduced E-cadherin expression, a process blocked by TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody. Silencing of Ezrin, AKAP95 and Yotiao diminished TGF-β1-induced collagen Ӏ expression, as well as TGF-β1-induced cell migration. Fenoterol, rolipram, and cilostamide, in AKAP silenced cells pointed to distinct cAMP compartments. We conclude that Ezrin, AKAP95 and Yotiao promote TGF-β1-mediated EMT, linked to a TGF-β1 release by CS. AKAP members define the ability of fenoterol, rolipram and cilostamide to modulate the EMT process, and are potential relevant targets in the treatment of COPD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0140.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: PlGF; PGF; blood-retinal barrier; RNA Seq; HREC; gene ontology; fastQC; Trimmomatic; KEGG; pentose phosphate pathway; TGF-β
Online: 10 July 2019 (07:48:20 CEST)
Placental growth factor (PlGF or PGF) is a member of the VEGF family, which is known to play a critical role in pathological angiogenesis, inflammation, and endothelial cell barrier function. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PlGF mediates its effects in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) remain elusive. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide profiling of differential gene expression for human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) treated with PlGF antibody. The effect of antibody treatment on the samples was validated using trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER), and western blot. A total of 3760 genes (1750 upregulated and 2010 downregulated) were found to be differentially expressed between the control and PlGF antibody treatment group. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were used for gene ontology and enrichment analysis to identify gene function, signal pathway, and interaction networks. The gene ontology results revealed that catalytic activity (GO:0003824) of molecular function, cell (GO:0005623) of the cellular component, and cellular process (GO:0009987) were among the most enriched biological processes. Pathways such as TGF-β, VEGF-VEGFR2, p53, apoptosis, pentose phosphate pathway, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, were among the most enriched, and TGF-β1 was identified as a primary upstream regulator. These data provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of PlGF in mediating biological functions, in relation to DR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0189.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: astrocytes; reactive astrogliosis; TGF-β; traumatic brain injury; stroke; aging; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; multiple sclerosis; epilepsy
Online: 20 April 2022 (09:06:47 CEST)
Astrocytes are essential for normal brain development and functioning. They respond to brain injury and disease through a process referred to as reactive astrogliosis, where the reactivity is highly heterogenous and context dependent. Reactive astrocytes are active contributors to brain pathology and can exert beneficial, detrimental, or mixed effects following brain insults. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been identified as one of the key factors regulating astrocyte reactivity. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of TGF-β signaling pathway in animal models of CNS injury and disease alters pathological and functional outcomes. This review aims to provide recent understanding regarding astrocyte reactivity and TGF-β signaling in brain injury, aging, and neurodegeneration. Further, it explores how TGF-β signaling modulates astrocyte reactivity and function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: ascending aorta aneurysm; bicuspid aorta valve; tricuspid aorta valve; ERG transcriptional factor pathway; TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways modulation.
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:43:22 CEST)
Abstract: The pathobiology of ascending aorta aneurysms (AAA) onset and progression is not well understood and only partially characterized. AAA are also complicated in case of bicuspid aorta valve (BAV) anatomy. There is emerging evidence about the crucial role of endothelium-related pathways, which show in AAA an altered expression and function. Here, we examined the involvement of ERG-related pathways in the differential progression of disease in aortic tissues from patients having a BAV or tricuspid aorta valve (TAV) with or without AAA. Our findings identified ERG as a novel endothelial-specific regulator of TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways, by modulating a differential fibrotic or calcified AAA progression in BAV and TAV aortas. We provided evidence that calcification is correlated to different ERG expression (as gene and protein), which appears to be under control of Notch signaling. The latter, when increased, associated with an early calcification in aortas with BAV valve and aneurysmatic, was demonstrated to favor the progression versus severe complications, i.e., dissection or rupture. In TAV aneurysmatic aortas, ERG appeared to modulate fibrosis. Therefore, we proposed that ERG may represent a sensitive tissue biomarker to monitor AAA progression and a target to develop therapeutic strategies and influence surgical procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells
Online: 23 August 2019 (03:33:49 CEST)
This article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic growth factors and how the technology can be used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected and irradiated protein packaging cell lines may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage matrix regeneration. We discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging cell lines are superior to bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new biological therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0674.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells; TissueGene-C
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:16:51 CEST)
This review article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic and anabolic growth factors. We discuss how the currently available tools and emerging technologies can be used for the regenerative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected protein packaging cell lines such as GP-293 cells may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage regeneration. However, when irradiated with gamma or x-rays, these cells lose their capacity for replication, which actually makes them safe for use as a live cell component of intra-articular injections. This innovation is already here, in the form of TissueGene-C, a new biological drug which consists of normal allogeneic primary chondrocytes combined with transduced GP2-293 cells that overexpress the growth factor transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). TissueGene-C has revolutionized the concept of cell therapy, allowing drug companies to develop live cells as biological drug delivery systems for direct intra-articular injection of growth factors whose half-lives are in the order of minutes. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging eukaryotic cell lines are superior to prokaryotic bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new humanized biological growth factor therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA, especially when injected directly into the joint.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: vascular homing peptide; cell penetrating peptide; angiogenesis; vascular heterogeneity; fibrosis; targeted delivery; decorin; transforming growth factor-β (tgf-β), bystander effect, cendr peptide; tissue regeneration; regenerative medicine
Online: 10 December 2019 (15:02:39 CET)
Growth factors, chemokines and cytokines guide tissue regeneration after injuries. However, their applications as recombinant proteins are almost non-existent due to the difficulty of maintaining their bioactivity in the protease-rich milieu of injured tissues in humans. Safety concerns have ruled out their systemic administration. The vascular system provides a natural platform for circumvent the limitations of the local delivery of protein-based therapeutics. Tissue selectivity in drug accumulation can be obtained as organ-specific molecular signatures exist in the blood vessels in each tissue, essentially forming a postal code system (“vascular zip codes”) within the vasculature. These target-specific “vascular zip codes” can be exploited in regenerative medicine as the angiogenic vasculature forming in the regenerating tissues has a unique molecular signature. The identification of vascular homing peptides capable of finding these unique “vascular zip codes” after their systemic administration provides an opportunity for the target-specific delivery of therapeutics to tissue injuries. Therapeutic proteins can be “packaged” together with homing peptides by expressing them as multi-functional recombinant proteins. These multi-functional recombinant proteins provide an example how molecular engineering gives a compound an ability to home to regenerating tissue and enhance its therapeutic potential. Regenerative medicine has been dominated by the locally applied therapeutic approaches despite these therapies are not moving to clinical medicine with success. There might be a time to change the paradigm towards systemically administered, target organ-specific therapeutic molecules in future drug discovery and development for regenerative medicine