ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: bioeconomics; entropy; exergy; irreversibility; sustainability; thermoeconomics
Online: 5 June 2018 (06:24:28 CEST)
The present days can be considered a crossroad in the history our word because the economic, social and ecological needs don't agree one another. The result is a continuous growth of poverty and an increase of the ecological degradation. This has generated the present difficult socio-economic state, and it seems very difficult to escape. A new viewpoint must be introduced, but it cannot based on the usual economic indicators. So, new indicators must be introduced. They must allow us to consider the technological level, the environmental impact and the socio-economic conditions. In this paper we suggest three indicators based on an engineering approach of irreversibility. Three applications are shown in order to highlight the possible interest from different scientists and researchers in engineering, economy, etc, in order to develop sustainable approaches and policies for decision makers.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: EEA; Neandertal extinction; thermodynamic population models; sustainability; exergy footprint
Online: 14 June 2019 (04:28:31 CEST)
A thermodynamic analysis of population dynamics and of sustainability provides rigor to many important issues. In this work, the “system Society” is analysed in connection with the “system Environment” using an exergy metric, and the method includes an internalization of the Externalities (Capital, Labour, Environmental effects) conducted on the basis of a “system+ environment” balance. In this perspective, this study investigates the Late Pleistocene extinction of the Homo Neandertalensis, which took place in a geologically short time and in the presence of a competing species, the Homo Sapiens. The case in study is not trivial, and its choice not casual: in those times, the only factor that could lead to an advantage of one group over the other was their respective resource use intensity. A specific indicator, the Exergy Footprint, is here applied to measure the total amount of primary resources required to produce a certain (material or immaterial) commodity, including the resources needed for the physical survival of the individuals. On the basis of the available data, the results show that the EF of the Neandertal was higher than that of the Sapiens, and that, both species sharing the same ecological niche in a time of dwindling resources, the less frugal was also more fragile in an evolutionary sense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0561.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: water footprint, crop water usage, oil palm (Eleasis guenensis), crop ages, soil type, environmental sustainability
Online: 28 September 2018 (10:21:52 CEST)
Various environmental challenges, related to oil palm commodity has became a major environmental challenge to oil palm production. The aim and objective of this study is to analyze the actual water footprint of oil palm based on root water uptake under varying crop age and soil type. The research was conducted in Pundu Village, Central Kalimantan. The methodology adopted in carrying out this study consists of various stages which includes observing soil moisture, rainfall, and water table, ETo, root water uptake and oil palm water footprint. The highest rate of water consumption was the 13 years oil palm on spodosol soil type with an average daily rate of 3.73 mm/day. The lowest evapotranspiration was represented by the 7th year oil palm on spodosol with an average rate of 3.07 mm/day. The total water footprint value obtained was between 0.56 – 1.14 m3/kg for a variety of plants with various age and soil types. It can be deduced that the water footprint value of oil palm vary for different crop age and soil types on temporal scale. The study also presented that the source of green water from the first root zone of oil palm deliver the highest contribution for oil palm root water uptake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0210.v2
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Sustainability Assessment; Urban Housing Sustainability; Sustainability Indicator
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:37:59 CEST)
Housing is always crucial for the sustainable development of communities, specifically in urban areas, due to the population density of cities. The present study constructs its own structure on the basis of the recent papers investigating various sustainability factors for the urban housing sector. By doing a comprehensive systematic literature review, one of the most extensive lists of urban housing sustainability factors is gathered from 118 recent related papers. The factors are prioritized by their frequency of investigation and categorized by their scale(s) and sector(s) of influence. According to the results, the top three significant factors affecting urban housing sustainability are “natural resource or energy consumption/efficiency of the building/equipment (during the construction, operation, etc.)”, “materials performance (durability, cost, thermal capacity, permeability, ability to re-use, recycled, eco-friendly materials)”, and “access to public services/infrastructure: availability/quality of services and/or distance/time of travel time to the services (public transport, education/health/shopping/leisure facilities, parks, etc.)”. By analyzing the results with an integrative approach, it is understood that environmental factors are the most considered ones (more considered than the factors with influence on all sustainability sectors) where institutional factors received the least attention. Also, the most significant measures are the ones that have impacts on both ‘building’ and ‘neighborhood/community’ scales. It should be noticed that the neighborhood/community scale indicators are seen, almost, as important as the measures that affect the building itself. The results of this study can be helpful in establishing future housing-related policies, and also in having more efficient housing sustainability assessment tools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0143.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: sustainability; consumer behavior; clothing; clothing behavior; environmental sustainability; fashion; textiles; fashion sustainability; clothing sustainability; textile sustainability
Online: 14 September 2019 (19:10:15 CEST)
Consumer, as one of the vital stakeholders of fashion supply chain, has a significant role to play to transition fashion industry into sustainable direction. From purchasing and care practice to donation and disposal, every step of their decision has impact on the environment. Various internal and external variables, including culture, custom, value, belief, norm and assumption, economy, gender, and education etc. influence forming that decision. The result of the decision not only directly impacts he environment and society, but also consumer culture and future business opportunity. This study synthesizes a wide spectrum of consumer behavior related to clothing consumption and associated environmental impact. Building on the synthesis, a holistic discussion is offered which can provide relevant behavioral guideline to consumers as well as other stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0327.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sustainability; education for sustainable development; sustainability surveys; sustainability map; sustainability presence map; EDINSOST project
Online: 27 November 2019 (04:19:46 CET)
This paper presents a methodology to evaluate (1) to what extent students of a higher degree in the field of education acquire sustainability competencies, and (2) to determine whether the subjects that develop the ESD achieve their learning objectives. The methodology is applied to a case study. The instruments used are the sustainability survey and the sustainability presence map developed by the EDINSOST project. The survey consists of 18 questions, and has been answered by 104 first-year students and 86 fourth-year students belonging to the Bachelor Degree in Primary Education Teaching at the University of Sevilla. The Mann-Whitney U test has been used to compare the results of the two groups, and Cohen's D has been used to measure the effect size. Students only obtain significant improvements, with 95% confidence, in three questions (Q4, Q5 and Q6), all concerning critical thinking and creativity. An improvement is also detected in question Q11, with a confidence of 90%. However, no subject in the curriculum develops the learning outcomes concerning questions Q4, Q5 and Q6, and only one subject develops the learning outcomes regarding question Q11. On the other hand, up to five subjects declare development of the learning outcomes regarding questions in which there is no improvement in student learning. These results suggest that the subjects are failing to reach their ESD learning objectives, and that the students are either trained in sustainability outside the university or the subject learning guides do not reflect the work done by the students throughout their studies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: sustainability; software sustainability; information and communication technology; software design; sustainability requirement; software sustainability analysis; software sustainability guidelines; karlskrona manifesto
Online: 31 May 2018 (09:44:28 CEST)
Like other ICT communities, sustainability in software engineering is a major research and development concerns. Current research focusses on eliciting the meanings of sustainability and proposing approaches for its engineering and integration into the mainstream software development lifecycle. However, few concrete guidelines that software designers can apply effectively are available and applicable. Such guidelines are needed for the elicitation of sustainability requirements and testing software against these guidelines. This paper introduces a sustainability design catalogue to assist software developers and managers in eliciting sustainability requirements, and then in measuring and testing software sustainability. The paper reviews the current research on sustainability in software engineering which is the grounds for the development of the catalogue. Four different case studies were analyzed using the Karlskrona manifesto on sustainability design. The output from this research paper is a software sustainability design catalogue through which a pilot framework is proposed that includes a set of sustainability goals, concepts and methods. The integration of sustainability for/in software systems requires a concrete framework that exemplifies how to apply and quantify sustainability. The paper demonstrates how the proposed software sustainability design catalogue provides a step towards this direction through a series of guidelines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0794.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainability; urban sustainability; car-sharing; Europe
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:16:02 CET)
(1) Background: The article gives us an insight into the key issues of the car-sharing and its impact on urban sustainability. (2) Methods: A selection of 314 articles published in peer-reviewed journals from the Scopus database were analysed using Leximancer 5.0 for Automated Content analysis. (3) Results: Seven themes were identified explaining the researched topic of the car-sharing situation in Europe, which are Sharing, Economy, Model, Systems, Electrical car-sharing, Policy and Travel. There are two ways of sharing owned cars in Europe, access to cars from the fleet of private organizations and P2P car-sharing. Sustainable environmental solutions in the context of the electrification of cars are used. Car-sharing usually takes place online and can be free or for a free as defined by The European Economic and Social Committee. (4) Conclusions: The article provides an overview of understanding the concept of urban car-sharing in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: green innovation; green organizational culture; sustainability; sustainability drivers
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:09:23 CET)
This study aims to examine Turkish companies from a sustainability and green innovation point of view. Through this purpose, this research’s objective is to find out relationship between sustainability drivers and green innovation and also to search for green organizational culture’s mediation effect in this relationship. Survey was carried in companies operating in Turkey which were listed among İstanbul Chamber of Industry (ICI) Top 500 companies for last 3 years successively and have ISO14001 Environmental Management Certificate. According to the survey results, it was manifested that factors directing companies to sustainability having a positive relationship with green organizational culture and green innovation. It is found that there is a partial mediation effect of green organizational culture between motivating factors for sustainability and green innovation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0447.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: circular economy; Covid-19; Voyant tools; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; economic sustainability; text mining
Online: 20 February 2021 (01:42:10 CET)
The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has created both negative and positive changes, including implementing the circular economy across the globe. This Systematic Review follows the PRISMA statement and employs the Text Mining (Voyant Tools) technique to visualize and analyze the impacts of the Covid-19 on three aspects of the circular economy: economic, social, and environmental. The research employs Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to identify five major topics: (1) Shortage of medical equipment but high medical waste during Covid-19 due to the high demand in healthcare; (2) The long term negative impacts of lockdown on economic and social activities because of Covid-19 pandemic; (3) The reports on impacts of Covid-19 pandemic on the manufacturing globally, and their coping strategies and new opportunities; (4) The impacts of international restriction on the tourism, trade, shipping, and aviation industry, causing billion-dollar losses; (5) The reduction of pollution with health environment improvements with example cases from China and EU. The research identifies current literature gaps in the circular economy and Covid- 19 topics and encourages the application of text mining tools into researching to stimulate the research process and assist in communicating with the public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0138.v1
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:37:14 CEST)
Since last century, humanity has been using and disposing of resources at a greater rate than the Earth’s biocapacity to regenerate. Consequently, habitats are being destroyed, climate is changing and, for most, life conditions are deteriorating. To avoid collapse, humanity has been, at least in theory, trying to change the foundations of development so that it becomes ‘sustainable’ and, while meeting the social, economic and environmental needs of the present, does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To help on this task, in the 1960s, UNESCO proposed the establishment of laboratories for developing and testing sustainable approaches. These became known as Biosphere Reserves or, simply, biospheres. Today, Biosphere Reserves are considered to be the main instrument for testing and monitoring sustainable development approaches. By 2020, there were more than 700 biospheres in over 120 countries around the world - one third of which are located in prosperous countries with very-high human development levels. As of today, there is no mechanism to objectively measure the effectiveness of these reserves that also allows comparison between biospheres, their development approaches and outcomes, or over time. The objective of this work is to present a tool that fulfills these gaps and that, additionally, helps with establishing aspirational targets and identifying key areas that need improvement. The tool focuses on Biosphere Reserves located in countries with very-high levels of human development (but can be easily adapted to other countries); it addresses the 17 sustainable development goals and considers relevant international agreements. It is based on the rational that, to become widely used, it needs to be simple. Therefore, it uses data collected for other ends, hence available, and commonly used technology, such as excel. The tool consists of a spreadsheet that links a punctuating and a colouring system to topics, criteria, indicators and measures. The case study was on the Sunshine Coast region (Australia), which is in the process of being nominated a biosphere reserve.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: sustainability; sustainable entrepreneurship
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:58:37 CET)
On these days, issues such as environmental degradation, wealth gap and unequal access to op-portunities and resources are increasing. These concerns have increased the need for sustainable entrepreneurship, defined as sustainable business practices. Entrepreneurship is central in transi-tioning towards a more sustainable future, whereas aligning the social, economic, and ecological objectives and ecological entrepreneurs play a role. This literature review analyzes the field of sustainable entrepreneurship and the extent of their integration in the global business arena. It aims to analyze the depth of existing pieces of literature on sustainable entrepreneurship, its defi-nitions and applications in business practices. The analysis relies upon a literature search on the SCOPUS database around the keywords ‘Sustainability’ and ‘Sustainable Entrepreneurship’. The scientific software VOSviewe is used to better ilustrate the linkage of major categories and correspondent trends, related both with business growth and maintenance of ecological systems. It concludes that the desired levels of sustainability require collaborations between all stakehold-ers, while the transition towards service‐oriented business models has contributed to the growth of sustainable entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, existing institutional structures favor current unsustainable businesses and systems over the newer sustainable ones, demanding from eco-preneurs to initiate institutional changes
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0283.v1
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:10:02 CET)
The digital transition processes have demonstrated an enormous capacity to develop and implement sustainable solutions, which allow solving several problems such as poverty, high rates of species extinction and lack of equal opportunity. However, little attention is paid to the connection between the digital transition and sustainability. Thus, a systematic review of the bibliometric literature was developed to fill this knowledge gap and demonstrate the potential contributions of the digital transition to environmental, economic and social sustainability aspects. In environmental sustainability, the digital transition involves the application of technologies such as AI, big data analytics, IoT, and mobile technologies that are used to develop and implement sustainability solutions in areas such as sustainable urban development, sustainable production and pollution control. In economic sustainability, emerging digital technologies can drive transformation into the more sustainable circular economy, the digital sharing economy, and establish sustainable manufacturing and infrastructure design. In the digital transition to social sustainability, the studies analyzed demonstrate the need for multidimensional policy perspectives to address the current digital divide. For effective management of the digital transition that achieves sustainability goals, the study discusses alternative approaches that include innovation through experimentation, and dynamic and sustainable advantages achievable through temporary benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0769.v1
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:40:02 CEST)
The goals of the Agenda 2030 require a significant effort to educate and train new generations on sustainability issues. This article presents an initiative in favor of the evolution of the contents and the pedagogy of economics at the University level. We present the new “Ecological Money and Finance” textbook developed by SDSN France. We detail the assumptions, contents and learning objectives proposed in this new textbook. Then, we describe how it can be used in the framework of an experiential pedagogy of economics, taking as a case study the fundamental economics course of the Grande Ecole program at KEDGE BS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: shipbreaking; ship recycling; life cycle sustainability assessment; literature review; sustainability
Online: 5 September 2020 (05:47:18 CEST)
The shipbreaking industry is located predominantly in South Asian countries, and dismantles end-of-life ships to meet national steel demand. There are charges that this industry exploits local environmental, economic and social conditions to boost profits. The majority of this previous research often draws from a single disciplinary point of view that ignores or downplays complexities and trade-offs, precluding realistic policy improvement. Here we review 110 shipbreaking papers published in international peer reviewed journals that are indexed in SCOPUS, Science Direct and Google Scholar. We found that to date, shipbreaking research revolves around the coastal contamination of end-of-life ships waste over many other topics, and lacks critical interdisciplinary studies that explain trade-offs between environmental, social and economic factors that would better inform policy formulations for improvement of worker safety and environmental conditions. We propose a Life Cycle Sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework that could incorporate these trade-offs in a single analysis. We hope this review guides future studies towards more comprehensive sustainability measurement of shipbreaking activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: corporate sustainability; sustainable management; business sustainability; literature review; content analysis
Online: 6 November 2019 (13:52:44 CET)
Corporate Sustainability (CS) literature has gone through a period of intense development. The moment is favorable to gathering these contributions to consistently advance the state of the art in CS and, also, discuss them to apply in real contexts. The main objective of the paper is to systematize, through a systematic literature review using content analysis of the 30 most cited articles from 2007 to 2017, the guiding pillars of CS management. The systematic search for papers was carried out in Scopus and Web of Science and the initial screening of the papers was assisted by the coding software MAXQDA 2018, through which the authors structured and analyzed their main insights, contributions and conclusions. After getting acquainted with the sample, an in-depth reading of the texts was conducted and 60 CS elements were identified. The elements cited in the relevant literature were grouped into 6 pillars related to Corporate sustainability strategy; Corporate governance; Human resources management; Knowledge and innovation management; Measurement, disclosure and independent assurance; and Management systems and Integrated management systems. The discussion of CS management pillars presented in this study provides understanding to researchers and managers on the main aspects that make up the integration of this construct in the companies, especially from a management point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0044.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Sustainable activity; dimensions of sustainability; technological sustainability, sustainable business model
Online: 4 February 2019 (17:03:26 CET)
Enterprises that seek for sustainable development should align economic interests with environmental and social requirements. It is not enough to take into account just these basics components. Technology plays a significant role in company activity. The aim of this article is to highlight the relationship between the dimensions characterising sustainability and to take a deeper look at the structure of the concept of sustainability so that to understand in more detail the completeness of the dimensions of sustainability. For achieving this aim is necessary through the analysis of researchers’ opinions to apply the logical assessment, systematisation, and comparison of information, selects the most important information describing the sustainability of technology, highlights the relationships between the technological aspect of sustainability and other sustainability dimensions, evaluates the technological processes of the corporate product in terms of sustainability, clarifies and presents arguments highlighting the importance of the technological aspect in sustainable business activity, rejects inappropriate arguments, identifies links between the arguments, and, basing on the information, proves and/or formulates anew some logical considerations to justify the full competency of the technological dimension in the sustainable development framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0472.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainability; advanced sustainability analysis (ASA); sustainable development goals (SDGs); indicators; demonstration study; Doughnut economy; Sustainability Window; Thailand
Online: 18 December 2020 (14:51:50 CET)
The Doughnut Economy is a new approach for the inclusion of planetary boundaries and social foundation in the development of societies. The Sustainable Development Goals of the UN determine another view for development targets. The developed Sustainability Window approach provides a means for operationalisation and quantification of the Doughnut Economy. The developed method calculates minimum economic development to guarantee sustainable social development and maximum economic development not to exceed environmental sustainability. The developed method, ASA Doughnut, is illustrated with case data from Thailand. The sustainability Doughnut for Thailand has been calculated for both weak and strong sustainability criteria. It seems that strong sustainability is a too strict requirement regarding several environmental dimensions of development while the weak sustainability criteria are fulfilled. The developed method and tool is flexible and can be used for comparative analysis of different countries or regions, for dynamic analysis of sustainability development, for gap analysis of the required improvement of environmental or social efficiency, and analysis of degrowth possibilities. The selection of indicators for the analyses and their reliability is crucial for the validity of the results and usefulness in policy planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: city logistics; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; urban bus transport; IPA; AHP
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:09:11 CET)
Logistics in urban areas are currently suffering a radical transformation due to increasingly population concentration and the massive use of cars as the preferred transport mode. These issues have resulted in higher pollution levels in urban environments and traffic congestion impacting the world globally. Facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes is widely regarded as a necessity to cope with these adverse effects on citizens’ life quality. Hence, some regions, as the European Union, are encouraging bus transport firms to make their business models more environmentally and socially sustainable. The aim of this research is thus to explore how practices adopted by urban bus companies can improve cities’ sustainability. With this in mind, a combined Importance Performance Analysis (IPA)-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied. In this way, both environmental and social sustainability effects of developed practices were represented through hierarchical structures separately. Subsequently, importance and performance ratings of practices in each sustainability dimension were estimated, and thus two IPA grids were generated. These grids support managers in the establishment of more effective action plans to improve logistics sustainability in cities. Findings also provide guidance to governments on the practices that should be promoted in future urban mobility plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0392.v1
Online: 17 September 2020 (10:26:52 CEST)
Career guidance needs new perspectives considering challenges that characterized our future, and it can not exist without solidarity, inclusion, and attention to the environmental challenges. It also should be able to positively influence stakeholders to invest in the values of the 2030 Agenda recently proposed by the United Nations and their encouragement to think about some emergencies that the new generations will have to face in the future. Based on these premises, we designed and validated a sustainable career guidance intervention for high school students. Participants (N = 75) were assigned to an experimental or a control group. All participants responded pre- and post-intervention to measure career adaptability, training, and future investment, and wishes about the feature. The students from the sustainable career intervention group increased in post-intervention scores on control, curiosity, confidence, and training and future investment. They also indicated future wishes that take into more account attention to relationships and social challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: sustainability; society; environment; technology
Online: 13 February 2017 (09:49:55 CET)
It is postulated in this research that the paradox of “advances in technology and management not keeping pace with the ever-increasing urban problems” is due to the poor understanding of person-focused governance of societal, environmental and economic entities. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an adaptive institutional model of person-driven effectiveness and ineffectiveness. The model proposes that human, ecologic and economic outcomes are heavily influenced by a complex system of systems, spanning from individually unique “non-physical influencers” to a broader set of social and environmental influencers that have a common impact on the larger society-environment-economy (SEE) system. At the heart of the model is an analytic formulation that explains the phenomena of non-physical blocker, enhancer and indifferent that are responsible for the adaptation and maladaptation of social agents, and accordingly for the sustainability and unsustainability of SEE systems. Examples are provided to illustrate the model applications: (a) the non-physical and maladaptive syndromes as antecedents of multi-morbidity and (b) the broadened and narrowed minds as sources of sustainability and unsustainability at the SEE system level within the context of emerging technologies such as engineered nanomaterials.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: corporate sustainability reporting; environmental accounting and reporting; public universities; sustainability reporting; CSR
Online: 23 March 2020 (01:10:51 CET)
Corporate sustainability reporting, also known as Triple-bottom-line reporting, involves reporting nonfinancial and financial information to a broader set of stakeholders than just shareholders and seek to fortify an organization’s ability to manage key risks. The current case is that, the quality, rigor, and utility of sustainability reporting remains contentious with concerns about the suitability of the criteria or standards used to prepare the reports. Despite the rapid increase in the number of companies around the world adopting Global Reporting Initiative standards, little is known about the extent of practice of corporate sustainability reporting in public universities in Kenya. The study selected five universities that had their 2017-18 audited financial reports available online for the readers, which served as the main source of secondary data. The guidelines on corporate sustainability reporting was derived from literature review, which provided key indicators upon which the data from each university was evaluated. It was observed that almost all the institutions recognize the critical role of both internal and external independent audit of financial statements. In conclusion, financial reporting sustainability is guided by strict compliance to the factors of sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0449.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: groundwater; sustainability assessment; small islands; Caribbean islands; sustainability assessment indicators; water management
Online: 24 July 2018 (08:12:19 CEST)
Groundwater is an important resource for many countries and its scarcity is a major concern in small territories, especially in the islands where the constant extraction is creating a high risk of public calamity. This issue has been increasing because of the anthropogenic activities and the climate change and it has called the attention of scientists and stakeholders in order to assess the sustainability of the water management system, and therefore, to establish strategies for a more sustainable water use. San Andres island was taking as case study and a description of the water balance was carried out in order to understand the management system. Then, a water system sustainability assessment was performed with indicators such as water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity, attractiveness, and governance, according to the City Blueprint Methodology. The result for the 24 evaluated indicators was a score of 3.2, whose interpretation is “an unsustainable water management”. The qualitative assessment was the base to propose water security, water quality, and governance strategies to improve the water management in the island. The assessment and its discussions are relevant for the water management in small islands across the world whose economy is based on the tourism and whose water security is at a high risk.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: piezoelectric tiles; school; sustainability; prototype
Online: 13 January 2022 (14:00:01 CET)
With the depletion of natural resources, it has become a topic of great concern to address the unsustainable way of life. In this study, we investigate the use of piezoelectric material - to generate electricity in schools. The use of these piezoelectric materials in floor tiles could enable us to generate energy from the footsteps of the children in school. The goal is to be able to power lights and fans in classrooms and reduce the consumption of conventional electricity - produced through the combustion of coal and other natural resources. The primary method of research is to develop a prototype with different choices of material and configurations of piezoelectric transducers to maximize power generation in a typical school setting. The results showed that the energy generated from one step needs to be improved by a factor of 100 for a typical classroom to generate enough power for a light and a fan. The research found that current technology although promising is incapable of producing enough power via piezoelectric tiles in a school setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: fishery; bioeconomic; sustainability; tuna; management
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:09:47 CET)
Ocean temperatures are increasing. Little work has been done to examine the effects that these changes will have on fishery production. The study at hand seeks to incorporate the influence of climate change into established bioeconomic fishery models. Stock biomass is approximated to be a function of sea surface temperature. Following a feasible generalized least squares regression using data from the Western and Central Pacific, the interaction between fishery effort and temperature is found to be statistically significant. From this model, various functional forms relating effort, catch, and temperature are specified. In particular, a function that returns an effort requirement given a target catch level and temperature forecast is generated.The importance of these tools for fishery management is explored through application to Western and Central Pacific tuna fisheries. Recommendations for extensions into future research are made and the foundation for a model of efficient effort allocation across time and the entirety of a management area, given changing temperatures, is specified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: banking; financial performance; sustainability performance
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:23:42 CET)
Banking sector is generally taken out of sample while the sustainability performance, and the financial performance are compared with each other. The core aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the declarations made in the cope of sustainability reports on the financial performance in the banking sector. Seven banks were included in the study which were placed at least one time in BIST Sustainability Index in between 2010-2017 years. Environment, human resources, product liability and community involvement were determined as sustainability criteria and return on assets, return on equity and net interest margin were determined as financial performance criteria. Non-Parametric Statistic Tests and Panel Data Analysis were used for analysis and types, and the sizes of banks were selected as dummy variables. As a result, it is found that the declarations of sustainability reports have a significant effect only on return on assets and have no significant effect on return on equity and net interest margin. And also, when we analyzed the relationship of sustainability criteria and return on assets, we found that the declarations about environment and human resources have negative effects on return on assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable marketing
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:20:24 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the challenges faced by business organizations implementing sustainable solutions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the wider Gulf Coast Countries (GCC) region. To this end, our study examines an academic theory supporting the implementation of responsible solutions to the market. Ultimately, the authors hope to inspire the reader to consider what he or she can do to ameliorate the existing challenges encountered by sustainable businesses. The analysis presented in this article implies that in recent markets, the implementation of the sustainability theory is essential for further development. The research project contributes to the increase of knowledge about corporate and organizational challenges related to running a responsible business, as well as challenges related to the application of environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainable business practices. The research is currently limited to conceptual analysis, literature review and a survey conducted during the Sustainability Week 2019 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Nevertheless, this is the first stage of the research project conducted by the research team in cooperation with enterprises that implement responsible solutions in many global markets, and in UAE market. The scope of the first stage of the study was limited to the analysis of data clarifying the concept of the model specified in the research. To prove the validity of the model it will be implemented and tested in cooperation with organizations participating in the research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; management; performance; sustainability
Online: 31 July 2017 (15:43:49 CEST)
The study examines how the South African construction industry can nurture an entrepreneur and a large successful entrepreneurial construction company, even though the founder had no formal education and the company was founded during the Apartheid era. The question of whether entrepreneurs are born or are made is based on the age-old question of nurture and nature. The paper presents the narratives of a successful entrepreneur Mr. Sam Lubbe. The narratives presented are collected through a case study research approach. The data collected suggests that although Sam does not have any formal education, he succeeded based on nurturing given to him when he had the opportunity to work for a large South African construction company, his innate characteristics of self-confidence, task-result orientation, originality, future direction, and a unique business model which also helped him access international construction work opportunities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0034.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: systematic literature review; agricultural sustainability assessment; circular economy; lice cycle methodologies; agri-food sustainability
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:48:13 CET)
This study aims at providing a systematic and critical review on the state-of-the-art of life cycle applications from the circular economy point of view. In particular, the main objective is to un-derstand how researchers adapt life cycle approaches for the measurement of the empirical cir-cular pathways of agri-food systems along the overall lifespan. To perform the literature review, PRISMA protocol was considered to conduct a review by qualitative synthesis. Specifically, an evaluation matrix has been set up to gather and synthesize research evidence, by classifying pa-pers according to several integrated criteria. The literature search was carried out employing scientiﬁc databases. Findings evidence that the most common circularity topics are about closed-loop production systems, i.e. nutrient recovery for agricultural purposes, production of renewable energy, valorization of residues and wastes as fertilizers, food waste, and agro-wastes recycling for agriculture. To evaluate the benefits/impacts of CE strategies, Life Cycle Assess-ment (LCA) proved to be the most common methodology applied by authors, as it can help to meet the main CE requirements slowing and closing resource loops.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0515.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: ESG; Sustainable Finance; Smart Real Estate; Sustainable Real Estate; User wellbeing; Social Sustainability; Environmental Sustainability
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:11:23 CET)
Investors are currently obliged to take ESG (Environment, Social, Governance) issues into consideration as part of their fiduciary duty. As such, it becomes increasingly important to identify sustainable investments that hold financial value as well. A sector where this is especially underdeveloped is real estate. This has a lot to do with the obfuscated conceptualization of ESG. The article identifies key gaps in literature and practice, and provides a framework to further the understanding of how ESG factors can add societal and financial value in the real estate sector. A key premise of the article is that the user in the building is grossly overlooked. Drawing on insights from behavioral social science and environmental psychology, the paper explains the role of the user in improving buildings’ ESG, also taking into account the investment value. To conclude, the article makes the case that the transition to user-centered smart real estate is the solution to improving both the environmental (E) and social (S) sustainability of buildings, as well as their investment value. Therefore, practitioners and academics are encouraged to critically evaluate and contextualize the ESG framework they are using, as well as the extent to which users are considered and smart technology is employed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: higher education; sustainability; enrollment; graduation; unemployment
Online: 7 June 2022 (04:06:44 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in undergraduate enrollment, graduation, and employment in Ethiopia. It looked at data from the past 20 years of enrollment and graduation, as well as the 15 years of unemployment trends. For enrollment, we used the ARIMA(0,1,0) model, for graduation, the Holt-Winter model, and unemployment, the Simple model. Results showed that enrollment rates increased dramatically, but graduation rates remained constant. Besides, enrollment is expected to continue rising, while graduation rates are expected to fall. On the other hand, between 1999 and 2018, the overall unemployment trend declined. Yet, between 2009 and 2018 the unemployment trends stayed stable. According to the findings, for the next ten years, higher education enrollment and graduation will continue. Nevertheless, it is shown the diminishing demand for jobs in the labor market. As part of improving the existing realities of higher education, the study suggests reconsidering job-driven policy formulation, strengthening higher education-labor market alignment, controlling higher education expansion, and sustaining the development qualification systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: carbon-footprint; dentistry; environment; management; sustainability
Online: 18 May 2022 (10:43:57 CEST)
Background There is increasing awareness of problems associated with global warming but a lack of a systematic approach on how to deliver more environmentally sustainable dental care. A sustainable world aims to ensure that basic needs and quality of life of everyone are met, now and for future generations. The carbon footprint is an indicator of environmental sustainability. Aim The aim is to suggest an environmental management change for the dental practice focusing on the objective of carbon footprint reduction. Environmental management change design The management change is based on the concept of “Plan-Do-Check-Act”, as recommended by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and described through the environmental aspects of the dental practice. The approach focuses on establishing and implementing environmental objectives, followed by monitoring results and taking actions to improve continually. The environmental aspects considered for the dental practice are activities causing an impact on the carbon footprint: energy use, travel, product purchasing, waste production, emission to air, water use, and contamination of land. Conclusions The “Plan-Do-Check-Act” ISO 14100-2015 model can be effectively integrated into the dental practice setting for its environmental management. A reduction of the carbon footprint of the dental practice is achieved by applying the environmental management change described for each activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: tourism; islands; impact; economic development; sustainability
Online: 8 March 2022 (02:45:35 CET)
Tourism may not sustainably support territories with limited natural resource stock as islands. The volume in visitor arrivals and the industry investments can increase the pressure even beyond sustainable levels. There is an evident and unresolved tension between these two great polarities, sustainability and economic growth driven by tourism. The aim for policymakers is to find an acceptable equilibrium between these two dimensions. This paper investigates the tourism evolution between 2007 and 2019 in 15 Mediterranean islands, comparing the tourism pressures through statistical indicators. The analysis will compare tourism demand and supply trends in these contexts. The performances will be evaluated to identify the Islands positioning between sustainability needs and tourism development opportunities considering post-covid-19 challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Accountability; Governance; IPSS; Indicators; Sustainability; Transparency
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:25:02 CET)
Given the extreme importance of improving the accountability of Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS), both for reasons of legal compliance (hard law) and for reasons of improving legitimacy and notoriety among their stakeholders (soft law), this paper aims to present a framework designed under a more comprehensive research project, for the assessment of IPSS accountability and, consequently, its improvement. This study also present results of the indicators conceived, identifying the main trends of the framework dimensions and sub-dimensions from a pilot test for the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 in Portugal. Given the results, we believe that the framework designed answers the research question: How to promote accountability (social, financial and economic) in the social economy sector, in particular: the case of the IPSS?, however, as this is an exploratory article, it incorporates the limitation that this is a pilot test with only 7 entities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0480.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: architecture; sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable design
Online: 25 November 2021 (14:43:15 CET)
Sustainability is a concept shrouded in abstraction. While we have definitions in existence, it is often difficult to explain the concept itself. The current definition of ‘sustainable development’ was given by the Brundtland Commission’s report in 1987. The Earth Summit at Rio in 1992 gave us Agenda 21, an action plan to achieve sustainable development. Now in the 21st century, philosophers, academicians, and researchers across the globe are paving the way for a new understanding of the term ‘sustainability’, its contextual nature, and its relation to humans, politics, and ecology. This article investigates the origins of the term ‘sustainability’, its derivatives, and the concept of sustainable development. A semantical analysis is carried out to understand the differences between ‘sustainability’ and ‘sustainable development’. Next, the development of the three pillars of sustainability and the application of these concepts in the field of architecture and design is also investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0186.v1
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:26:59 CEST)
sustainability reporting, critical paradigm, upstream oil, and gasThe operating activities of the upstream oil and gas industry directly impact the environment. This industry faces significant social challenges and directly impacts the environment. Many Reputable international sustainability institutions organize sustainability awards. However, community conditions do not have a positive impact on sustainability practices. There are vari-ous serious violations related to sustainability, environmental pollution, multiple cases of cor-ruption, human rights, and other violations. In contrast, the companies receiving this award also received inspection findings of violations committed by The Audit Board of the Republic of In-donesia. This study uses critical discourse analysis that begins with phenomena related to viola-tions of sustainability reporting from scientific journals and other references using a systematic literature review approach over the last ten years. It produces a critical paradigm that is not val-ue-free, which is the basis for framing thought utilizing the theory of hegemony. The results of this study indicate that the upstream oil and gas industries are obliged to implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices and Sustainability Reports (SR), has biased factors that are contrary to the sustainability concept and are not under the sustainability award based on evi-dence obtained from the stages of manuscript analysis with systematic literature review
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0670.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: policies; sustainability; waste management; waste sector
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:50:36 CEST)
Solid waste management is a challenge in many countries, especially developing economies. The author identified nine major waste issues reported during the current pandemic period. The impacts of the pandemic continue to be felt and have indicated secondary impacts with respect the waste management. The reflective topics highlighted in the present article are not intended to be exhaustive. Still, they give us a starting point for reﬂecting on how we can construct a more resilient waste management system.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0117.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: COVID-19; Medical Waste; Sustainability; Environment.
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:22:55 CEST)
The situation in the world of pandemics is rapidly changing, and the second wave of COVID-19 has put a lot of pressure on the government and private sector, which are primarily responsible for controlling the situation. COVID-19 positive cases have increased in recent months relative to last year, and the number of patients admitted to hospitals has also increased, despite the fact that few of them were denied admission due to shortage of beds. Normal people who experience any symptoms immediately isolate themselves and begin taking the COVID medications prescribed by medical personnel and their team. During these times, all domestic people tossed the wrappers and boxes of medicines into the regular trash can, and the waste was handed over to the waste collector, who treated it like any other domestic waste and disposed of it using open dumping or other methods. The goal of this perspective is to suggest the collections of these types of waste from domestics, and protect the natural resources like water, soil, and even living beings like animals from pollution (from the effect of SARS-CoV-2). The main challenge for environmental waste management agencies is determining who has COVID positive and which houses generate these types of waste; thus, proposed strategy may be beneficial to the long-term sustainability of natural resources and animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0077.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: European Energetic Law; Development; Resilience; Sustainability
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:24:19 CEST)
The paper will examine in detail (a) the norms that can be featured under the category "Green Deal" connected to the European Commission, (b) their application to Spain and (c) the different patterns of action and development models that have been shaped by this framework over the last 20 years. These patterns are particularly relevant currently, as the Covid crisis has highlighted the importance of advancing towards new patterns of local sustainability endowed with higher resilience. The notion of cognitive sustainability will be one of the added value to current reflections on sustainability in general and energetic sustainability in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: near miss modelling; sustainability; Machine Learning.
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:10:12 CEST)
In European Seveso Legislation for the control of the hazard of major accidents (Directive 2015/12/UE), the Safety Management System SMS is an essential obligation for managers and the authorities are required to periodically verify its adequateness through periodical inspections at Seveso sites. One of the pillars of the SMS is the collection and analysis of documents on accidents, near misses and possibly anomalies, in order to identify weaknesses and implement continuous improvement. In Italy, for a few years, the documents, gathered from all Italian Seveso sites by the inspectors, have been archived and used for research purposes. The archive currently contains some 4000 reports, collected in five years by some 100 inspectors throughout Italy. The paper discusses in the detail the challenges faced to extract the knowledge hidden in the documents and make it usable through the design of a robust model. For this aim, Machine Learning techniques have been used as a preprocessing of the reports for extracting the concepts and their relations, organized into an entity-relation model. The effectiveness of this methodology and its potentiality are pointed out by investigating a few hot topics, exploiting the information contained in the repository.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0380.v1
Online: 14 April 2021 (13:51:32 CEST)
Sustainability transition theories analyse a systematic shift towards sustainability at micro (niche), meso (regime) and macro (landscape) level. The assessment of technological systems and structures at the firm level in sustainability transition literature is scant. The present study, taking the technological assessment perspective at the firm level, finds answers to questions like (a) how do established corporations move towards sustainable practices? (b) what role does technological innovation play in the firm’s transition towards sustainability? (c) what technological modes are adopted for sustainability transition? We find answers to these questions through an in-depth case analysis of two multi-national companies in the consumer goods industry. Internally developed and externally acquired technologies by firms in the last 15 years are plotted using qualitative and quantitative indicators on pre-designed templates. Technologies for all three sustainability dimensions, namely, environmental, social and economic, are mapped and the impact assessed. The analysis finds a sustainability transition landscape that shows the use of protected (patents, trademarks, designs) and unprotected technologies (open innovation) to generate impacts like production efficiency, consumption reduction, emission reduction, reduce-recycle-reuse among others. Companies implementing sustainable technologies do observe positive impacts. Implementation of reduce-reuse-recycle (3R)-based technologies enhance the achievement of sustainable development targets. Furthermore, the use of trademarks seems common in differentiating their technologies and identities. These and other results are detailed and used to comment on the role of managing intellectual property and harnessing the effect of technological innovations in sustainability transition.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: bridge; condition; flag; forecast; management; sustainability
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:38:29 CET)
New York State Department of Transportation designates potentially hazardous conditions on bridges as flags. From 1982 until 2006 the flags issued for the bridges owned by New York City underwent all phases typical of crises, including a gradual increase, an exponential expansion, an extended peak, a gradual decline, and a convergence to a higher but manageable level. The attempts to forecast the flag pattern as it was developing are reviewed for possible relevance to management of the transportation infrastructure and in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0487.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Planning; resilience; territory; Smart City; Sustainability
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:15:39 CET)
Urban planning is recognized as an interaction between the state and society, which aims to articulate public policies in the territory, facilitating their administration in favor of greater development and well-being of society. However, this interaction becomes complex because consumption demands increase, and the needs of the community exceed the capacity of the urban ecosystem to supply them, hindering its sustainable functionality. With this panorama, it becomes relevant to study urban planning from a sustainable environmental planning perspective, based on four topics: urban planning, sustainability, resilience and smart cities. The methodology used is based on a bibliometric study through a PRISMA adjustment to 87 articles, supported by VOSviewer® to construct and visualize the co-occurrence networks of important terms extracted from a body of scientific literature. The main result is to consider cities with a complex systems approach that works like a gear, that is, there is a connective element between inter- and intra-urban processes. This relationship is the key factor that allows understanding their synchronization, stating that the deepening of each of these topics is crucial to the ideal of a territorial administration through time scales, by means of adaptive cycles, allowing to provide new tools to concepts such as carrying capacity and the measurement of the environmental footprint.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: contract farming; broiler producers; economic sustainability
Online: 24 March 2020 (11:58:03 CET)
This review has been realized within the agribusiness sector and experiments the Transaction Cost Theory a branch of the New Institutional Economy which explain market failure caused by many factors. Transaction costs are associated with carrying a transaction between buyers and sellers. This study has been conducted between 2014 and 2017; and has collected data from 11 broiler producers in Jezzine, Lebanon, about: Production costs, capital investment, revenues, land tenure, access to infrastructure, and information about the contract. The propensity score matching method is used to compare the effect of participating in contract farming and to solve the hypotheses, which say: There is a positive relationship between contract farming and the economic benefits of broiler producers and the development of the broiler sector in Jezzine District. Findings from farmer’s interviews indicated that sustainability, guaranteed price, risk reduction, credit facilities and technical aids are the main reasons for signing a contract. In contrast, Farmers have expressed problems concerning the contractors’ responsibilities such as delay in payment and delivery. Also, when prices are high, it was argued that farmers were selling the products in the open market.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: waste management; civil construction waste; sustainability
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:26:32 CET)
Given the importance of the development of urban infrastructure and environmental impacts produced by the civil construction waste (CCW), it is important to correct the handling of CCW with objective solutions that are more environmentally friendly. In that sense the present study aimed to determine indicators that make it possible to estimate the amount of CCW generated from construction sites in the city of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil. The generation of CCW was estimated in a general way, regarding the composition of its mixture, correlated to the gross areas of the buildings studied and their generated volumes of RCC. This generating rate was evaluated in a general way and specifies two types of sites: the new residential and new non-residential constructions. The data required for the development of these indicators was obtained through extensive survey and interviews carried out at the environment secretariat of the City Hall. The generating rate of CCW obtained for non-residential buildings was 0.2052m3/m2 or 170.44kg/m2, for new residential sites was 0.2054m3/m2 or 170.60kg/m2 and for new commercial or non-residential construction sites, it was 0.20453 m3/m2 or 169.85kg/m2. It was also possible to estimate the amount generated annually per inhabitant in the municipality, which is 0.60m3/inhabit.year or 498.55kg/inhabit.year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0006.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Smart City Services; Sustainability; Living Lab
Online: 2 September 2018 (12:15:05 CEST)
In terms of sustainability, cities become smart when they provide intelligent services to the inhabitants using information and communication technologies without threatening the future of the environment, economy or the society. However, the process of developing such sustainable smart services has certain challenges, especially in understanding the real needs of the people living in the city. Inhabitants of the city or the citizens are the key stakeholders in case of smart services in a city. Active involvement of the people throughout the process is a way to design such services. On the other hand, integrating sustainability, for example including environmental data to the smart city services has been found challenging. Therefore, this research discusses an approach on combining environmental data with regular smart city services and to engage city inhabitants in the process, the approach that is adapted from the concept of living lab methodology. Finally, an application has been developed to represent a smart city service following this method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sustainability; consciousness; education; e-portfolios; ICT
Online: 3 August 2018 (15:49:54 CEST)
The contents of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) should be included in teachers’ initial and advanced training programs. In order to determine the key competences for sustainability, creating a Sustainable Consciousness is one of the main foundations. However, there are not many empirical studies that deal with consciousness from education. In this context, e-portfolio appears as a tool that promotes reflection and critical thinking, key competences for consciousness development. This work intends to propose a categorization system to extract types of consciousness and identify trainee teachers’ levels of consciousness. For this research work, of an eminently qualitative nature, we have selected twenty-five portfolios of students in the last year of the School of Education at the University of Macerata (Italy). The qualitative methodological procedure followed allowed to deduce three bases that shape trainee teachers’ consciousness: thinking, representation of reality and type of consciousness. We concluded that the attainment of a Sustainable Consciousness in teachers requires activating and developing higher levels of thinking, as well as a projective and macrostructural representation of reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0316.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: agritourism; sustainability; rural policies; FADN; Italy
Online: 18 July 2018 (00:29:49 CEST)
This paper investigates how and to what extent European and national policies, through the analysis of financial support derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) (First and Second Pillar) and national and local subsidies, have financed Italian agritourism. For this purpose, the authors have proposed a comparative analysis between Italian agritourism and farms without tourism activities, by stressing the distribution of public financial supports concerning the 2007-2013 programming period of the European Union (EU) for Rural Development. The empirical analysis is based on the Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) dataset. The data were stratified by altimetry zone and farm size. Descriptive statistics and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for each group were used. The main results show how the Second Pillar has mainly supported small and medium-sized farms with tourism activities and located in disadvantaged areas. This study could be useful to policymakers regarding evaluation of the mission for diversification in agriculture, represented here by the carrying out of tourist activities on farms and the contribution for the retention of small-scale farms in marginal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0476.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: biodiesel,energetic efficiency, modelling, transport, sustainability
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:30:59 CEST)
Based on rapeseed plantation biodiesel production system requires transportation of goods, like raw materials, machines and tools, and products between various conversion stages of agricultural as well as industrial subsystems. Each transportation step requires consumption of some energy. This consumption, decreases the net amount of energy delivered out of the biofuel production system, and consequently decreases energetic efficiency of the system. The present work deals with computer modelling of the influence of energy consumed on those transport routes on the energetic efficiency of production system. The effects caused by variation of several parameters like fuel consumption and load capacity of transportation means, size of plantation, distribution and sizes of individual fields, distances between fields, as well as plantation yield, and finally the distance between plantation and the industrial facility are studied using the numerical model developed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0258.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: local activities, regional products, sustainability support
Online: 26 January 2018 (16:19:26 CET)
Regional product labeling can help develop regional business activities, especially with traditional regional products. Their general popularity is a significant source of income for the less developed regions. The Gemer-Malohont region belongs to economically underdeveloped areas with high unemployment rate. The subject of the survey was regional food products, which are made by small farmer. The analysis was carried out on a questionnaire survey in the period April-July 2017 in each of the region's districts. The results obtained by questionnaire survey have been statistically processed using the statistical method (two-step cluster analysis, radar chart, box-plots, regression analysis) using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software. Through cluster analysis and based on the preference of regional food, we divided consumers into two groups - knowledgeable regional food purchasers and priced oriented consumers. We have shown that the more developed regions (Rimavská Sobota, Rožňava) show a higher rate of purchase of regional foods. Less developed regions (Poltár, Revúca) are represented by lower-income consumers for whose the food price is the decisive criterion. Local residents of backward regions should pay attention to domestic food and local small farmers, who are the way to create local capital and local development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0154.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: sustainability indicators; natural hazards; earthquake; ELECTRE
Online: 24 August 2017 (12:37:08 CEST)
Natural hazards such as earthquakes take place around the world and when combined with humans create natural disasters. Earthquakes, a form of natural hazard, have, in recent years, caused damage and destruction in many rural areas due to the lack of sustainability in political, economic, social, physical and operational criteria. Thus, to overcome the damage caused by earthquakes in rural areas, an assessment of sustainability status seems necessary to plan and strengthen in relation to the status of sustainability indicators. Data collection was performed through field methods and questionnaires. To test the hypothesis, T statistical methods, correlation method and F-test were performed using SPSS software (V22.0, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). The results of the study showed that villages were at a low and undesirable level for all aspects, except social index in terms of sustainability. Comparisons showed that there was a significant mean difference among villages in terms of sustainability. The multi-criteria decision-making analysis has been considered and applied to a ranking of villages in terms of sustainability against the hazard of earthquakes. Finally, in order to improve the sustainability indicators of villages, some strategies have been presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: improvement; opportunity; people; perspectives; society; sustainability
Online: 8 June 2017 (12:47:03 CEST)
Development and sustainable development are two concepts gaining the attention of scholars, historians and policy makers in recent times. This is because they represent what people and societies across the world today sincerely desired. Every human being or human society deserve improvement in quality of livelihood, health care system, access to food, housing, security, clothing and many other indices of development in a sustainable manner. Based on this momentum, this paper examines the nexus between development and sustainable development. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section spots the conceptual issue woven around the term development as well as sustainable development in literature. The second section clarifies the two concepts (development and sustainable development) and the main perspectives on development were discussed. It also identifies the common and distinctive features between the concept of development and sustainable development. The third section then presents a conceptual framework of analysis on the nexus of between development and sustainable development. Finally, the paper concludes that the duos (development and sustainable development) are two-side of a coin and they complement each other. This is due to the fact that development is people oriented hence it must be sustainable so as to ensure that the advancement of current generation does not deny future generation the opportunity to develop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban sustainability; environmental governance; energy policy
Online: 27 July 2016 (05:56:56 CEST)
As the world’s second largest economy, China ranks amount the world’s top nations when it comes to carbon emission, and therefore its attitude towards climate change is closely followed by all parties concerned. There have been few researches on the role of environmental governance in low-carbon city transformation process, especially the Chinese one. This paper analyses the role of government environmental regulation played in the low-carbon city transformation process by taking Shenzhen as the research object. One of the world's youngest super cities, it also happens to be the lowest carbon emission intensity city in China. Striving to explore green low-carbon development path for the whole country, Shenzhen provides practical experience for countries to cope with global climate change. However, its efforts to reduce the total carbon emissions failed, but it emphasized the carbon emission intensity, which is consistent with the international commitments made by the central government. China’s policy towards handling climate change relies on hierarchical governance arrangement. The strength of the NGOs in the country is weak and incomparable with the government’s, which has mastered most of the resources and is just a reality in China.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: corporate sustainability strategy; corporate growth strategy; Maslow Pyramid; Organic Growth Theory; corporate social responsibility; corporate responsibility; sustainability
Online: 7 August 2020 (12:04:21 CEST)
This paper introduces a theory for the evolution of corporates in which the growth and sustainability strategies are developed simultaneously. Since the introduction of corporate sustainability, it has been an extra cost for risk mitigation and making ‘compensating’ positive impact. The world has reached a tipping point of volatility, mainly due to climate change but also by emergence of COVID-19, so that the applicability of existing corporate structures is under question and these poses high risk to the existence of our planet. On the other hand, the technology cost for sustainable investment has reached a parity in comparison with non-sustainable alternatives. Therefore, our proposed Organic Grow Theory introduces a step-by-step approach so that corporates can grow and be profitable without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It is concluded that, a new structure for corporate, called Founcorp, would be needed to direct corporates to evolve being a responsible legal entity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development; sociology of education; sustainability literacy; higher education; sustainable development goals
Online: 25 October 2018 (16:31:16 CEST)
Sustainability, sustainable development and education for sustainable development are increasingly central concepts, both in social practice and in the field of scientific knowledge. Sociology, and in particular Sociology of Education as a specialised Sociology, can provide relevant contributions in its promotion. This article aims to explore the importance of Sociology of Education in promoting sustainability literacy in higher education, using the Sustainable Development Goals and key competencies (United Nations and UNESCO) as the central reference in this field, and intends, thus, to become an added contribution for this discussion. The article seeks to demonstrate that the learning of sustainability literacy would benefit from the use of a sociological stance throughout this whole process that considers dimensions that are often not directly emphasised and articulated between each other, such as: interconnection of scale levels, sociological imagination, multi-paradigmatic nature, heuristic interdisciplinarity, reflexivity and use of Sociology for action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0010.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainability; competitive advantage, Sassuolo tile ceramic district; Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA); Italian ceramic industry; meso-economic level; interpretative method
Online: 13 June 2018 (09:49:25 CEST)
Talking about sustainable development refers mainly to the environmental sphere, but the concept is much broader and also takes into account the social and economic conditions. The concept of sustainability, in this sense, is linked to the compatibility between the development of economic activities, the related social phenomena, and the protection of the environment. Therefore, the ability to balance social, economic and environmental sustainability is the very meaning of the concept of sustainable development. Firms that choose to develop policies and strategies to enhance and pursue sustainable development in the medium to long term have the burden of having to quantitatively document the improvements in production processes with the aim of sustainable development. As a result, one of the biggest challenges for European industry is to introduce sustainability principles into business models leading to competitive advantage. This is particularly important in raw material and energy intensive manufacturing sectors such as the ceramic industry. The present state of knowledge lacks a comprehensive operational tool for industry to support decision-making processes geared towards sustainability. In the ceramic sector, the economic and social dimensions of the product and processes have not yet been given sufficient importance. Moreover, the traditional research on industrial districts lacks an analysis of the relations between firms and the territory with a view to sustainability. Finally, the attention of scholars in the field of economic and social sustainability, has not yet turned to the analysis of the Sassuolo district. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), as a method that can be a suitable tool to fill this gap, because through a mathematical model it is possible to obtain the information useful for decision makers to integrate the principles of sustainability both at the microeconomic level in enterprises, and at the meso-economic level for the definition of economic policies and territorial governance. Environmental and socio-economic analysis was performed from the extraction of raw materials to the packaging of the product on different product categories manufactured by the Italian ceramic industries of the Sassuolo district (northern Italy). For the first time the LCSA model, usually applied to unitary processes, is extended to the economic and industrial activities of the entire district, extending the prospect of investigation from the enterprise and its value chain to the integrated network of district enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; value co-creation; business sustainability; stakeholder
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:09:12 CEST)
As a typical form of value co-creation, crowdsourcing has been increasingly applied by firms to generate business value. By engaging a crowd, a platform, and other stakeholders, a crowdsourcer can foster the co-creation of a portfolio of value for diverse stakeholders. In analyzing the value co-creation in crowdsourcing, we propose a framework by combining the theories and frameworks in value co-creation and crowdsourcing. The framework examines the key stakeholders, joint purpose, engaged value co-creation processes, contributions, bidirectional relationships of the engagement, and perceived value, exhibiting a holistic view of the value co-creation in a crowdsourcing project. Results of the analysis reveal the business performance of the crowdsourcing project and identify areas of improvement regarding business sustainability. This is a major theoretical contribution of this study. The research design applied a case study approach to empirically investigate a crowdsourcing project. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0264.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: citizen science; citizen social science; sustainability; SDG
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:31:21 CEST)
Both the sustainability discourse and the debate on citizen science are strongly focused on the natural and technical sciences. Yet, numerous participatory research activities can be identified in the social sciences and humanities that address sustainability issues of various kinds. These have hardly been studied so far, and their contribution to addressing sustainability challenges is poorly known. The study investigates which sustainability topics are taken up by citizen science in the humanities and social sciences, which factors influence the choice of topics, and its implications. For this purpose, the concept of Citizen Social Science (CSS) is taken up and sustainability is operationalized via the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and its specific Targets. Based on a collection of CSS activities in Germany, the addressed sustainability topics are identified accordingly. It is then analyzed how these patterns depend on the main characteristics of CSS projects. The findings indicate a focus on three SDGs related to education, sustainable cities and partnerships for the Goals, while at the same time the project consortia are very heterogeneous. CSS shows particular strengths here through its multi-stakeholder approach. Going forward, the linkage of Citizen Science to the SDGs needs to be further formalized so that its transformative effects can be incorporated into SDG monitoring and the scientific institutions need additional incentives to participate in CSS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Social Capital; Japan; Iwate Prefecture; Resilience; Sustainability
Online: 18 April 2022 (03:46:52 CEST)
This paper investigates experiences of how local cultural norms and social capital influenced the disaster relief process following the 2011 GEJET disaster. To underline social capital’s multiple‐influence aspects, this paper draws from field research that focuses on collective and individual social capital in disaster relief to systematise the findings according to the social capital framework. The paper uncovers new effects of individual social capital and collective capital in a mega-disaster context, thus contributing to pushing the research agenda toward a more critical appraisal of individual social capital and collective capital. We contribute to the nascent but growing literature that clarifies the relationship between social capital and disaster resilience. A qualitative study was conducted to capture the essence of their shared experiences. Findings revealed three main themes capturing the essence of the research participants’ disaster experiences. First, disaster response relied mostly on locally driven relief due to a clear understanding of the local culture. Second, there was an urgency to establish a sense of normalcy by providing quality supplies that would help survivors. Third, Japanese gender roles and expectations were reflected in the disaster relief process. The themes establish a wide array of lived experiences that are important to reflect on the role social capital plays in the policy-making and needs assessment processes in post-disaster relief and response efforts. The findings provide insights for integrating social dimensions into a humanitarian aid culture as citizens work towards a sense of normalcy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0293.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sense making analysis; critical phenomenology; sustainability transformations;
Online: 20 January 2022 (10:08:50 CET)
Transformation studies lean towards the more practical aspects of change processes and are not yet dealing adequately with their personal and political dimensions. They are arguably constrained in doing so in their current stances, either fixated on systems and how to control them or on individualistic values and behaviours. In this study we show the range of actually-occurring societal transformations that people face can be usefully approached through a combination of dialogical sense-making and critical phenomenology. While distinct, these approaches share a concern with experience and meaning-making, concerns which are often neglected when societal transformation becomes abstracted and alienated from people’s lives. The two approaches reveal how societal transformational change is situated, shared, embodied and laden with diverse meanings. Dialogical sense-making expands the theorisation of the experiential, personal and political dimensions of transformation and shows how the practical dimension of change is always personal and political. Critical phenomenology addresses how the experience of transformation help shape subjectivity, as a lived relation to the world, and sheds light on taken-for-granted, lived norms about bodies and transformative change. Drawing together the three spheres of transformation – the practical, personal, and political - allows a fuller grasp of the complexity in which new worlds may emerge. Through a discussion of insights from these approaches, we develop a language and framework to understand how people interact with change processes. This development allows new questions about transformative change, based on a reframing of transformations that brings them closer to people’s lives. Together these approaches broaden and deepen social-science and humanities contributions to transformation studies and sustainability science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0268.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: heritage; conservation; sustainability; monastic spaces; religious architecture.
Online: 19 January 2022 (10:16:52 CET)
The different technical and legal tools intended for heritage protection have introduced the novel possibility of enjoying important monumental complexes. The divergence lies in the artistic contexts in which, due to the genesis of their programmatic typology, they require residential uses, as is the case of monasteries. This article collects the results of a long-span research, whose main objective has been to find a tool that could allow us to measure different indicators on a continuous basis in which both the protection of the elements, and the capacity for habitation, are safeguarded. To this aim we have set in context the research at the Monastery of Santa Clara de la Columna in Belalcázar (Córdoba), a location with the highest possible heritage protection of Spanish ranking which, in turn, accommodates a religious community. The results have allowed us to design innovative parameters for habitation, within a protected and endangered heritage context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:40:53 CET)
The article presents an original method to assess the sustainability of concrete. The method uses three parameters, namely: performance, lifetime and environmental impact, to calculate a sustainability index. The originality and the simplicity of the proposed method presented in the article consists in the fact that by applying the relation to determine the sustainability index, the first two factors service life and performance are constant. This approach is possible in the context of the new proposals to specify the durability of structural concrete in EN 1992 and EN 206. That allows classification of concrete according to its performance, through Environmental action Resistance Classes (ERC). For this purpose, specific experimental methods were used in order to determine the performance of concrete exposed to carbonation. The concretes were prepared with two cement types with additions (CEM II / A-S and CEM II / A-M (S-LL)). Based on the carbonation resistance classes (the first constant - the performance) and exposure classes, the thickness of the concrete cover layer was determined to ensure a certain service lifetime (second constant - the service lifetime). Finally, the global warming potential was calculated for each composition, consequently allowing the users of the method, to select the compositions with the lowest impact on the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:12:23 CET)
This article presents a method to assess the sustainability of concrete based on three elements: service life, performance and environmental impact. The method proposes - to achieve similar performance and service life times, regardless of the component materials used, so that the sustainability assessment ultimately depends on the environmental impact criterion. To this end, specific experimental methods are used to determine the performance of concrete in terms of compressive strength and carbonation resistance for concrete cast with two blended cement types. The procedure needed to classify the concrete through carbonation resistance is detailed, in relationship with the performance obtained for compressive strength. The obtained results highlight the concrete formulations to be used to ensure similar performances regardless of the cement type used. In conclusion, the simplicity in the application of the method, which is closely related to the performance approach on concrete durability in the revision proposals of the European standards, is highlighted. The method is also a useful tool to encourage the widespread use in concrete formulation of blended cements with low environmental impact, without reducing the performance or service life time of the constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: rural areas; smoke cooking; native gastronomy; sustainability
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:52:59 CEST)
The smoke house works as a tourism model that will directly impact women living across Quintana Roo communities and small towns, with the idea that this project will empower them, and provide them with a more dignified income, with the end goal to reduce the poverty rates in the state Likewise, to introduce an adequate formula of cuisine that promotes the regional gastronomic identity, since this typology of cultural heritage is linked to the experience of enjoying the state's native food. (Carrillo, J. and Vazquez, L., 2018) It should be noted that the main representatives and transmitters of gastronomy are women, usually housewives. Therefore, a methodology based on the qualitative approach was designed, taking as a basis the ethnographic method, which allows understanding the behavioral patterns of a society. In the first instance, a gastronomic laboratory is proposed for the university, which will later be used as a business model within the tourism industry, directed at people who seek to enjoy cultural and ex-periential tourism. And at the same time, it will benefit communities across the state by generating more income for them. In addition, the project of model smoke kitchen is oriented to go in accordance with the 2030 agenda. Which includes 17 objectives and 169 goals; six of those objectives are directly aligned with this project, and the rest can be observed to relate it in a more indirectly manner. In the same way, a summary of the results obtained by the five-year groundwork is presented, as well as the division of the gastronomy in the state according to the characteristics that conform the gastronomic region.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainability; inclusive education; pedagogy; degrees; study plans
Online: 26 March 2021 (10:19:56 CET)
An inclusive curriculum with a socio-cultural approach must include content on sustainability. This study raised the following problem: What is the presence of contents related to sustainability in the curricula of 24 degrees of Pedagogy of the Spanish state.? Through an explicit study, subjects directly related to sustainability were identified and analyzed through the qualitative data analysis program Atlas-ti. The categories of analysis used were those present in the Sustainability Thesaurus  to which the professional category was incorporated. The results showed, on the one hand, the low presence in these grades of subjects whose name indicates a direct link with sustainability and, on the other hand, On the other hand, the presence of professional competencies was detected, which were not subsequently specified in the corresponding learning outcomes or in the training content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: supply chain management; transport; sustainability; quality; innovation
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:03:54 CET)
The present article proposes a complete framework for Supply Chain Strategy (SCS) analysis that is adapted to the specific characteristics of the agrifood chain, thereby facilitating management of the former. As a specific case of analysis, the horticultural supply chain, originating in Spain and ending with the European consumer, is analyzed, taking as a reference the marketing companies at origin (mainly social economy companies, i.e.; cooperatives). In addition, a survey of marketing companies is conducted to possibly determine which explicit cooperative growth strategies may include horizontal and vertical collaboration relationships with other members of the chain. The aim is to analyze with whom the cooperative collaborates within the supply chain and the key points of such collaboration. A model analyzing the influence of collaboration on company performance is also considered. The results reveal that, in recent years, aspects related to quality and health have been surpassed and replaced by the concept of sustainability within a framework of collaboration with customers. In any case, it becomes evident that there is a need to expand collaboration within the chain by incorporating the supplier of the supplier, with the aim of making the chain more profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Acupuncture; lactate; heart rate; physical performance; sustainability
Online: 2 August 2020 (14:46:22 CEST)
Studies have demonstrated the positive effects of acupuncture on athletic performance. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of acupuncture on heart rate, the perceived exertion scale and lactate levels in recreational athletes. Fifteen competitive males engaged in HIIT. The characteristic was 29.86±2.51 years old, heart rate reserve 59.00±3.33, lactate 3.17±0.50 mM/DL. The subjects were submitted to two exercise sessions. Both training sessions consisted of 10 burpees, 12 thrusters and 14 box jumps (75 cm high) for 12 minutes. Activity intensity was between 85 and 95% of maximum heart rate. Acupuncture points: ST36, L3, LI11. The student’s t-test was adopted, Shapiro-Wilk test was applied for normality, and Pearson correlation. There was a positive correlation of r = 0.69 between lactate levels and heart rate. Lactate: Lac1 15.00±1.18 – Lac2 19.59± 1.46 p= 0.0001*; Heart 1rate: HRF 163.71±7.27 – HRF2 177.60±6.99 p=0.0001*; Blood pressure: SBP1 174.86±1.57 – SBP2 180.86±1.77 p= 0.0001*; PES1: 19.4±1.14; PES2 16.8±0.84 p= 0.0001*; weight1 – 182,57±12,05; weight 2 206,43±11,39 p=0.0325*. Acupuncture increased lactate accumulation, heart rate and blood pressure, suggesting that the exertion reached after acupuncture is higher than without acupuncture. The acupuncture technics improved the athlete performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0303.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Livelihoods; Sustainability; Vulnerability; Small-scale Fishers; Bangladesh
Online: 24 June 2020 (14:34:34 CEST)
Small-scale fishers are considered as one of the most vulnerable communities in Bangladesh but very few studies focused on the livelihood sustainability and vulnerabilities of this professional group. A fieldwork in lower Padma and upper Meghna hilsa sanctuaries identifies different livelihood characters and associated vulnerabilities of the fishers. A conceptual framework known as Sustainable Livelihood Approaches (SLA) has been introduced to analyses the qualitative and quantitative data. The insights of the livelihood strategies provide on small-scale fishers and fisheries management have been explained and explored. Fishers are found solely dependent on fishing, economically insolvent and neglected. In addition, some socio-economic abstractions such as low income, credit insolvency, lack of substitute earning flexibility make them more vulnerable. A number of effective suggestions are elicited from fishers’ perceptions, the implementation of which is crucial to ensure livelihood sustainability of the small-scale fishers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0324.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: contagions; sanitary devices; public health; social sustainability
Online: 23 March 2020 (01:17:38 CET)
This article aims to understand the domains and conceptual uses of contagion, its modalities and its effects, in its different historical contexts and meanings, as an expression of the process of interdependence between the positions and the different points of view of different actors involved in multiple scientific, moral, social and political challenges. Another objective focuses on understanding the process of collective management of contagion, disease and health, where prevention is an essential element of its objectives and justifications, its discursive order, as well as its practical activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: sustainability assessment; farm level; AHP methodology; Greece
Online: 1 March 2020 (11:40:37 CET)
In recent years, farmers and policymakers have faced ample challenges and have struggled to support the sustainability of the agricultural sector. Sustainable agriculture encompasses multiple concepts, and its performance produces extensive debate about data requirements, appropriate indicators, evaluation methods, and tools. Under the European Union (EU) financed project FLINT (Farm Level Indicators for New Topics in policy evaluation), detailed data have been collected at the farm level to provide broader coverage of sustainability indicators on a wide range of relevant topics to facilitate the assessment of sustainability performance. The approach has been applied in a pilot network of representative farms at the EU level, considering the heterogeneity of the EU farming sector to provide data infrastructure with up to date information for sustainability indicators. This study aims to assess sustainability performance at the farm level in Greece. Representative and dominant agricultural systems, such as permanent crops, olive trees, arable crops, and livestock (sheep) farms, comprise the Greek sample. It uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methodology and attempts to gain insights into the sustainability performance of agricultural systems. The outcome of the sustainability assessment reveals knowledge and develops support for strategic farm choices in order to support both farmers and policymakers towards more sustainable development plans. The results indicate that three typical Mediterranean farming systems, like permanent crops, olive trees, and extensive livestock systems (sheep farms), are more sustainable in contrast to intensive and arable crop farms.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Lean Healthcare; DMAIC; waste reduction; efficiency; sustainability
Online: 30 December 2019 (06:53:46 CET)
With an increasing demand for quality of care and lower costs, hospitals are looking for industry-based methods to improve efficiency in their processes. This study aims to reduce waste in a public hospital in Mexico by improving the medical supply process for the operating room. To this end, a lean healthcare (LH) implementation following the DMAIC approach (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) is carried out. We analyze the value stream of the supply process, including main surgical procedures and their related medical supplies, and identify different causes of inefficiency, which are evaluated and controlled through different tools, including a value stream map, Kanban, and the 5S program. As a result, five types of waste were reduced. Over-processing requests were reduced by 15.3%, defective identification numbers were reduced by 46.5%, redundant processing was improved by 94.8%, near 2.8% of the unnecessary inventory was reduced, and transportation waste was reduced by up to 16.7%. Finally, the lead-time for the main supplies was reduced by 33 days. This work demonstrates that LH and DMAIC are effective in reducing waste and are highly conducive to improving sustainability in healthcare processes. Moreover, it provides practical insights for practitioners regarding the implementation of LH in public hospitals in developing countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Biosurfactants; Biotechnological applications; MEOR; synthetic surfactants; sustainability
Online: 4 September 2019 (13:32:06 CEST)
ABSTRACT Surfactants are a broad category of tensio-active biomolecules with multifunctional properties applications in diverse industrial sectors and processes. Surfactants are produced synthetically and biologically. The biologically derived surfactants (biosurfactants) are produced from microorganisms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis Candida albicans and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus as dominant species. Rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerithritol lipids, surfactin, and emulsan are well known in terms of their biotechnological applications. Biosurfactants can compete with the synthetic surfactants in terms of performance with established advantages over the synthetic ones including eco-friendliness, biodegradability, low toxicity, and stability over a wide variability of environmental factors. However, at present, the synthetic surfactants are a preferred option in different industrial applications, because of their availability in commercial quantities, unlike the biosurfactants. Usage of synthetic surfactants introduce new species of recalcitrant pollutants to the environment and lead to undesired results where a wrong selection of surfactants is made. Substituting synthetic surfactants with biosurfactants resolves these drawbacks, thus, interest has been intensified in biosurfactant applications in a wide range of industries hitherto considered as experimental fields. This review, therefore, intends to offer an overview of diverse applications where biosurfactants have found useful, with emphases in petroleum biotechnology, environmental remediation and in the agriculture sector. Application of biosurfactant in these settings would lead to industrial growth and environmental sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0206.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: IoT; LoRa; sustainability; building management system; sensors
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:33:48 CEST)
In this research paper we describe the development phase of a low-cost LoRa IoT solution applied to a kindergarten school with three years results. A set of sensors solution was developed in a LoRa communication board, battery powered, providing a simplified setup process. These sensors were used in order to measure temperature, humidity, luminosity, air quality and presence. Also, energy monitor solutions were integrated. The acquired data is transmitted and analysed for knowledge extraction, identifying savings and other related KPIs. From data, automatic saving actions were performed towards heating and cooling systems, lighting and a set of if-then actions were developed for automatic cost-saving actions, based on infrared signals to heating/cooling systems using some procedure of external command devices. This approach avoids the usage of proprietary vendor solutions in a flexible approach that can easily be deployed to any building facility. This is an important achievement since most of the building consumption is based on heating and cooling systems. In a three years test of the solution, the total energy consumption savings surpassed 20%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Ethics, Ethical Culture and Sustainability, Family Business
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:09:05 CET)
Building an ethical culture is challenging and a basic requirement of the companies to embed transparency in their systems, creating a positive image; serving the internal and external communities. This paper based on detailed interviews of 12 family owned businesses over a period of 16 months explores how these companies build the ethical culture, identifying the ethical culture sustainability triggers, challenges and role of religion in such practices. The values, culture, community and social norms are identified as major ingredients of a sustainable ethical culture development and implementation of the ethical policies and procedures require institutional and structural mechanisms for effectiveness in family owned businesses. The findings at numerous occasions are in contrast to the literature, whereas, in other instances are similar. The religion, society, family image, the entrepreneurs themselves and their family members play a vital role. Non-interference in private matters of the employees, whistle blowing, code of ethics, training and awareness creation and a number of other factors play a leading role in ethical culture development in family businesses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0011.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: alternative food networks; systematic literature review; sustainability
Online: 29 January 2019 (10:34:36 CET)
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to individuals organizing themselves and managing food systems in an ‘alternative’ and more sustainable way. Such emerging food initiatives are most commonly known as ‘Alternative Food Networks’ (AFNs). However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the extent to which AFNs facilitate social, economic and environmental change. There are criticisms of the overall sustainability promise of AFNs related to sufficiency of impact, possible counter effects and relevance of impacts. Because often empirical studies only focus on specific sustainability issues or AFNs, it has been difficult to develop more robust theories about the relations between diverse AFNs arrangements and sustainability. Thus, the aim of this paper is to contribute towards reducing this knowledge gap through a systematic literature review on AFNs in relation to sustainability. We summarize main methodological approaches, types of AFNs studied and sustainability dimensions addressed in literature to date. Findings serve as reference to propose opportunities for future research regarding sustainability in AFNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0239.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Sustainability; Chinese culture; Moslem society; Malaysia; Indonesia
Online: 23 January 2019 (10:25:28 CET)
Abstract Sustainability of ethnic culture in Southeast Asia has made the dramatically growth of ethnic identity. The ethnic revivals already made the increasing of cultural events in public spaces. This research paper sought the cultural sustainability of Chinese in Moslem society of Southaest Asia. A multisited ethnography was conducted in Medan Municipal of North Sumatra and Georgetown Penang, Malaysia to observe the sustained Chinese culture as the symbol of ethnification of Chinese in Moslems society in Southeast Asia region. It found that after 2003 Indonesia already saw the attractive cultural performances of Chinese in public spaces as the continuation of sustainability. In our ethnographic investigation from 2014 -2017, the reshaping of the Chinese identity through sustainability of Chinese culture in Medan Municipality of North Sumatra, and Penang of Malaysia has the high public visibility. Research report showed the continuation of the Chinese rituals and festivals which were accompanied by music instruments of Chinese and theatrical performances. Those have been transformed from self commemorations to be more public; attractions already were moved to public places, not solely in temples or ethnic group surroundings as what commonly found in the past period. It concluded that the sustainability of Chinese culture in public spaces made the Southeast Asia connection among the Chinese groups solidify their identity in this region tightened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0426.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability; governance; piecemeal engineering; collaboration; Karl Popper
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:05:11 CET)
The challenges to sustainability governance across multiple geographical/cultural contexts lead us to the “piecemeal engineering” idea advocated by the philosopher Karl Popper, which explicitly considers context. We argue for adopting the piecemeal engineering approach, augmented by adaptive policies and modern (online) collaboration platforms to maximize the prospects of sustainable practices worldwide. This recommended course is not intended to be a theory in itself. Rather, it is a well-grounded, practical and practicable stop-gap measure in times when complexity and change outpace theories and strategies. We present a philosophical foundation for this “Augmented Popperian Experimentation.” Focusing on The Water Network (the largest collaborative platform for water researchers and professionals), we show that sustainability-oriented organizations in the water realm and others are inching toward the practice we advocate. We discuss implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: tomato; biofumigation; organic; inorganic fertilizer; sustainability; environment
Online: 12 November 2018 (11:47:29 CET)
Intensive greenhouse horticulture can cause various environmental problems. Among them, the management, storage and processing of crop residues can provoke aquifer contamination, pest proliferation, bad odors or the abuse of phytosanitary treatments. Biosolarization put in value any fresh plant residue and is an efficient technique for the control of soil-borne diseases. This study aims to examine an alternative means of managing greenhouse crop residues through biosolarization and to investigate the influence of organic matter on yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, L.) fruit. With this purpose, the following nutritional systems were evaluated: inorganic fertilization with and without brassica pellets (Fert, Fert + and Fert ++), fresh tomato plant debris with and without brassica pellets (Rest, Rest + and Rest ++) and no fertilizer application (Control). The addition of organic matter equaled all the treatments except for control with regard to yield and quality of the tomato fruit. In light of these results, the application of tomato plant debris to the soil through biosolarization is postulated as an alternative for the management of crop residues, solving an environmental problem and having a favorable impact on the production and quality of tomatoes as a commercial crop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0716.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: carbon; energy; campus; sustainability; city; low carbon
Online: 30 October 2018 (08:53:17 CET)
The establishment of low carbon assessment initiatives is a crucial task especially at the city level. The determination of which source of carbon contributed more require robust data set and strategic approach. Hence, by using the campus as a small city approach, the establishment of carbon assessment and its’ reduction initiatives was required to keep track of the hotspot of the carbon source. The substantial amount of carbon source from campus operations such as energy consumption in the building, waste generation, and water consumption were identified. Moreover, as institutions of higher education, the execution of low carbon campus was initiated structurally involves the triangulation of research activities, teaching & learning and as well as campus operations or known as campus living lab approach. The application of low carbon cities framework, LCCF and assessment system enables to strategize the low carbon campus initiatives through the use of carbon footprint concept and the LCCF carbon track.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0450.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sustainable education; gender effect; physics education; sustainability
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:58:59 CEST)
Determination of the parameters of the movement of surrounding objects, and in particular their speed, is one of the basic skills of a human being. The study of development of basic concepts of motion has been done for years with different methods and in different contexts. We have analyzed the effect of the physical/scientific image of the world introduced to children by school education and its long- and short-term cognitive consequences. Our studies showed that children differentiate the concept of speed into two more specific concepts: average speed and instantaneous velocity. In the present work we present how the gender context is superimposed on this general picture. We found that initial, genuine pre-school concept of speed of girls and boys is, on average, different. Our analysis shows also that this gender effect vanishes quickly together with the appearance of physical definitions of kinematical quantities in physics/science curricula. We discuss also methodological aspect of the statistical ‘gender gap’ measure and we calculated the gender effect chance probability, p-value, to be slightly less than 0.001. The importance of observed effect for the sustainable science teaching processes is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0573.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: cardamom commodity; sustainability of cardamom; comparative advantage
Online: 30 July 2018 (09:46:48 CEST)
Cardamom is one of important spice commodities in the world; however, Indonesia’s export contribution to global market is considered low. Cardamom production in Central Java contributes to the export of Indonesian cardamom. Central Java has the potential of human and natural resource for cardamom cultivation, but it has not been optimally utilized. This article aims to study the comparative advantages of cardamom and its sustainability. The design of this study is exploratory research, in which a research aims to obtain description or study on the condition of comparative advantage of cardamom in Central Java. Revealed Comparative Agency (RCA) belongs to one of methods used to find out competitiveness of commodity export of a country viewed from a comparative advantage. Cardamom sustainability is analyzed descriptively based on the actual situation and by using RCA result analysis. The result shows that the RCA value above 1 means in that period the cardamom commodity of Central Java has a strong comparative advantage in the international market. Despite the strong comparative advantage, its value tends to decrease. A serious concern should be given, considering the sharp decline. Therefore, the sustainability of cardamom comparative advantage needs to be improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: smart villages; smart development; sustainability; digitalization; ICT
Online: 6 July 2018 (09:55:57 CEST)
Over the recent decades people’s (rural and urban) communities are facing numerous social and economic changes and challenges. Some of those challenges have been increasingly addressed through the lenses of technological developments and digitalization. In this paper we have made a review of already existing practices while focusing on the existing implementations of the smart village concept and the importance of digital transformation for rural areas. We give special attention to EU policies which we are using as an already existing framework for understanding our own forthcoming examples. We have shown the parallels between the findings and insights from different regions and made an evaluation of presented practices. Our main argument stems from our own previous experiences and experiences of other research approaches, and is grounded on the argument that rural areas are not uniform, and that smart rural development has to be applied in combination with place-based approach. We present the cases of Slovenian pilot practices and support our argument by proposing the FabVillage concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; adaptation; WaSH; policy; sustainability; development
Online: 31 May 2017 (11:44:04 CEST)
Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of the country, including the Bolgatanga Municipality. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the WaSH development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. In general, despite awareness and concern about climate change, adaptation measures have been regarded to be far away from the immediate concerns of WaSH development planning. Most of the current measures are reactive and respond to environmental issues rather than to climate change stressors. In essence, stakeholders expressed the view that the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0005.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: sustainability; ecotourism; System Dynamic; tourism; biodiversity; communities
Online: 3 February 2017 (03:53:56 CET)
The sustainability of ecotourism is the backbone of tourism development of a country. Ecotourism can contribute to both conservation and development in which involves dynamic relationship between tourism, biodiversity and communities, facilitate by great management. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dimensions of the socio-economic and environmental impacts of ecotourism in communities surrounding the Tasik Kenyir in Terengganu, Malaysia. This study provides a framework for the development and evaluation of ecotourism. The framework will determine if the relationships between indicators are positively correlated which will result in positive contribution to the other by using System Dynamic. Socio-cultural and economic data will be collected through interviews and group discussions in selected communities in Tasik Kenyir. Data on wildlife will be extracted from secondary data from Kenyir Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. The data analysis will explore the socio-cultural and economic differences between and within different communities due to ecotourism development, the contribution of ecotourism to conservation activities, local support for conservation and ecotourism as well as the influence of tourist activities on the distribution of wildlife species in Tasik Kenyir. This study aims to contribute toward understanding the natural resource community-ecotourism inter-relationship and help to bridge the knowledge gap that hinders biodiversity conservation initiatives. The findings will be used as a base for further development of ecotourism and will recommend alternative management options where necessary for the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0264.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Design for Sustainability; Responsible Design; transdisciplinary design; design education; social design; ecological literacy; transition; disciplinary fragility; defuturing; sustainability
Online: 19 May 2022 (16:11:35 CEST)
Sustainable and Responsible Design (SRD) harnesses design’s potential to address eco-social problems and in doing so challenge the status quo of design education by reframing the social and ecological consequences, boundaries and agencies of design. This critical and transdisciplinary approach frays the edges of traditional design disciplines with embedded and reflexive modes of learning. We describe characteristics of SRD education and present theories of learning to empower students in this complex terrain. The learning associated with SRD education is ecologically engaged, participative, critical, expansive and designerly. We recount case studies of our own experiences advancing sustainable and responsible undergraduate design education in the UK. We identify path constraints such as disciplinary fragility, appropriation, and power dynamics in the design school. The push for a revision of priorities generates tensions where there is often greenwashing rhetoric of sustainability and inclusivity. We describe strategies and tactics to address these tensions. We highlight the agency we have as educators and designers and argue that design education can only meaningfully participate in response to the challenges presented by climate change, other types of ecocide, and social problems when educators make substantive commitments to supporting sustainability literacies and design approaches that serve the interests of diverse stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: associativity; self-management; autonomy; solidarity; micro-credits; sustainability
Online: 10 August 2022 (03:50:20 CEST)
This research was carried out with the objective of analyzing the principles of social and solidarity economy in the community funds of the rural sector of Pichincha, Ecuador. Small organizations promote microcredits for local, social and economic development, representing an alternative to those managed by traditional banks. The research was descriptive, non-experimental field research. The population analyzed consisted of 220 community funds, and the size of the representative sample was 49 community organizations that practice solidarity finance. The data were collected through online questionnaires using a Likert scale, and the validity of this approach was judged by experts; the reliability of the instrument obtained was 0.95 using the Cronbach’s alpha method. The results highlight that in these organizations, the following traits prevail: associativity, self-management and organization. However, autonomy and solidarity have a negative valuation, which shows that strategies must be rethought to achieve the empowerment of the financial service. This will allow them to be sustainable and to expand with more benefits that promulgate financial activity and promote structures in rural community networks that promote local development and strengthen deficient principles as a basis for generating a greater benefit to the partners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Diabetes Technology; CGM; Accuracy; Type 1 Diabetes; Sustainability
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:58:57 CET)
Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and usability of a novel continuous glucose moni-toring (CGM) system designed for needle-free insertion and reduced environmental impact. We assessed sensor performance of two GlucoMen® Day CGM systems worn simultaneously in eight participants with type 1 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was performed reg-ularly over 14 days at home. Participants underwent two standardized 5-hour meal challenges with frequent plasma glucose (PG) measurements using a laboratory reference instrument at the research center. When comparing CGM to PG the overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 9.7 [2.6-14.6]%. The overall MARD of CGM vs SMBG was 13.1 [3.5-18.6]%. In the consensus error grid (CEG) analysis, 98% of both CGM/PG and CGM/SMBG pairs were in the clinically acceptable zones A and B. The analysis confirms that GlucoMen® Day CGM meets the clinical requirements for state-of-the-art CGM. The needle-free insertion technology is well toler-ated by users and reduces medical waste compared to conventional CGM systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0270.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Biopesticides; Regulations; Risk Assessment; Regulatory Challenge, Sustainability; Nigeria.
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:49:58 CEST)
The global trend towards increased demand for organic food, greener environments, and the integration of biological control agents into pest management strategies has greatly enhanced the need for biological pesticides (biopesticides). Biopesticides are generally environmentally friendly and are made from micro-organisms or other natural substances. Despite their great potential, relatively few have been registered and commercialised in Nigeria compared to other African countries such as South Africa and Kenya. Biological active agents are so diverse such that ap-plying the same safety standards or environmental conditions to all of them is almost impossible. A review of risk assessment processes and comparative assessments of Nigeria's biopesticide regulations with other developing African countries and developed regions was conducted. Prolonged field testing, lack of bridged risk assessments and technical checklists have been identified as key factors hampering the timely development and commercialisation of biopesti-cides in Nigeria. Recommendations on necessary changes to the existing Nigeria biopesticide regulations have been made. Risk assessment matrices for microbial and biochemical biopesti-cides and a scientific/technical checklist have also been developed. Harmonisation and data ex-change among other countries in the region will also enhance the advancement of scientific and technical knowledge for sustainable regulation and cross-border trade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0246.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: food safety; sustainability; RFID; technology; fisheries; consumption; traceability
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:35:05 CEST)
At present, sustainability and emerging technology are the most expressed issues in any supply chain management (SCM) sector. At the same time, pandemic makes consumers more concerned regarding health, and safe food with a sustainable way to access the current market. Thus, supervision and monitoring of product quality with symmetric traceability information in fresh food and fisheries SCM is significant. Research on food safety and traceability systems based on blockchain, internet of service (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSN), and radio frequency identification (RFID) provides the solution of constancy from production to consumption. This review focused on the RFID-based traceability systems in fisheries SCM, which have been employed globally in the last fifteen years to ensure fish quality and security. Additionally, a summarized comparison study has presented different sectors’ traceability systems using RFID and their advantages over real-time applications. The outcome of this study will help future researchers to solve the crisis in terms of trust between consumers and the fisheries SCM. Thus, this review would be a guideline and solution for enhancing the reliability of RFID-based traceability in food SCM systems to ensure the integrity and reducing the opacity and asymmetry in the product information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0571.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: university; HEI; students; sustainability; UBC; qualitative study; perception
Online: 26 July 2021 (11:48:43 CEST)
As sustainability gains significance within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) worldwide, the University of British Columbia (UBC) stands as one of the global champions of sustainability. In 2019, Times Higher Education ranked UBC as number one in the world for taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts and ranked one in Canada for making cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. Over the years, UBC students have been instrumental to sustainability on the UBC campus by advocating for divestment, climate justice, and other sustainability commitments and projects in the university. Hence, this qualitative study examines students’ engagement with or their perception of the university’s sustainability programs and image. The study found that students acknowledged and commended the university’s sustainability efforts in teaching, research, providing sustainability-related opportunities for students, and in sustainability operations. However, students also addressed hesitation on the part of university administration in championing climate justice and bolder climate action. The conclusion is that continued support and engagement with students are critical for UBC to achieve its climate action plans and sustainability goals in general. The study contributes to the ongoing discourse on the influential role of young people and the youth climate movement in catalyzing ambitious global climate action at all levels.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0776.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sustainability; Climate; Trade; Models; Emissions; Value Chain; Justice
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:24:29 CET)
With the Paris Agreement, countries are obliged to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduc-tions, which will ensure that the global temperature increase is maintained well below 2C. The Parties will report their Nationally Determined Contributions in terms of plans and progress to-wards these targets during the postponed COP26 in Glasgow in November 2021. These commit-ments however do not take significant portions of the consumption related emissions related to countries imports in to account. Similarly, the majority of companies that report their emissions to CDP also do not account for their embodied value-chain related emissions. Municipalities, on the path towards carbon neutrality in accordance with the methods outlined by C40, also do not in-clude imported and embodied CO2e in their total emission tallies. So, who is responsible for these emissions - the producer or the consumer? How can we ensure that the NDC's, municipalities and companies reduction targets share the responsibility of the emissions in the value-chain thus en-suring that targets and plans become, sustainable, climate fair, and just in global value chains? Today the responsibility lays with the producer, which is not sustainable. We have the outline for the tools needed to quantify and transparently share the responsibility between producers and consumers at corporate, municipal and national level based on an improved understanding of the attendant sources, causes, flows and risks og GHG emissions globally. Hybrid LCA/EEIO models can for example be further developed. This will, in the end, enable everyday consumption to support a more sustainable, green and low carbon transition of our economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0403.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: physical education; physical activity; pedagogical models; sustainability development
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:44:11 CET)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a global strategy that aims to obtain a more equitable and just world. These objectives are organized in 17 SDGs, which are detailed in 169 targets. Different international institutions have emphasized education's relevance to developing citizens who contribute to the SDGs' achievement for 2030. However, a review focused on Physical Education exclusively has not been performed yet. Therefore, the objective of this work is double. First, to analyze and select the specific goals of the SDGs that can be implemented in the subject of Physical Education. And second, to relate these specific goals to the different models based on Physical Education practices. This review showed how three institutional documents have previously related sport, physical exercise and physical education to the specific goals of the SDGs. Based on the search done, this document selects those goals that could be integrated into the educational context through Physical Education. The bibliographic and narrative analysis carried out in this research shows that of the 169 specific goals proposed in the SDGs, only 24 could be worked on in Physical Education. In addition, after this previous analysis, a proposal for the relationship between the practice-based models and these 24 goals is presented. The contributions made in this paper will allow teachers to establish links between PE sessions and SDGs while raising awareness to develop students who contribute to a more sustainable world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: adaptive design; sustainability of construction; BIM environment; formwork
Online: 29 December 2020 (16:44:42 CET)
Progressive technologies and practices are shifting the possibilities of building design and improving work efficiency. Constantly changing site conditions require different procedures and designs that take into account these changing conditions, whether it is a design solution, a change in environmental conditions, or just sustainability factors. Adaptive building design offers opportunities to cope with changing factors to achieve the highest possible level of building quality. This case study deals with the topic of adaptive formwork design for building renovation, taking into account sustainability. Aim of the article is an investigation and demonstration of the building information modelling (BIM) environment used for the adaptive design of formwork elements for the building renovation in the context of sustainability. The object of the case study is a building in the center of Kosice, Slovakia. BIM environment allows prompt and correct adaptation of the formwork design to changing conditions of lighting, ventilation, heating and temperature during the design of the building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0311.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: resource integration; network analysis; sustainability; small-scale farm
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:26:08 CET)
Shrinking farm size and fragile farm resources pose a significant challenge to the sustainability of small-scale farms. Efficient resource utilization in small-scale farms is crucial to achieving farm sustainability through endogenous mechanisms. However, the precise mechanisms to integrate physical resources to achieve farm sustainability are not very clear yet. By capturing the interaction among farm resources as a network phenomenon, we identify the discrete resource interactions (RIs) in different types of small-scale farms of Indian Sundarbans, which are associated with higher farm sustainability. Thirty-two linkages, 11 reciprocal linkages, 22 triads, and three ‘core elements’ that occurred and cooccurred on highly sustainable farms are found to be critical in achieving farm sustainability. Using the properties of resource interaction networks as explanators of farm sustainability, we anticipate that sustainability in small-scale farms can be achieved by strategically creating new RIs on the farm. However, there may be limitations to such achievement depending on the nature of RI and type of farm. The analytical approach helps to understand the structural basis of sustainability in small-scale farms, and this approach can be used to achieve farm sustainability through the strategic integration of existing farm resources in the smallholder systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Case study; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Smart city; Sustainability
Online: 6 October 2020 (12:55:13 CEST)
Despite the increasing interest in ‘smart city’ initiatives worldwide, current literature still lacks the approaches and models that address challenges in organization and collaboration, which boost sustainability and ‘smartness’ in modern cities. This paper provides an overview of ‘smart city’ ecosystems as a mechanism to promote the expected outcomes of their sustainable development, and highlights the importance of conceptualizing cities from organizational and managerial perspectives. Representative exploratory models of ‘city organization’, which emphasize on the role of ‘governance’ and synergies, are presented to ‘decode’ complex city mechanisms and to determine key components that lead to ‘smart’ initiatives. Interesting case studies and applications are then analysed to examine the practical dimension of these approaches. As a review paper, this article lays out a general framework on the importance of ‘collaboration’, ‘governance’, ‘management’, and ‘ecosystem’. However, 'planning smartly’ and achieving ‘sustainability’ at the level of city ‘organization’ remain as challenges in this pioneering study of smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainability; MIVES method; tunnels; construction materials; M-30
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:27:51 CEST)
In 2007, the excavation of the M-30 ring road located in Madrid and the creation of a green corridor either side of the Manzanares river brought significant change to the metropolitan area. The corridor and linear park which it provided were designed to contribute to the regeneration of the fluvial ecosystem, establish links among residents on each side of the river and promote cultural and leisure activities. This paper provides a sustainability analysis of the excavation of the M-30 (involving the socio-economic and environmental impact) 14 years after its construction. In order to show such an impact, an analysis of the area both prior to the project and after completion, as well as a hypothetical solution that uses improved materials, has been performed. This entails use of the multi-criteria decision-making model named MIVES (initials in Spanish, modelo integrado de valor para una evaluación sostenible). The MIVES method is based on the application of value functions of sustainability indicators selected by socio-economic and environmental criteria, chosen by experts. Results from analysis showed that the excavation of the M-30 considerably improved the sustainability of the area (sustainable index 3.43 and 6.26 both before and after the excavation works). However, use of improved materials in contrast with the application of conventional materials slightly improved the sustainability of the work (Sustainability Index 6.26 and 6.74, respectively, of the conventional materials).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0633.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; tourism; tourist behavior; tourism sustainability
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:19:47 CEST)
This research aims to understand the vision and the reaction of the population towards tourism and holidays during this period of the COVID-19 pandemic. It investigates also the tourist needs of the Algerian population after the closure of international borders. Methods: The data were collected using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods through a questionnaire applied to 203 people in different regions of Algeria (a North African country) from 1st June to 13 July 2020. Results: The needs of Algerian tourists are characterized by a great need for leisure to relieve psychological stress caused by COVID-19 (M = 25.33) among the study sample (p <0.05). The results also show an average need to rationalize the costs of tourist services (M = 5.26) according to the respondents (p <0.01). This is in addition to the great need (M = 7.75) among respondents (p <0.05) of the awareness that the tourism sector can contribute to the economic recovery in Algeria after the confinement period. About 75.86% of respondents demand the cleanliness of tourist sites, while 69.95% recommend improving safety because of the size of tourist sites in the Algerian territory and also measures related to social distancing. The results show that 53.69% of respondents preferred the month of August to go on vacation, 29.06% chose the month of September, and 17.25% would prefer the months of October, November and December since they expect a reduction in the risks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism needs of the Algerian population, which has become increasingly aware of the consequences of the pandemic in relation to their health and on the country's economy. These results can help the authorities of the tourism sector to better understand and identify the tourism needs of this population in the current period and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Sustainability; Customer-Centric; Business strategy; Marketing; Bibliometric analysis
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:07:14 CEST)
Firms are increasingly organized around the client. At the same time, there is customer pressure on green and sustainable organizations. The purpose of this paper is to map the current state of the research in the domain of customer-centric organizations from a sustainable perspective. We conducted a bibliometric analysis from published documents between 1990 and 2020. Key findings indicate that research on customer centricity and sustainability has increased in recent years and that the topic is structured into 3 clusters: (1) Sustainability; (2) Customer-Centric Perspective, and Sustainable Development; and (3) Customer Experience and Sales. Moreover, new concepts and technologies have been introduced during the last three years. The implementation of a bibliometric methodology and the focus given to the definition, the relationships, and the evolution of the three main clusters within the topic are the characteristics that differentiate our study from other publications or reviews in the field of research. This paper is beneficial for practitioners who aim to deploy the customer centricity approach in their firms from a sustainable perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0441.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Sustainability reporting; NGOs; stakeholder theory; Africa; NGO participation
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:46:29 CEST)
There is growing adoption of corporate sustainability practice in both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. This proliferation is largely due to the increasing concerns for social, environmental and economic factors in which we assume shared responsibility. Despite the growing attention of researchers and practitioners, several corporations failed to meet their sustainability responsibilities. Several reasons could be associated to this phenomenon such as lack of regulatory mechanism, accountability, etc. This review, however, seeks to examine how nongovernmental organizations (henceforth, NGOs) influence corporate sustainability adoption (i.e. sustainability reporting). In the review of prior research, we leveraged the institutional-legitimacy and corporate governance theories. The findings suggest that NGOs have greater potential in sustainability discourse through two salient actions, namely (1) collaborative partnership, and (2) confrontational tactics. While the former promotes stakeholder involvement in corporate decision making through dialogue, joint-projects on CSR, sustainability reporting, the latter, however, is the last resort – involving “naming and shaming” corporations for poor social and environmental performance through public and social media. The objective of such action is to cause reputational damage to businesses. Finally, it is also observed that crucial to NGO power and influence is the collaboration with government and civil society organizations in the fight for environmental sustainability and accountability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bottom ash; basalt fiber; paste; strength; durability; sustainability
Online: 15 March 2020 (14:15:01 CET)
Extinction of natural resources builds up pressure on governments to invest in research to find more sustainable resources for construction sector. Earlier studies on mortar and concrete show that bottom ash and basalt fiber are independently alternative binder in the concrete sector. This study aims to use bottom ash and basalt fiber blends as alternative novel-based composites in pure cement paste. Strength and durability properties of two different percentages of bottom ash (40% and 50%) and three volume fractions of basalt fiber (0.3%, 0.75%, and 1.5%) were used at three curing periods (7, 28, and 56 days). In order to measure physical properties of the basalt-reinforced bottom ash cement paste composites flowability, dry unit weight, porosity and water absorption measurements at 7, 28, and 56 days of curing were performed. Furthermore, mechanical properties of composites determined by unconfined compressive strength and flexural strength tests. Finally, to assess the durability sulfate-resistance and seawater-resistance tests have been performed on composites at 28 and 56 days of curing. Results showed that addition of basalt fiber improves physical, mechanical and chemical stability properties of paste up to a limiting basalt fiber addition (0.3% volume fraction) where above an adverse effect have been monitored. It is clear that observed results can lead to development of sustainability strategies in the concrete industry by utilizing bottom ash and basalt fiber as an alternative binder.