ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Marine Energy; Tidal turbine; horizontal-axis marine current turbine; OCT; Turbulence; Support Structure; device wake
Online: 28 February 2017 (11:55:00 CET)
Tidal stream energy is a low carbon energy source. Tidal stream turbines operate in a turbulent environment, and the effect of the structure between the turbine and seabed on this environment is not fully understood. An experimental study using 1:72 scale models based on a commercial turbine design was carried out to study the support structure influence on turbulence intensity around turbine blades. The study was conducted using the wave-current tank at LABIMA, University of Florence. A realistic flow environment (ambient turbulent intensity = 11%) was established. Turbulence intensity was measured upstream and downstream of a turbine mounted on two different support structures (one resembling a commercial design, the other the same with an additional vertical element), in order to quantify any variation in turbulence and performance between the support structures. Turbine drive power was used to calculate power generation. Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry was used to record and calculate upstream and downstream turbulence intensity. In otherwise identical conditions, performance variation of only 4% was observed between two support structures. Turbulent intensity at 1, 3 and 5 blade diameters, both upstream and downstream, showed variation up to 21% between the two cases. The additional turbulent structures generated by the additional element of the second support structure appears to cause this effect, and the upstream propagation of turbulent intensity is believed to be permitted by surface waves. This result is significant for the prediction of turbine array performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0197.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Support Vector Machine; Support Vector Regression; Machine learning; Prediction; Urban Smart Bus
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:33:23 CET)
The impact of the accurate estimated time of arrival (ETA) is often overlooked by bus operators. By providing accurate ETA to riders, it gives them the impression of bus services is efficient and reliable and this promotes higher ridership in the long run. This research project aims to predict bus arrival time by using the Support Vector Regression (SVR) model which is based on the same theory as the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Urban City Bus data covering part of the Petaling Jaya area (route name PJ03) is used in this research work. Features related to traffic such as travel duration, a distance of the road, weather and operation at peak or non-peak hour have been used as input in the training of the SVR model. By using kernel trick and specifying optimum parameters, all the features in higher dimensions are efficiently calculated and the SVR model achieves convergence. The model is evaluated with the test set of data split from the original dataset. The experimental result indicates the SVR model displays good prediction ability with its low average error on the prediction result. However, weather data has not been influential to the prediction model as the results of the model trained with and without weather data show a negligible difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0463.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: earthquake; resilience; WhatsApp; emotional support
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:34:11 CEST)
The Ranau Earthquake that struck on 5, June 2015 and follow by February 2018 and April 2021, were a new disaster in Sabah and caused many Sabahan to panic. The unpredicted disaster also caused a serious impact on all aspects of life in Sabah. The earthquake has caused severe damage to eight primary schools in the vicinity of the epicenter; although no casualties were reported. However, the disaster has passing deep psychological effects among students. In this study, we examine how the primary school teachers enabled the student to be resilient during and after the disaster. Based on the interviews of 16 primary school students it was revealed that most of the teachers used WhatsApp to support resilience during and after the earthquake. Interviews with 16 primary school teachers revealed there were two main reasons for them to communicate with students namely, delivering emotional aid and monitoring their stress. Based on student interviews, five content categories of emotional support were identified: caring, reassuring, emotion sharing, belonging, and distracting. The main contribution of this study is social media can be used as a spontaneously and proactive tool to support student's resilience during and after the earthquake trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: online environment; students; adaptation; counseling; support
Online: 6 January 2023 (02:13:25 CET)
The period of study in the online environment can be a very demanding trial for students and masters, especially for those who are not familiar with computer technology. This is largely due to a complex of factors that come from the changes to which they are subjected, such as: leaving the parental home and settling into another living environment (living in dormitories or other forms of accommodation) but also settling with an unfamiliar and very different educational environment from what they were familiar with. Along with all the changes occurring in the family and social plan, the students had to adapt to the educational system made exclusively online. Higher educa-tion institutions in Romania use, as a method of knowledge transmission, traditional learning methods, namely they use face-to-face lecture-type courses in a lecture hall or practical and ex-planatory activities in a seminar/laboratory room. The emergence of this pandemic forced higher education institutions to switch to an online teaching mode for all types of activities included in the educational process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Social Suppport; Tuberculosis; Nursing; Information Support
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:27:39 CEST)
Background Tuberculosis is a type of infectious disease that can cause death if treatment is not completed. the duration of tuberculosis treatment can reach 6 to 8 months so it really requires discipline when doing treatment. This makes tuberculosis patients in dire need of health information and social support which is very helpful in providing motivation, health information, and monitoring treatment from nurses. Aim of this literature review is to provide an overview of the The Role Of Nurses In Providing Social Support In Tuberculosis Treatment: Literature Review. Method is a literature review research, this study uses electronic database searches using keywords according to research questions from the online library PubMed, Content Science, and Science Direct. Result it was found that the role of nurses in the aspect of social support, namely in providing motivation, supervision, comfort, empathy, and information. this is very necessary for patients with tuberculosis at the time of treatment. Conclution social support is needed by tuberculosis patients who are currently undergoing treatment to provide motivation, health information, and as a nurse's supervision of patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0043.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: burnout; passion; positivity; social support; athletes.
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:19:23 CET)
The Burnout syndrome is a negative experience for the athlete development and it has been demonstrated that it gets worse when a sport is practiced in an obsessive way. The interventions about a positive vision through the sport could be a protective factor to boost the athlete’s wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mediator effect from social support, the relationship between the burnout, positivity and passion in young Mexican athletes. The sample was composed by 452 Mexican athletes, males and females from 12 to 18 years of age (M = 16.29, SD = 1.66). Participants answered the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, The Scale of the Social Support Perceived by Athletes, the Passion Scale and the Positivity Scale. The results of structural equation modeling showed the model presented a good adjustment (χ2 = 813.507; df = 229; χ2 /df = 3.552; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.93; TLI = 0.91; IFI = 0.93; NFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.07). The positivity and harmonious passion presented direct and indirect effects over the burnout, being the perceived social support the mediator variable of the indirect effects. However, the effect of the obsessive passion mediated by the perceived social support did not resulted significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: copper price; prediction; support vector regression
Online: 6 August 2020 (08:26:35 CEST)
Predicting copper price is essential for making decisions that can affect companies and governments dependent on the copper mining industry. Copper prices follow a time series that is non-linear, non-stationary, and which have periods that change as a result of potential growth, cyclical fluctuation and errors. Sometimes the trend and cyclical components together are referred to as a trend-cycle. In order to make predictions, it is necessary to consider the different characteristics of trend-cycle. In this paper, we study a copper price prediction method using Support Vector Regression. This work explores the potential of the Support Vector Regression with external recurrences to make predictions at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days into the future in the copper closing price at the London Metal Exchanges. The best model for each forecast interval is performed using a grid search and balanced cross-validation. In experiments on real data-sets, our results obtained indicate that the parameters (C, ε, γ) of the model Support Vector Regression do not differ between the different prediction intervals. Additionally, the amount of preceding values used to make the estimates does not vary according to the predicted interval. Results show that the support vector regression model has a lower prediction error and is more robust. Our results show that the presented model is able to predict copper price volatilities near reality, being the RMSE equal or less than the 2.2% for prediction periods of 5 and 10 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0258.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: local activities, regional products, sustainability support
Online: 26 January 2018 (16:19:26 CET)
Regional product labeling can help develop regional business activities, especially with traditional regional products. Their general popularity is a significant source of income for the less developed regions. The Gemer-Malohont region belongs to economically underdeveloped areas with high unemployment rate. The subject of the survey was regional food products, which are made by small farmer. The analysis was carried out on a questionnaire survey in the period April-July 2017 in each of the region's districts. The results obtained by questionnaire survey have been statistically processed using the statistical method (two-step cluster analysis, radar chart, box-plots, regression analysis) using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software. Through cluster analysis and based on the preference of regional food, we divided consumers into two groups - knowledgeable regional food purchasers and priced oriented consumers. We have shown that the more developed regions (Rimavská Sobota, Rožňava) show a higher rate of purchase of regional foods. Less developed regions (Poltár, Revúca) are represented by lower-income consumers for whose the food price is the decisive criterion. Local residents of backward regions should pay attention to domestic food and local small farmers, who are the way to create local capital and local development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0093.v2
Subject: Keywords: decision support; energy system modelling; optimization; collaborative development; open science
Online: 27 March 2018 (05:34:38 CEST)
Energy system models have become indispensable to shape future energy systems by providing insights into different trajectories. However, sustainable systems with high shares of renewable energy are characterized by growing cross-sectoral interdependencies and decentralized structures. To capture important properties of increasingly complex energy systems, sophisticated and flexible modelling tools are needed. At the same time open science becomes increasingly important in energy system modelling. This paper presents the Open Energy Modelling Framework (oemof) as a novel approach in energy system modelling, representation and analysis. The framework forms a toolbox to construct comprehensive energy system models and has been published open source under a free license. With a collaborative development based on open processes the framework seeks for a maximum level of participation and transparency to facilitate open science principles in energy system modelling. Based on a generic graph based description of energy systems it is well suited to flexibly model complex cross-sectoral systems and incorporate various modelling approaches. This makes the framework a multi-purpose modelling environment for modelling and analyzing different systems ranging from an urban to a transnational scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: international students, social support, depression, vital exhaustion
Online: 8 December 2022 (08:51:35 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to assess the differences between domestic and international students in terms of social support, vital exhaustion, and depression during the time of COVID-19. Methods: The online cross-sectional survey was conducted via Google Forms® at three time intervals during the pandemic. Results: Respectively 1320, 246, and 139 students completed our questionnaires in the different time intervals. International students reported significantly lower values of perceived social support. Women reached higher scores regarding vital exhaustion in both samples. Concerning depression, international female students had higher values than their male counterparts but the difference diminished with time. No differences could be found in the comparison of depression between domestic female and male students. Significant correlations were found between depression, perceived social support, and vital exhaustion. Discussion: International students perceive diminished social support just when they need more. Decreased levels of perceived social support may contribute to the development of their psychological problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0013.v1
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:27 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia makes a significant impact both physically and psychologically. One month after the President of the Republic of Indonesia announced about the COVID-19 patient cases, the Indonesian Child Protection Commission data during April 2020, depicted that 76.7% of children were not happy to participate in distance learning because 81.8% were only given assignments by the teacher and 73.2% felt they had a heavy task and had a short period of time to complete. This reaction is an indicator of the children’s anxiety about distance learning. The anxiety that occurs in these students is assumed to depend on their social support and emotional maturity. When students get optimal family support and are able to control their emotions in the face of a pandemic, they can reduce anxiety in facing online learning. The subjects of this study were 202 junior high and high school students. The results showed that social support and emotional maturity simultaneously affect anxiety in online learning (Freg = 45.066, p = 0.00 <0.01). These results can be used as a basis for providing psycho-education to increase family support and emotional maturity to reduce anxiety in online learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breastfeeding; telemedicine; lactation support; telelactation; COVID-19
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:09:48 CET)
The objectives were to identify conditions under which mothers may be willing to use telelactation and explore associations between participant characteristics, willingness, and beliefs regarding telelactation use. Mothers 2-8 weeks postpartum were recruited from two Florida maternal care sites and surveyed to assess demographics, breastfeeding initiation, and potential telelactation use. Analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Of the 88 participants, most were white, married, earned less than $50,000 per year, had access to technology, and were willing to use telelactation if it was free (80.7%) or over a secure server (63.6%). Fifty-six percent were willing to use telelactation if it involved feeding the baby without a cover, but only 45.5% were willing if their nipples may be seen. Those with higher odds of willingness to use telelaction under these modesty conditions were experienced using videochat, white, married, and of higher income. Mothers with security concerns had six times the odds of being uncomfortable with telelactation compared to mothers without concerns. While telelactation can improve access to critical services, willingness to use telelactation may depend on conditions of use and sociodemographics. During the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, these findings offer important insights for lactation professionals implementing virtual consultations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0086.v1
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:31:34 CEST)
Space missions have always assumed that the risk of spacecraft malfunction far outweighs the risk of human system failure. This assumption breaks down for longer duration exploration missions and exposes vulnerabilities in space medical system. Space agencies can no longer buy down the majority of human system risk through the crew member selection process and emergency re-supply or evacuation. No mature medical solutions exist to close the risk gap. With recent advances in biotechnology, there is promise in augmenting a space pharmacy with a biologically-based space foundry for on-demand manufacturing of high-value medical products. Here we review the challenges and opportunities of molecular pharming, the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, as the basis of a space medical foundry to close the risk gap in current space medical systems. Plants have long been considered an important life support object in space and can now also be viewed as programmable factories in space. Advances in molecular pharming-based space foundries will have widespread application in promoting simple and accessible pharmaceutical manufacturing on Earth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ERAS Protocol; nutrition support; fasting; colorectal surgery
Online: 2 October 2018 (22:31:38 CEST)
Traditionally, overnight fasting before elective surgery has been the routine in medical practice for risk reduction of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Several original study and international societies recommend a 2‐h preoperative fast for clear fluids and a 6‐h fast for solids in most elective patients. We conducted a narrative review of the literature, searching electronic databases (Medline and CINAHL). We used PICO approach. The results of our review suggest that nutrition support in the perioperative period is very important to reduce length of hospital stay and reduced postoperative complication.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bioregenerative life support; closed ecological life support; in-situ resource utilization; lunar industrial ecology; 3D bioprinting; gene editing
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:23:39 CEST)
In this review, we explore a broad-based view of technologies for supporting human activities on the Moon. Primarily, we assess the state of life support systems technology beginning with physicochemical processes, waste processing, bioregenerative methods, food production systems and the robotics and advanced biological technologies that support the latter. We observe that the Moon possesses in-situ resources but that these resources are of limited value in CELSS – indeed, CELSS technology is most mature in recycling water and oxygen, the two resources that are abundant on the Moon. This places a premium on developing CELSS that recycles other elements that are rarified on the Moon including C and N in particular but also other elements such as P, S and K which might be challenging to extract from local resources. Although we focus on closed loop ecological life support systems, we also consider related technologies that involve the application of biological organisms to bioregenerative medical technologies and bioregenerative approaches to industrial activity on the Moon as potential future developments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0391.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Tillage; Traction; Compaction; Neural networks; Support vector regression
Online: 26 October 2022 (02:07:19 CEST)
Soil working tools, implements, and machines are inevitable in mechanized agriculture. The soil-tool/machine interaction is a multivariate, dynamic, and intricate process. The accurate interpretation, description, and modeling of a soil-machine interaction is key to providing a solution to sustainable crop production by reducing energy input, excessive soil pulverization, and compaction. The traditional method provides insight into soil-machine interaction but often provides inadequate solutions and lacks broad applicability. Computational intelligence (CI) is a comprehensive class of approaches that rely on approximate information to solve complex problems. The CI method has been extensively studied and applied in soil tillage and traction domain in recent decades. The study critically reviews the CI techniques implemented in soil-machine interactions, especially in the context of tillage, traction, and compaction. The traditional methods and their limitation are discussed. The fundamental of CI methods and a detailed overview of the most popular methods are provided. The study reviews and summarizes the 50 selected articles on soil-machine interaction studies where CI methods were employed. It discusses the strength and limitations of employed CI methods. It also suggests the emergent CI methods and future applications are discussed. The outlined study would serve as a concise reference and a quick and systematic way to understand the applicable CI methods that allow crucial farm management decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: information and accounting support; accounts receivable; management; business
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:32:41 CEST)
The article explores the subject of information and accounting solutions for accounts receivable management that include appropriate accounting solutions and analytical techniques. The study focuses on the statutory framework for accounting for accounts receivable under the Russian Accounting Standards (RAP), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The analytical techniques are described in the context of the authors' view on the essence of accounts receivable management that implies analysis, the establishment of a credit policy and of a discount policy. The article places emphasis on the use of available information technology for accounts payable management, such as blockchain-based smart contracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0298.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: burnout; moral distress; COVID-19; perceived organizational support
Online: 22 March 2022 (09:02:27 CET)
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of moral distress on physician burnout during COVID-19. Physicians in the US were interviewed between February and March 2021; 479 responded to our survey. Results indicated that moral distress was a key mediator in explaining the relationship between perceived organizational support, medical specialization, emotional labor, and coping on burnout. There was no support for increased burnout among female physicians, and contracting COVID-19 likewise did not play a role in burnout. Our findings suggest that physician burnout can be mitigated by increasing perceived organizational support; likewise, physicians who engaged in deep emotional labor and problem-focused coping tended to fare better when it came to feelings of moral distress and subsequent burnout.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: peer group support; peer group education and technology
Online: 15 April 2021 (10:28:41 CEST)
AbstractBackground: the development of nursing, especially related to the nursing intervention approach, is running so fast. This can be seen from the use of peer group support in nursing interventions in individual humans. The purpose of this literature is to find the impact of implementing nursing interventions using a peer group support approach.Method: this literature review method uses JBI and Prisma on 120 articles taken from journal databases, namely Scopus, PubMed and Sciendirect.Result: From the articles analyzed, it was found that the application of peer groups can improve individual abilities both in psychological and behavioral aspects.Conclusion: the application of the peer group approach is able to be one of the approaches in the world of nursing in carrying out nursing actions today.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mesothelioma; predictive modeling; decision support system; early diagnosis
Online: 5 August 2019 (11:57:51 CEST)
Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an atypical, belligerent tumor that matures into cancer in the pleura, a stratum of tissue bordering the lungs. Pleural mesothelioma is a common type of mesothelioma that accounts for about 75 percent of all mesothelioma diagnosed yearly in the United States. Diagnosis of mesothelioma takes several months and is expensive. Given the difficulty of diagnosing MPM, early identification is crucial for patient survival. Our study implements artificial intelligence and recommends the best fit model for early diagnosis and prognosis of MPM. Method: We retrospectively retrieved patient’s medical reports generated by Dicle University, Turkey and implemented multi-layered perceptron (MLP), voted perceptron (VP), Clojure classifier (CC), kernel logistic regression (KLR), stochastic gradient decent SGD), adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), Hoeffding tree (VFDT), and primal estimated sub-gradient solver for support vector machine (s-Pegasos). We evaluated the models, compared and tested using paired T-test (corrected) at 0.05 significance based on their respective classification accuracy, f-measure, precision, recall, root mean squared error, receivers characteristic curve (ROC), and precision-recall curve (PRC). Results: In phase-1 SGD, AdaBoost.M1, KLR, MLP, VFDT generates optimal results with the highest possible performance measures. In phase-2, AdaBoost with a classification accuracy of 71.29% outperformed all other algorithms. C-reactive protein, platelet count, duration of symptoms, gender, and pleural protein were found to be the most relevant predictors that can prognosticate mesothelioma. Conclusion: This study confirms that data obtained from biopsy and imagining tests are strong predictors of mesothelioma but are associated with high cost, however, can identify mesothelioma with optimal accuracy. Predictive analytics without using biopsy results can diagnose mesothelioma with acceptable accuracy. Implementation of phase-2 followed by phase-1 can address diagnosis expenses and maximize disease prognosis. Additionally, results indicate improved MPM diagnosis using AI methods dependent upon the specific application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0350.v1
Subject: Keywords: Support vector machine, motion descriptor, features, human behaviors
Online: 29 May 2019 (11:19:19 CEST)
Identifying human actions in complex scenes is widely considered as a challenging research problem due to the unpredictable behaviors and variation of appearances and postures. For extracting variations in motion and postures, trajectories provide meaningful way. However, simple trajectories are normally represented by vector of spatial coordinates. In order to identify human actions, we must exploit structural relationship between different trajectories. In this paper, we propose a method that divides the video into N number of segments and then for each segment we extract trajectories. We then compute trajectory descriptor for each segment which capture the structural relationship among different trajectories in the video segment. For trajectory descriptor, we project all extracted trajectories on the canvas. This will result in texture image which can store the relative motion and structural relationship among the trajectories. We then train Convolution Neural Network (CNN) to capture and learn the representation from dense trajectories. . Experimental results shows that our proposed method out performs state of the art methods by 90.01% on benchmark data set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0288.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium phosphate cement; methylcellulose; 3D plotting; support; hydroxyapatite
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:55:42 CEST)
3D plotting is an additive manufacturing technology enabling biofabrication, thus the integration of cells or biologically sensitive proteins or growth factors into the manufacturing process. However, most (bio-)inks developed for 3D plotting were not shown to be processed into clinical relevant geometries comprising critical overhangs and cavities, which would collapse without a sufficient support material. Herein, we have developed a support hydrogel ink based on methylcellulose (mc), which is able to act as support as long as the co-plotted main structure is not stable. Therefore, 6 w/v %, 8 w/v % and 10 w/v % mc were allowed to swell in water, resulting in viscous inks, which were characterized for their rheological and extrusion properties. The successful usage of 10 w/v % mc as support ink was proven by multichannel plotting of the support together with a plottable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) acting as main structure. CPC scaffolds displaying critical overhangs or a large central cavity could be plotted accurately with the newly developed mc support ink. The dissolution properties of mc allowed complete removal of the gel without residuals, once CPC setting was finished. Finally, we fabricated a scaphoid bone model by computed tomography data acquisition and co-extrusion of CPC and the mc support hydrogel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0114.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: WSN; IoT; seawater temperature prediction; marine aquaculture support
Online: 23 September 2017 (11:31:13 CEST)
Aquaculture is growing ever more important due to the decrease in natural marine resources and increase inworldwide demand. To avoid losses due to aging and abnormalweather, it is important to predict seawater temperature in order to maintain a more stable supply, particularly for high value added products, such as pearls and scallops. The increase in species extinction is a prominent societal issue. Furthermore, in order to maintain a stable quality of farmed fishery, water temperature should be measured daily and farming methods altered according to seasonal stresses. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to estimate seawater temperature in marine aquaculture by combining seawater temperature data and actual weather data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0150.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Image Detection; Intracranial Hemorrhage; Deep Learning; Decision Support System.
Online: 20 December 2022 (10:31:23 CET)
Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious medical problem that requires rapid and often intensive medical care. Identifying the location and type of any hemorrhage present is a critical step in the treatment of the patient. Diagnosis requires an urgent procedure, and the detection of hemorrhage is a difficult and time-consuming process for human experts. In this paper, we propose methods based on EfficientDet’s deep-learning technology that can be applied to the diagnosis of hemorrhages and thus become a decision-support system. Our proposal is two-fold. On the one hand, the proposed technique classifies slices of computed tomography scans for the presence hemorrhage or its lack, achieving 92.7% accuracy and 0.978 ROC-AUC. On the other hand, our methodology provides visual explanations of the classification chosen using the Grad-CAM methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0183.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: platinum; high-index facets; carbon support; glucose oxidation; electrocatalysts
Online: 13 October 2022 (02:23:07 CEST)
Catalyst with high catalytic activity and good stability are desirable in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Herein, Pt concave nanocubes with high-index facets (HIFs) supported by carbon black (Pt CNC/CB) are prepared through a hydrothermal method. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak current densities in different potential regions on the Pt CNC/CB anode are 0.22, 0.20, and 0.60 mA cm−2, respectively. The glucose oxidation reaction shows superior performances in basic and neutral conditions than in acid conditions. Better stability is achieved by Pt CNC/CB than Pt concave nanocubes (Pt CNCs). Abundant surface defects with low-coordinated atom numbers, such as the steps, kinks, and edges, are served as active sites in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. With the addition of carbon black, the catalytic activity can be improved by facilitating the full exposure of the active surface defects on the HIFs of Pt CNCs. Moreover, to address the aggregation of Pt CNCs, caused by the high surface energy of HIFs, the introduction of carbon material is an effective way to preserve the HIFs, and thus enhance the stability of the catalyst. Hence, the prepared Pt CNC/CB electrocatalyst has great potential to be applied in the electrooxidation of glucose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Adult children's education; parental longevity; truncated regression; emotional support.
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:18:44 CEST)
Background: Some developing countries, such as China, population is aging rapidly, meanwhile, the average years of schooling for residents is constantly increasing. However, the question of whether adult children’s education has an effect on the longevity of older parents, remains inadequately studied. Methods: This paper uses China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) data to estimate the causal impact of adult children's education on their parents' longevity. Identification is achieved by using the truncated regression model and using historical education data as instrument variables for adult children’s education. Results: For every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father’s and mother’s longevity increased by 0.89 years and 0.75 years, respectively. Mechanism analysis shows that adult children's education has a significant positive impact on parents' emotional support, financial support and self-reported health. Further evidence shows that for every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father-in-law’s and mother-in-law’s longevity increased by 0.40 years and 0.46 years, respectively. Conclusions: It is conclusion that improving the level of adult children’s education can increase parents’ and parents-in-law’s longevity. Adult children’s education might contribute to the longevity of older parents by three channels that providing emotional, economic support and affecting parents’ health.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Decision Making Process; Social Networks; Social Commerce; Social Support
Online: 21 January 2022 (14:53:08 CET)
The introduction of social commerce ushered in a new era in business-consumer interaction. As a result, more power has passed from the vendor to the buyer, primarily fueling e-commerce acceptance. As a result, understanding consumer behaviour in the context of social commerce adoption has become essential for businesses looking to persuade customers by using the power of social ties and support.Furthermore, such social ties will facilitate trust as the most promising benefit while reducing perceived risk, which has always been a critical problem with online commerce. This study proposes a paradigm for understanding the impact of social commerce on the stages of the consumer decision-making process: need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour, with a focus on social support. In this respect, relevant literature in the subject of social commerce either (1) lacks an adequate explanatory model, (2) has a solid theoretical base, or (3) contains practically complex theories with insufficient empirical data. The research model applies the Social Commerce Constructs (SCC): recommendations and referrals, forums and communities, and ratings and reviews to study the respective influence on the consumer decision-making process phases. This paper aims to understand the influence of social commerce on an integrative model that incorporates all customer choice phases while expecting new knowledge. Furthermore, it is advised that this conceptual model be empirically verified to evaluate the practical consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pump-turbine; support bracket; runner axial force; stress; deformation
Online: 24 December 2021 (08:11:22 CET)
During operation, the support bracket is the main part to withstand the axial loads of the pumped storage unit. Moreover, the effects of axial loads including the hydraulic thrust of runner flow and the weight of runner body may cause the support bracket deformation and fatigue damage. For the safe and stable operation, the simulation of the axial force and the structural analysis of the support bracket of a pumped storage unit was carried out in this paper. The CFD simulation result has revealed the variation rule of the axial force in different operating conditions. Using ANSYS Mechanical, the static stresses and deformation of support bracket with axial loads were calculated. The results release the location and variations of maximum stress and maximum deformation caused by the axial loads. By comparing the predicted maximum axial force with the admission force calculated by the structural analysis, it is found that the axial force of the researched machine is within the safe range. This study provides the reference for the safety and stable operation of the pumped storage unit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: breast milk immunoactive factors; cortisol; maternal stress; social support
Online: 15 April 2021 (11:07:47 CEST)
Possible alterations of maternal immune function due to psychological stress may reflect immunoactive factor levels in breast milk. This study aimed to assess the association between maternal distress and breast milk levels of secretory IgA (SIgA), IgM, IgG, and lactoferrin (LF). We hypothesized this association is moderated by maternal social support achieved from others during lactation. The study group included 103 lactating mothers and their healthy 5-months-old infants. Maternal distress was determined based on the State Anxiety Inventory and the level of salivary cortisol. Social support was assessed using Berlin Social Support Scales. Breast milk samples were collected to test for SIgA, IgM, IgG, and LF using the ELISA method. Milk immunoactive factors were regressed against maternal anxiety, social support, salivary cortisol, and infant gestational age using the general regression model. Maternal anxiety was negatively associated with milk levels of LF (β=-0.22, p<0.05) and SIgA (β=-0.29, p<0.01), while social support was positively associated with milk IgG (β=0.25, p<0.05). Neither anxiety nor social support was related to milk IgM. No association was found between the level of maternal salivary cortisol and immunoactive factors in milk. Our results suggest that maternal psychological well-being and social support may affect milk immune properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0171.v1
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:31:59 CEST)
Background: Breast cancer is the second type of cancer diagnosed in women and is the first cancer in women worldwide. Breast cancer also causes high morbidity and mortality in women and becomes a heavy burden due to the incidence of disability due to the disease. Purpose: This literature review aims to examine how social support affects anxiety, depression and quality of life in breast cancer sufferers. Method: The data were obtained by searching for reputable and trustworthy journals. have high quality criteria, namely Scopus, Proquest, Science Direct, Elsevier, Pubmed. Journals or articles used in this review literature are searched using keywords and Boolean operators (AND, OR NOT, or AND NOT). Keywords in this review literature are as follows: social support OR family support, quality of life OR Quality, anxiety OR depression, AND Cancer OR cancer treatment OR Chronic disease. Results: The results of this literature review show that there is a significant influence between the social support received by breast cancer patients on the improvement of their quality of life. The social support provided is also able to reduce anxiety and depression in breast cancer sufferersConclusion: Social support given to breast cancer patients is proven to have an effect on improving the quality of life, reducing anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0482.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: nuclear accidents; decision support; protective measures, LPM, PTM, CBRN.
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:33:16 CET)
The systems ESTE are running in nuclear crisis centers at various levels of emergency preparedness and response in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Austria, Bulgaria, and Iran (at NPP monitored by International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA). ESTE is a decision support system, running 24/7, and serves the crisis staff to propose actions to protect inhabitants against radiation in case of a nuclear accident. ESTE is also applicable as decision support system in case of a malicious act with radioactive dispersal device in an urban or industrial environment. Dispersion models implemented in ESTE are Lagrangean particle model (LPM) and Puff trajectory model (PTM). Described are models approaches as implemented in ESTE. PTM is applied in ESTE for the dispersion calculation near the point of release, up to 100 km from the point of nuclear accident. LPM for general atmospheric transport is applied for short-range, meso-scale and large-scale dispersion, up to dispersion on the global scale. Additionally, a specific micro-scale implementation of LPM is applied for urban scale dispersion modelling too. Dispersion models of ESTE are joined with radiological consequences models to calculate a complete spectrum of radiological parameters - effective doses, committed doses and dose rates by various irradiation pathways and by various radionuclides. Finally, radiation protective measures, like sheltering, iodine prophylaxis, or evacuation, evaluated on the base of predicted radiological impacts are proposed. Dispersion and radiological models of the state-of-the-art ESTE systems are described. Results of specific analyses, like number of particles applied, initial spatial distribution of the source, height of the bottom reference layer, are presented and discussed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: infrared spectroscopy; visible image; support vector machine; olive quality.
Online: 16 December 2020 (11:18:07 CET)
The color and NIR spectrum are key to build an oil estimation model, thus it requires individual olives clustering before the Sohlext oil extraction method can be applied. The objective was to analyze an OC estimation model of individual olives, based on cluster of similar color and NIR spectrum in different combination of the first and/or the second season. This study was performed with Chilean Arbequina olives in 2016 and 2017. The descriptor of the cluster consisted of the 3 color channels of c1, c2, c3 color model plus 11 reflectance points between 1710 and 1735 nm of each olive, normalized with the Z-score index. Clusters of similar color and NIR spectrum were formed with the k-means++ algorithm, leaving a sufficient amount of olives to be able to perform the Sohlext analysis of OC, as reference value. The estimation models were based on the Support Vector Machine. The test was carried out with the Leave One-Out Cross Validation in different training-testing combinations. The best model predicted the OC with 6% and 13%deviation respect to the real value in one season by itself and when one season tested with another season, respectively. The use of clustering in estimation model is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: neuromuscular disorders; dynamic arm support; activity monitoring; motor performance
Online: 17 July 2020 (14:17:28 CEST)
Neuromuscular disorders cause progressive muscular weakness, which limits upper extremity mobility and performance during activities of daily life. A dynamic arm support can improve mobility and quality of life. However, their use is often discontinued over time for unclear reasons. This study aimed to evaluate whether users of dynamic arm supports demonstrate and perceive quantifiable mobility benefits over a period of two months. Nine users of dynamic arm supports were included in this observational study. They had different neuromuscular disorders and collectively used four different arm supports. They were observed for three consecutive weeks during which they were equipped with a multi-sensor network of accelerometers to assess the actual use of the arm support and they were asked to provide self-reports on the perceived benefits of the devices. Benefits were experienced mainly during anti-gravity activities and the measured use did not change over time. The self-reports provided contextual information in domains such as participation to social life, in addition to the sensor system. However self-reports overestimated the actual use by up to three-fold compared to the accelerometer measures. A combination of objective and subjective methods is recommended for meaningful and quantifiable mobility benefits during activities of daily life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0222.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: servant leadership; perceived organizational support; employee well-being; correlation
Online: 13 March 2020 (02:53:46 CET)
This current research follows up on Greenleaf’s oft-quoted best test of servant leadership that calls for employees to be better off financially, emotionally, physically, psychologically, etc. because of the time spent with the servant leader. While oft-quoted, little empirical work exists to see if this is true. In this study, 170 participants provided their perception of their supervisors’ level of servant leadership, their perception of the organization’s support, and their self-report of their general well-being. Gender and age bracket information described the participants, and there were no significant differences between gender or age brackets for participants’ perception of their supervisors’ servant leadership. The analysis showed that there was a moderate positive correlation between servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and general well-being. A modification of an existing general well-being instrument provided a new eight-item general well-being scale with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.956.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Radio over Fiber, Nonlinearities Mitigation, Support Vector Machine method
Online: 3 September 2019 (09:58:13 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) methodologies have been looked upon recently as a potential candidate for mitigating nonlinearity issues in optical communications. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a 40-Gb/s 256-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal-based Radio over Fiber (RoF) system for 50 km of standard single mode fiber length which utilizes support vector machine (SVM) decision method to indicate an effective nonlinearity mitigation. The influence of different impairments in the system is evaluated that includes the influences of Mach-Zehnder Modulator nonlinearities, in-phase and quadrature phase skew of the modulator. By utilizing SVM, the results demonstrated in terms of bit error rate and eye linearity suggest that impairments are significantly reduced and licit input signal power span of 5dBs is enlarged to 15 dBs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0436.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Expanded Public Works Programme; EPWP; SMMEs; Training; and Support
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:44:18 CEST)
Small business sector around the world is regarded as a catalyst of employment for the largest number of people. To reduce massive unemployment and inequality in the country, the Government of South Africa introduced various initiatives to stimulate and support small businesses, the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) is one of such initiatives. The enterprise development approach, is one of the delivery mechanisms of the EPWP, which seeks to transfer income to poor households in the short to medium-term. This study critically assess the impact and effectiveness of training and support interventions provided to small businesses through the EPWP. The study employs a quantitative research method and due to the size, availability and ease of access to the participants, the entire population of twenty (20) small businesses supported by the EPWP in Pretoria Region was sampled. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The study demonstrates that the training intervention provided through the EPWP is making positive impact and achieving its intended goals of enhancing business management skills to participants. It also reveals an interesting outcome that the majority of the participants are women. The study also identified some weaknesses in the programme which leads to the recommendation that long-term support mechanisms are essential to ensure sustainability of emerging enterprises.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0003.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: sustainability; value modeling; decision support; value driven design; review
Online: 12 June 2017 (13:51:25 CEST)
Manufacturing organizations shall recognize sustainability as a business occasion to capitalize on, rather than an undesirable pressing situation. Still, empirical evidence shows that this opportunity is hard to capture and communicate in global strategic decisions, through planning by tactical management, to daily operational activities. This paper systematically reviews the modeling challenges at the crossroad of value and sustainability decisions making, spotlighting methods and tools proposed in literature to link sustainability to customer value creation at strategic, tactical and operational level. While statistical results show that the topic of sustainability and value modeling is trending in literature, findings from content analysis reveal that recent attempts to promote a value-based view in the sustainability discussion remain at a strategic level, with most of the proposed indicators being suited for managerial decision-making. The lack of support at operational level points to the opportunity of cross-pollinating sustainability research with value-centered methodologies originating from the aerospace sector. The Value Driven Design framework is proposed as main hub from which to derive models supporting engineers and technology developers in the identification of win-win-win situations, where sustainable improvements are aligned with business advantages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Government support; Innovation probability; Innovation destiny; Propensity score matching
Online: 10 May 2017 (18:04:33 CEST)
Government support plays an important role in Chinese economy. New energy industries, concerning innovation-driven source and environmental protection, are also supported by government. This paper aims to study the effects of the traditional government support at supply side on firms’ innovation and development. In this paper, we propose enterprise behavior model including characteristics of new energy industries, and study the innovation reaction of firms to government support in different situation. We further use propensity score matching to verify the results in theoretical model, and conduct robustness analysis. Our main conclusions include: (1) In the normal years government support can only promote the innovation output of firms which have innovated, however, can not promote the innovation probability of firms which have not innovated. That is to say, government support can only enhance the intensive margin of innovation, but can not enhance the extensive margin of innovation with less competition. (2) In the situation of bad economic environment and intense competition, firms’ innovation probability rises as the government support increase. Therefore, government should provide more R&D special subsidies and implement strict financial supervision to make the effectiveness of support policies especially in the normal years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0349.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: decision support; multi-criteria decision analysis; multiple criteria pareto frontier methods; criterium decision plus; net weaver developer; SADfLOR; ecosystem management decision support system
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:35:18 CEST)
This study examines the potential of combining decision support approaches to identify optimal bundles of ecosystem services. A forested landscape, Zona de Intervenção Florestal of Paiva and Entre-Douro and Sousa (Portugal), is used to test and demonstrate this potential. The landscape extends over 14,000 ha, representing 1,976 stands. The property is fragmented into 376 holdings. The overall analysis was performed in three steps. First, we selected six alternative solutions (A to F) in a Pareto frontier generated by a multiple criteria method within a decision support system (SADfLOR) for subsequent analysis. Next, an aspatial strategic multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) analysis was performed with the Criterium DecisionPlus (CDP) component of another decision support system (EMDS) to assess the aggregate performance of solutions A to F for the entire forested landscape with respect to their utility for delivery of ecosystem services. For the CDP analysis, SADfLOR data inputs were grouped into two sets of primary criteria: Wood Harvested and Other Ecosystem Services. Finally, a spatial logic-based assessment of solutions A to F for individual stands of the study area was performed with the NetWeaver component of EMDS. The NetWeaver model was structurally and computationally equivalent to the CDP model, but the key NetWeaver metric is a measure of the strength of evidence that solutions for specific land stands were optimal for the unit. Solutions D and B performed best in the aspatial strategic MCDA analysis, and a composite of the maps generated by NetWeaver demonstrated the spatial basis for the performance of solutions D and B in individual land stands. We conclude with a discussion of how the combination of decision support approaches encapsulated in the two systems could be further automated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: public health; local self-government; institutional support; longitudinal research; Serbia
Online: 10 January 2023 (01:24:53 CET)
The objective of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of selected factors on the level and state of public health in local self-government units in 2021, with the consideration of data from 2020 and 2019. This survey included 77 out of 145 local self-government units in the Republic of Serbia and examined six dimensions defined by the Law on Public Health: social care for the public health of the city/municipality in regard to the physical, mental, and social health of the population; health promotion and disease prevention; the environment and health; working environments and population health; the organization and functioning of the health system; and actions in emergency situations. The results of the Pearson correlation showed that there were statistically significant correlations between the effectiveness of the realized program budget and microbiologically defective drinking water samples from the so-called village water supply systems, defective samples of drinking water from public taps, unsatisfactory analyses of wastewater samples, the total number of air samples on an annual level for PM25s, and the number of mandated fines issued. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the local self-government units that received assistance from the Permanent Conference of Cities and Municipalities were 5.6 times more likely to perform analyses of their health status. Furthermore, we determined that the units of local self-governments that appointed a coordinator of the health council identified vulnerable groups in the analysis of the state of health four and a half times more often. In contrast, the units of local self-governments that prepared health status analyses could be used to identify vulnerable groups to a six times greater extent within the framework of the health status analysis. The results showed that in improving the state of public health at the local level, it is necessary to provide systematic institutional support to cities and municipalities in exercising their responsibilities. Based on these results, recommendations were made for the further development of support, i.e., the planning of further activities aimed at strengthening the capacity of the health councils and local self-government units in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Insomnia; Mental health; Physical health; perceived social support; Postpartum Depression
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:30:00 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD) can predispose to physical and mental health problems in women. However, PPD is associated with health and perceived social support but their causal relationship is unclear. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the association of PPD with insomnia, mental health, and physical health. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from 320 (52.8 %) young and middle aged postpartum women, in the outpatient departments of obstetrics and gynecology in Government Maula Bakhsh Hospital, District Head Quarter in Sargodha, Pakistan. The Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale, Pittsburg sleep quality index, Warwick-Edinburgh mental wellbeing scale, Patient health questionnaire, and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to measure study variables. Results revealed a significant positive relationship of PPD with physical health (r= .45, p=.001), while a negative relationship with insomnia (r= -.24, p<.001), and perceived social support (r= -.38, p=.001). Results further confirmed that perceived social support played a moderating role (β = .97, p=.01) in the relationship between PPD and mental health among females. This study concluded that perceived social support has an important role in PPD and women’s health. The study also concluded that poor health is a risk indicator for identifying aid in the early stages of postpartum among women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0095.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Regression; AI based Tornado Analysis; Decision Support System; Mobile Application
Online: 9 May 2022 (03:15:11 CEST)
Tropical cyclones devastate large areas, take numerous lives and damage extensive property in Bangladesh. Research on landfalling tropical cyclones affecting Bangladesh has primarily focused on events occurring since AD1960 with limited work examining earlier historical records. We rectify this gap by developing a new tornado catalogue that include present and past records of tornados across Bangladesh maximizing use of available sources. Within this new tornado database, 119 records were captured starting from 1838 till 2020 causing 8,735 deaths and 97,868 injuries leaving more than 1,02,776 people affected in total. Moreover, using this new tornado data, we developed an end-to-end system that allows a user to explore and analyze the full range of tornado data on multiple scenarios. The user of this new system can select a date range or search a particular location, and then, all the tornado information along with Artificial Intelligence (AI) based insights within that selected scope would be dynamically presented in a range of devices including iOS, Android, and Windows. Using a set of interactive maps, charts, graphs, and visualizations the user would have a comprehensive understanding of the historical records of Tornados, Cyclones and associated landfalls with detailed data distributions and statistics.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0270.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: space exploration; life support systems; Saccharomyces yeasts; bioregenerative food production
Online: 28 April 2022 (04:01:48 CEST)
Here we propose the concept of an electro–microbial route to uncouple food production from photosynthesis, thereby enabling production of nutritious food in space without the need to grow plant-based crops. In the proposed process, carbon dioxide is fixed into ethanol using either chemical catalysis or microbial carbon fixation, and the ethanol created is used as a carbon source for yeast to synthesize food for human or animal consumption. The process depends upon technologies that can utilize electrical energy to fix carbon into ethanol and uses an optimized strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce high quality, food grade single cell protein using only ethanol, urea, phosphate, and inorganic salts as inputs. Unlike crops using photosynthesis that require months to mature and are challenging to grow under the conditions found in space, the electro–microbial process could generate significant quantities of food on demand with potentially high yields and productivities. In this paper we explore the potential of the proposed process to provide food on demand in space, but it should be noted that this novel approach to food production has many valuable terrestrial applications too. For example, enabling food production in climatically challenged environments including turning deserts into food bowls, or utilizing surplus electricity generated from large-scale renewable power sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Men's Health; COVID-19; Mental Disorders; Stress, Psychological; Social Support
Online: 24 November 2021 (08:13:48 CET)
Objective: to analyze the relationships between sociodemographic variables, intolerance to uncertainty (INT), social support and psychological distress (i.e., indicators of Common Mental Disorders [CMDs] and perceived stress [PS]) in Brazilian men during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: a cross-sectional study with national coverage, of the web survey type, and conducted with 1,006 Brazilian men during the period of social circulation restriction imposed by the health authorities in Brazil, for suppression of the coronavirus and control of the pandemic. Structural equation modeling analysis was performed. Results: Statistically significant direct effects of race/skin color (λ=0.268; p-value<0.001), socioeconomic status (SES) (λ=0.306; p-value<0.001), household composition (λ=0.281; p-value<0.001), PS (λ=0.513; p-value<0.001) and INT (λ=0.421; p-value<0.001) were evidenced in the occurrence of CMDs. Black-skinned men, with higher SES, living alone and with higher PS and INT levels presented higher prevalence values of CMDs. Conclusions: high levels of PS and INT were the factors that presented the strongest associations with the occurrence of CMDs among the men. It is necessary to implement actions to reduce the stress-generating sources, as well as to promote an increase in resilience and the development of intrinsic reinforcements to deal with uncertain threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0072.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: IoT; Fungal disease forecast; Botrytis cinerea; Precise agriculture; Decision support
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:20:03 CEST)
This paper presents the evaluation of a fungal disease forecast model in vineyards for qualitative parameter analysis using the data from off the shelf sensors, i.e. temperature and air relative humidity, rain precipitation, and leaf wetness. The rules for the fungal disease models are digitalized as a decision support tool that serve as an indicator to farmers for the need of spraying of the chemical substances to ensure the best growing condition and suppress the level of parasites. The temperature and humidity contexts are used interchangeably in practice to detect the risk of the disease occurrence. By taking into account a number of influences on these parameters collected from the shelf sensors, new topics for research in the multidimensional field of precision agriculture emerge. In this study, the impact of the humidity is evaluated by assessing how different humidity parameters correlate with the accuracy of the Botrytis cinerea fungi forecast. Each humidity parameter has it’s own threshold that triggers the second step of the disease modeling - risk index based on the temperature. The research showed that for humidity a low-cost relative humidity sensor can detect in average 14.61% risk values, a leaf wetness sensor an additional 3.99% risk cases, and finally, a precipitation sensor will detect only an additional 0.59% risk cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0393.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Humble leadership; employee creativity; top management support; project management effectiveness
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:40:27 CEST)
This paper aims to explore the effect of humble leadership on project success by integrating the mediating role of employee creativity. Top management support moderates the direct relationship (humble leadership and project management effectiveness) and indirect relationships through employee creativity. Time-lagged data were obtained from 332 persons working in the matrix organization across the information technology. The results showed that humble leadership enhance project management effectiveness by mediating and moderating processes. This study provides a solution to an underlying research question that has gone unanswered in prior studies. What are the strategies proposed for humble leadership in fostering the effectiveness of the project?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0763.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Autonomy support coaching; Emotional intelligence; Interruption intention; Social competence; Symmetry
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:30:35 CEST)
Objective: Studies in Sports Psychology and Sociology have validated causality in team-sport athletes by using emotional intelligence as a variable. This study aimed to examine the causal relationship between the types of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention as psychosocial variables among current taekwondo athletes in Korea.Methods: In this study, 217 adult or university athletes registered in the Korea Taekwondo Association in 2020 were evaluated for the type of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention. Results: Autonomy support coaching recognized by taekwondo athletes has a negative and positive effect on interruption intention and emotional intelligence, respectively. Moreover, emotional intelligence has a negative effect on interruption intention. which revealed that autonomy support coaching has a negative effect on interruption intention through emotional intelligence.Conclusions: Such outcomes can serve as a foundation for athletes to have the opportunity to participate in sports in a mature manner and promote positive changes in sports culture. In other words, the sensibility of the athletes can be harmoniously symmetry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0649.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Autonomy support coaching; Emotional intelligence; Interruption intention; Social competence; Symmetry
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:24:55 CEST)
Objective: Studies in Sports Psychology and Sociology have validated causality in team-sport athletes by using emotional intelligence as a variable. This study aimed to examine the causal relationship between the types of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention as psychosocial variables among current taekwondo athletes in Korea. Methods: In this study, 217 adult or university athletes registered in the Korea Taekwondo Association in 2020 were evaluated for the type of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention. Results: Autonomy support coaching recognized by taekwondo athletes has a negative and positive effect on interruption intention and emotional intelligence, respectively. Moreover, emotional intelligence has a negative effect on interruption intention. which revealed that autonomy support coaching has a negative effect on interruption intention through emotional intelligence. Conclusions: Such outcomes can serve as a foundation for athletes to have the opportunity to participate in sports in a mature manner and promote positive changes in sports culture. In other words, the sensibility of the athletes can be harmoniously symmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0001.v1
Subject: Keywords: Assessment; Institutional Support; Online Education; Tertiary Education; Covid-19; Bangladesh
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:03:02 CEST)
Institutional support and quality education are linked in a significant way. During Covid-19, institutional support is critical to closing the huge academic gap that has emerged as physical academic practices have been moved to a virtual education system using technology. This research aims to assess institutional support for online education in Bangladesh during the Covid-19 pandemic. This analysis is focused on the three main elements of the Adapted Model of Institutional Support (AMIS) of Bond et al, 2007, and the Institutional Support Model (ISM) of Valverde and Rodriguez, 2002, namely Financial Support (FS), Technical Support (TS), and Mentoring Support (MS). According to the findings, a few universities in Bangladesh have provided average support for continuing online education, while others have just started taking online classes. Several problems have been discovered, such as the lack of dedicated software for conducting online academic activities, lack of training and grooming, lack of mentoring, poor internet access, lack of smartphones, high internet package rates, and so on. This study concludes with some policy recommendations for a smooth online education system in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Antenatal depression; Adverse childhood experiences; intimate partner violence; social support
Online: 26 March 2021 (14:18:14 CET)
Background: Few studies examined the contributions of childhood adversities, intimate partner violence and social support to antenatal depression (AD). This study aims to 1) evaluate association of these psychosocial factors with AD symptoms in early pregnancy; and 2) examine the mediating effect of social support on the relationship between psychosocial stressors and AD symptoms.Methods: Participants were 120 pregnant women aged from 18 to 49 in less than 16 gestational weeks and attending at Antenatal Care Center at Khon Kaen hospital, Thailand. AD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Childhood adversities, intimate partner violence and social support were measured using the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (ACE questionnaire), Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: We found that the EPDS score was significantly and positively associated with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negatively with social support. Partial Least Square analysis showed that 49.1% of the variance in the depressive subdomain of the EPDS score was predicted by ACEs, namely psychological and physical abuse and neglect, emotional or physical abuse by the partner, unplanned pregnancy, and no satisfaction with their relationship. The effects of adverse childhood experience due to neglect on the EDPS score was mediated by social support by friends. Limitations: ACEs were assessed retrospectively and, therefore, may be susceptible to recall bias.Conclusion: Prenatal depression scores are to a large extent predicted by psychological distress as indicated by early lifetime trauma, abuse by partner, relation satisfaction, and implications of unintended pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Frailty; Social Isolation; Social Networks; Social Support; Social Participation; Aging
Online: 2 February 2021 (14:32:33 CET)
This research investigated the effects of social isolation on frailty and health outcomes and tested whether these associations varied across different levels of frailty. We performed a multivariate analysis of data from the first wave of the FRéLE study among 1,643 Canadian older adults aged 65 years and over. We assessed social isolation using social participation, social networks, and support from various social ties, namely, friends, children, extended family, and partner. Frailty predicted disability, comorbidity, depression, and cognitive decline. Less social participation was associated with IADLs, depression, and cognitive decline. The absence of friends was associated with depression and cognitive impairment. Less social support from children and partner was related to comorbidity, depression, and cognitive decline. Overall, social isolation is linked to mental health, rather than physical health. The associations of having no siblings, receiving less support from friends, and participating less in social activities with ADL limitations, depression, and cognitive decline were higher among frail than pre-frail and robust older adults. This study corroborates the pivotal role of social connectedness, particularly the quality of relationships, on the mental health of older adults. Public health policies on social relationships are paramount to ameliorate the health status of frail older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0415.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: pandemic; covid-19; monitoring; GIS dashboard; emergency spatial support centre
Online: 19 August 2020 (11:48:55 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic event requires a rapid response from various organizations at the international and national levels. One important response is the provision of information sharing facilities and monitoring of the spread of cases around the world, JHU CSSE developed the Dashboard in January 2020 and followed by WHO the same month for the WHO COVID-19 dashboard. Both dashboards have distributed information as expected by the user with their respective pros and cons. JHU CSSE Dashboard provides faster information with good access to mobile device users even though the display and color selection are less attractive. Information on the WHO COVID-19 Dashboard is often late but more data appearances and variations and comparisons between countries can be made. In the Indonesian context, ESSC for COVID-19 Geoportal as Esri Indonesia initiative has been developed with the support of data and information from various parties and developed with the principles of big data management which are fully supported by adequate spatial portal developer software from Esri. Particularly in Indonesia, there is not yet an adequate system to support spatial based decision making at the local level, therefore the development of a GIS dashboard to support provincial and district governments is highly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0315.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: awareness of sustainability; education; psychological adaptation; environmental attitudes; policy support
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:43:46 CEST)
Identifying the determinants of human behavior is useful to adjust interventions and lead the civil society towards a stronger commitment with climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives, achieving greater support for successfully implementing environmental policies. Existing research has largely focused on case studies of pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) in developed economies but there is yet very little evidence for developing countries. This study provides estimations of the effect of internal factors, such as sociodemographic variables, and four psychological dimensions (climate change knowledge, environmental attitudes, self-efficacy, trust in sources of environmental information) on PEBs. Data was obtained through a survey applied with future decision makers - university students - from Colombia (n = 4769) and Nicaragua (n = 2354). Indices were generated for PEBs and the psychological dimensions using z-scores and Principal Component Analysis. Partial correlations were evaluated through the Ordinary Least Squares method. Our results suggest that, in order to reach the planned emission reduction targets, policy approaches should more strongly focus on educating and motivating citizens and prepare them for contributing to the environmental cause, as well as provide individual solutions to combat climate change, rather than providing only information on its causes and consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0289.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: drone video; human action recognition; CNN; Support vector machine (SVM)
Online: 28 August 2019 (03:52:22 CEST)
Recognition of the human interaction on the unconstrained videos taken from cameras and remote sensing platforms like a drone is a challenging problem. This study presents a method to resolve issues of motion blur, poor quality of videos, occlusions, the difference in body structure or size, and high computation or memory requirement. This study contributes to the improvement of recognition of human interaction during disasters such as an earthquake and flood utilizing drone videos for rescue and emergency management. We used Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the high-level and stationary features obtained from Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in key-frames from videos. We extracted conceptual features by employing CNN to recognize objects from first and last images from a video. The proposed method demonstrated the context of a scene, which is significant in determining the behaviour of human in the videos. In this method, we do not require person detection, tracking, and many instances of images. The proposed method was tested for the University of Central Florida (UCF Sports Action), Olympic Sports videos. These videos were taken from the ground platform. Besides, camera drone video was captured from Southwest Jiaotong University (SWJTU) Sports Centre and incorporated to test the developed method in this study. This study accomplished an acceptable performance with an accuracy of 90.42%, which has indicated improvement of more than 4.92% as compared to the existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: forest tending; group decision support system; process management; data integration
Online: 10 June 2019 (10:32:09 CEST)
In this study, the decision-making process management of forest tending in the forestry business is decentralized, and forest tending decision-making activities at different points in time are integrated by decision makers at different geographical locations. The decision-making process was analyzed and optimized from a system perspective. Based on the optimized decision-making process, a forest tending business group decision support system (FTGDSS) was established. We first reviewed and discussed the characteristics and development of the forest tending business and forestry decision support system. Business Process Modeling Notation was used to draw a current state flow chart of the forest tending business, to identify and discover important decision points in the process of tending decision-making. We also analyzed the content and attributes of each decision point, and described the system structure, functional framework, knowledge base structure, and reasoning algorithm of FTGDSS in detail. Finally, FTGDSS was evaluated from the two dimensions of the technology adoption model. FTGDSS integrates different levels of time-space decision-making activities, historical tending data, business plans, decision-makers' management tendencies into the decision-making process and automatically extracts decision-making data from the forest business process management enterprise resource planning system (Smartforest) that improves the ease of use of the decision support system (DSS). It also improves the quality of forest tending decisions, and enables the DSS to better support multi-target management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Potential active ingredients; Naomaitong; PK - PD correlation; Support vector machines
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:38:35 CEST)
NaoMaiTong (NMT: Radix et Rhi-zoma Rhei, Radix Ginseng, Radix Puerariae, and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong as 9: 9: 6: 6) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription for treating ischemia cerebral apoplexy. In this work, four cell injury models of ischemic stroke were establish, namely hypoxic injury, glutamate damage, injury of potassium chloride and hydrogen peroxide damage model. The protective effects of NMT and its single herbs-containing sera of different time points on PC12 cell damage were evaluated respectively, and the corresponding efficacy-time curves were drawn. Cell viability was measured by MTT (3-(4,5)-Dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide) assay. Furthermore, an statistical methods of support vector machine (SVM) were used to establish the correlation between concentration-time-efficacy for the first time. These results revealed that NMT-containing serum has obvious protective effect on the four injury models and can significantly improve cell viability. The PK-PD correlation between fifteen ingredients in the NMT compound with four model efficacy indexes indicated that rhein, puerarin, and 3'-methoxy puerarin might be the most important constituents controlling the pharmacological effects of NMT. The study suggested that these fifteen components are likely to be the material basis of NMT and recommended to increase the amounts of Pueraria in the NMT compound. That provided the scientific basis and demonstration for the research of efficacy material base of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0193.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multi-agent system; decision support; anti-money laundering; anti-fraud
Online: 22 January 2018 (04:46:20 CET)
The anti-money laundering (AML) process has failed both in identifying suspicious cases in due time as in assisting the AML analysts in decision making. Starting from a new generic anti-fraud approach, this article presents the main aspects related to the development of a multi-agent system that goes beyond the capture of suspicious transactions, seeking to assist the human expert in the analysis of suspicious behaviour. First, a transactional behavioural profile of clients is obtained in a data mining process. A set of rules, obtained through data mining over a real database, in conjunction with specific rules based on legal aspects and in the expertise of the AML analysts make up the agents' knowledge base. The cases for which the system was unable to suggest a decision are flagged as requiring more detailed analysis. The system analysed 6 months of real transactions and indicated several suspicious profiles, a set of these suspects was investigated by the AML analysts who proved the suspicion of several cases, including some that had not been identified by the systems in execution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sensors; Dynamic measurement errors; Prediction; Improved PSO; Support Vector Machine
Online: 20 November 2017 (16:56:20 CET)
Dynamic measurement error correction is an effective method to improve the sensor precision. Dynamic measurement error prediction is an important part of error correction, support vector machine (SVM) is often used to predicting the dynamic measurement error of sensors. Traditionally, the parameters of SVM were always set by manual, which can not ensure the model’s performance. In this paper, a method of SVM based on an improved particle swarm optimization (NAPSO) is proposed to predict the dynamic measurement error of sensors. Natural selection and Simulated annealing are added in PSO to raise the ability to avoid local optimum. To verify the performance of NAPSO-SVM, three types of algorithms are selected to optimize the SVM’s parameters, they are the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), the improved PSO optimization algorithm (NAPSO), and the glowworm swarm optimization (GSO). The dynamic measurement error data of two sensors are applied as the test data. The root mean squared error and mean absoluter percentage error are employed to evaluate the prediction models’ performances. The experiment results show that the NAPSO-SVM has a better prediction precision and a less prediction errors among the three algorithms, and it is an effective method in predicting dynamic measurement errors of sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0077.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Zernike moment, Multi-class support vector machine, Query Engine, SPARQL
Online: 20 February 2017 (18:07:11 CET)
In this paper, a new approach to retrieve semantic images based on shape and geometric features of image in conjunction with multi-class support vector machine is proposed. Zernike moment as shape feature is to verify the invariance of objects for silhouette image. In addition, a set of geometrical features is to explore the objects shape using two features of rectangularity and circularity. Then the extracted features are normalized and employed for multi-class support vector machine either for learning or retrieving processes. The retrieving process relies on three main tasks which namely Query Engine, Matching Module and Ontology Manger, respectively. Query Engine is to build the input text or image query using SPARQL language. The matching module extracts the shape and geometric features of image’s objects and employ them to Ontology Manger which in turn inserts them in ontology knowledge base. Benchmark mammals have been conducted to empirically conclude the outcome of proposed approach. Our experiment on text and image retrieval yields efficient results to problematic phenomena than previously reported.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0465.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spatial; Decision Support; Machine Learning; Automation; Framework; System; SDSS; AutoML; GIS
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:06:18 CEST)
Many spatial decision support systems suffer from user adoption issues in practice due to lack of trust, technical expertise, and resources. Automated machine learning has recently allowed non-experts to explore and apply machine learning models in the industry without requiring abundant expert knowledge and resources. This paper reviews recent literature from 136 papers, and proposes a general framework for integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning to lower major user adoption barriers. Challenges of data quality, model interpretability, and practical usefulness were discussed as general considerations for system implementation. Research opportunities related to spatially explicit models in AutoML, and resource-aware, collaborative/connected, and human-centered systems were also discussed to address these challenges. This paper argues that integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning can not only encourage user adoption, but also mutually benefit research in both fields — bridging human-related and technical advancements for fostering future developments in spatial decision support systems and automated machine learning.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: newborn infant; sepsis; premature infant; oxygen therapy; oxidative stress; ventilation support
Online: 22 August 2022 (08:11:06 CEST)
Background. It is well established that human milk feeding contributes in limiting lung disease among vulnerable neonates. The primary aim of this research was to compare the need for mechanical ventilation of human milk-fed sick neonates with that of formula-fed sick neonates. Methods. All late preterm and full term infants from a single center with findings of sepsis, from 2002 to 2017, were identified. Data regarding infant feeding during hospital admission were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of the type of milk on ventilation support and main neonatal morbidities. Results. The total number of participants was 322 (human milk group = 260, exclusive formula group = 62). On bivariate analysis, 72% of human milk-fed neonates did not need oxygen therapy nor respiratory support versus 55% of their formula-fed counterparts (P<0.0001). Accordingly, invasive mechanical ventilation was required by 9.2% of human milk-fed infants versus 32% of their formula-fed counterparts (P=0.0085). These results hold true in multivariate analysis, indeed human milk-fed neonates were more likely to require less respiratory support (OR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.89) when compared to those who were exclusively formula-fed. Conclusion. Human milk feeding might minimize exposure to mechanical ventilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: LGBTQ+ youth; peer victimization; identity development; social support; outness; mixed methods
Online: 9 March 2022 (02:27:55 CET)
Research rarely explores LGBTQ+ youth bullying in the context of culture-specific outcomes (e.g., LGBTQ+ identity development) and what can mitigate the impact of peer stressors. This study used a concurrent mixed methods design to explore how experiences of peer victimization predicted LGBTQ+ youth’s identity development (i.e., stigma sensitivity, concealment motivation, and difficult process) and whether social support and outness served as protective, moderating factors. The mixed-methods approach provides a culture-specific context via qualitative inquiry to inform whether the quantitative findings align with how youth qualitatively discuss their experience of bullying, negative outcomes, and social support. Our sample consisted of 349 LGBTQ+ youth 14-17 years old who completed a survey (quantitative sample), and a subset of 39 LGBTQ+ youth who completed a semi-structured interview (qualitative sample). Our quantitative findings indicated that greater overall peer victimization was positively related to LGBIS-revised subscales of stigma sensitivity, concealment motivation, and difficult process, where both outness and social support moderated such relations. Qualitatively, victimized youth also reported stigma sensitivity and concealment motivation, while also endorsing how being out and having a support system played a role in their experience of being victimized. These qualitative findings align with our quantitative findings that classmate support mitigated the effects of peer victimization on difficulty of coming out. Implications for practitioners and researchers are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0287.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Institutional support; new ventures; entrepreneurial orientation; innovation resource acquisition; innovation performance.
Online: 20 January 2022 (08:12:07 CET)
Based on the institutional theory and resource-based theory and the "institution-strategy-performance" research paradigm, this research explores the mechanism of institutional support on the innovation performance of new ventures, focusing on the mediating role of entrepreneurs and the moderating role of innovative resource acquisition. An empirical analysis based on 278 survey samples shows that: ① (formal/informal) institutional support positively affects the innovation performance of new ventures; ② entrepreneurial orientation plays an intermediary role between institutional support and innovation performance of new ventures; ③ innovation resource acquisition not only positively regulates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and innovation performance of new ventures, but also enhances the mediation of entrepreneurial orientation between institutional support and innovation performance. The conclusion shows that institutional support plays an important role in the innovation practice of new ventures, and can provide guidance for the innovation management practices of new ventures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0153.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy; Fundus Images; Retina,; Support vector machine; K-Means Clustering.
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:59:13 CET)
The complication of people with diabetes causes an illness known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). It is very widespread among middle-aged and older people. As diabetes progresses, patients' vision may deteriorate and cause DR. People to lose their vision because of this illness. To cope with DR, early detection is needed. Patients will have to be checked by doctors regularly, which is a waste of time and energy. DR can be divided into two groups: non-proliferative (NPDR) while the other is proliferative (PDR). In this study, machine learning (ML) techniques are used to diagnose DR early. These are PNN, SVM, Bayesian Classification, and K-Means Clustering. These techniques will be evaluated and compared with each other to choose the best methodology. A total of 300 fundus photographs are processed for training and testing. The features are extracted from these raw images using image processing techniques. After an experiment, it is concluded that PNN has an accuracy of about 89%, Bayes Classifications 94%, SVM 97%, and K-Means Clustering 87%. The preliminary results prove that SVM is the best technique for early detection of DR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0035.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Fruits & Vegetables; Classification; Convolutional Neural Network; Support Vector Machine; Defect detection
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:31:56 CET)
Defect detection and identification from fruits and vegetables are particularly challenging for Indian agriculture. Defect Detection is a process to identify the defects or damages in vegetables and fruits, based on the shapes, colors and textures. The local market finds it difficult to cope with the defects and other infections in fruits and vegetables as quality evaluations and classification of vegetables and fruits have become tedious process. Recently, several approaches based on Image processing, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence methods have been proposed for the purpose of defect detection. On the basis of classifying the types of defects, related pathogens, and physical and morphological characteristics descriptors, we review the different approaches based on a corpus of 57 articles between 2016 and 2021. In the process of describing the defect analysis, steps from the target articles, algorithms, and methods including qualitative and quantitative evaluation are mainly summarized. The aim of this current review work is to present-day novel images and collects recent defective area calculation methods to detect surface defects of fruits and vegetables using RGB images and to classify whether the fruit is defected or fresh. A rigorous evaluation of many new algorithms provided for quality assurance by researcher’s probes of vegetables and fruits have been conducted in this work. This review work conveys that using the recent identification features will help to decrease the disadvantages in fruit storeroom owing to storage of the affected vegetables and fruits, ie. Preventing the spread of defects and other infections from the infected fruits and vegetables to the fresh ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dementia; depression; loneliness; activities of daily living; social support; life satisfaction
Online: 27 October 2020 (07:55:52 CET)
As the number of older adults with dementia increases, early diagnosis and intervention are crucially important. The purpose of this study was to conduct dementia screening on older adults to determine whether there are differences in daily activities of living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction between older adults at high-risk for dementia compared with low-risk older adults. We hypothesized a negative relationship between high-risk older adults and these factors. This study also hypothesized a moderating effect for social support on the relationship between daily living activities and life satisfaction. This study used a cross-sectional design with survey data. Participants were recruited at 15 public community health centers in South Korea. A total of 609 older adults (male 208, female 401) living in the community were screened for early dementia, and 113 participants (18.9 %) were assigned to the high-risk group. As hypothesized, participants in the high-risk group showed significantly more negative results in terms of activities of daily living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction compared with participants in the low-risk group. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for the importance of early screening for dementia and policies for effective dementia prevention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Review Literature; Psychosocial Support System; Public Health Administration
Online: 5 May 2020 (02:23:47 CEST)
The state of community lock-down due to COVID-19 pandemic caused restricted movements of people. There are existing evidence of the negative impact of quarantine and isolation to the mental health of a person in different contexts. A scoping review of literature using Google Scholar was conducted to discover records about the public mental health while in a community quarantine due to COVID-19 pandemic. A methodological approach suggested by Arksey and O’Malley was utilized. It comprised (a) identifying the research questions, (b) identifying relevant literatures, (c) selecting literature, (d) charting the extracted data, and (e) summarizing, analyzing, and reporting the results. As of April 17, 2020, there were only 4 original articles found that discuss psychosocial aspect of the COVID-19 crisis. After an online survey, they present evidence that (1) there is an outward change in the people’s behavior toward self-care during the pandemic and (2) trusting the community governing bodies can minimize the level of anxiety and stress. Other literatures found are original articles in preprint (n=8), letters, commentaries, editorial (n=6), review paper (n=4), and WHO guideline (n=1). It is evident that the psychosocial aspect of COVID-19 crisis needs more attention from the scholars and a large research gap can be lessened trough expansion of online platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0008.v1
Subject: Keywords: radio over fiber; nonlinearities mitigation; support vector machine method; RL-SARSA
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:09:31 CEST)
Use of Machine Learning (ML) methodologies in optical communications has paved a new pathway. In this paper, firstly, we discuss the use of ML methodologies for reducing optical fiber nonlinearities, nonlinearity compensation, fault detection and optical performance monitoring. Then we present our recent work where we compare RL-SARSA and SVM based method with conventional method. The results show that RL-SARSA and SVM methods are successful candidates in mitigating the nonlinearities in proposed system as compared to conventional optical communication system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Evapotranspiration, Genetic programming, Support vector machine, Multiple linear regression, Random forest
Online: 7 August 2019 (11:28:34 CEST)
The ASCE-EWRI reference evapotranspiration (ETo) equation is recommended as a standardized method for reference crop ETo estimation. However, various climate data as input variables to the standardized ETo method are considered limiting factors in most cases and restrict the ETo estimation. This paper assessed the potential of different machine learning (ML) models for ETo estimation using limited meteorological data. The ML models used to estimate daily ETo included Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multiple Linear Regression (LR), and Random Forest (RF). Three input combinations of daily maximum and minimum temperature (Tmax and Tmin), wind speed (W) with Tmax and Tmin, and solar radiation (Rs) with Tmax and Tmin were considered using meteorological data during 2003–2016 from six weather stations in the Red River Valley. To understand the performance of the applied models with the various combinations, station, and yearly based tests were assessed with local and spatial approaches. Considering the local and spatial approaches analysis, the LR and RF models illustrated the lowest rate of improvement compared to GEP and SVM. The spatial RF and SVM approaches showed the lowest and highest values of the scatter index as 0.333 and 0.457, respectively. As a result, the radiation-based combination and the RF model showed the best performance with higher accuracy for all stations either locally or spatially, and the spatial SVM and GEP illustrated the lowest performance among models and approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0198.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Support vector machine, Local binary pattern, crowd analysis, crowd density estimation
Online: 16 May 2019 (08:33:07 CEST)
Crowd density estimation is an important task for crowd monitoring. Many efforts have been done to automate the process of estimating crowd density from images and videos. Despite series of efforts, it remains a challenging task. In this paper, we proposes a new texture feature-based approach for the estimation of crowd density based on Completed Local Binary Pattern (CLBP). We first divide the image into blocks and then re-divide the blocks into cells. For each cell, we compute CLBP and then concatenate them to describe the texture of the corresponding block. We then train a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, which classifies each block of image into one of four categories, i.e. Very Low, Low, Medium, and High. We evaluate our technique on the PETS 2009 dataset, and from the experiments, we show to achieve 95% accuracy for the proposed descriptor. We also compare other state-of-the-art texture descriptors and from the experimental results, we show that our proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0034.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Maize, Food Safety, Community-based Support systems, Integrated Mycotoxin Control Strategies
Online: 8 April 2019 (13:21:53 CEST)
Grain production and storage are major components in food security. In the ancient times, food security was achieved through gathering of fruits, grains, herbs, tubers, and roots from the forests by individual households. Advancements in human civilization led to domestication of crops and a need to save food for not only a household, but the nation. This extended need for food security led to establishment of national reservoirs for major produces and this practice varies greatly in different states. Each of the applied food production, handling and storage approaches has got its benefits and challenges. In sub-Saharan Africa, several countries have a public funded budget to subsidize production costs, to buy grains from farmers and to store the produce for a specific period and/or until the next harvests. During the times of famine, the stored grains are later given free to the citizens. If there is no famine, the grain is sold to retailers and/or processors (e.g., millers) who later sell it to the consumers. This approach works well if the produce (mainly grain) is stored under conditions that do not favor growth of molds, as some of these could contaminate the grain with toxic and carcinogenic metabolites called mycotoxins. Conditions that alleviate contamination of grains are required during production, handling and storage. Most of the grain is produced by smallholder farmers under sub-optimal conditions, which make vulnerable to colonization and contamination by toxigenic fungi. Further, the grain is stored in silos at large masses, where it is hard to monitor the conditions at different points of these facilities, and hence it becomes vulnerable to additional contamination. Production and storage of grain under conditions that favor mycotoxins poses major food health and safety risks to humans and livestock who consume the grain. This concept paper focuses on how establishment of local grain production and banking system (LGPBS) could enhance food security and safety in East Africa. The concept of LGPBS provides an extension of advisory and finance support within warehouse receipting system to enhance grain production under optimal conditions. The major practices at the LGPBS, and how each could contribute to food security and safety are discussed. While the concept paper gives more strength on maize production and safety, similar practices could be applied to enhance safety of other grains in the same LGPBS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Dynamic Scheduling; Semiconductor Manufacturing; Composite Rule Set; Support Vector Regression (SVR)
Online: 3 October 2017 (08:29:45 CEST)
Various factors and constraints should be considered when developing a manufacturing production schedule, and such a schedule is often based on rules. This paper develops a composite dispatching rule based on heuristic rules that comprehensively consider various factors in a semiconductor production line. The composite rule is obtained by exploring various states of a semiconductor production line (machine status, queue size, etc.), where such indicators as makespan and equipment efficiency are used to judge performance. A model of the response surface, as a function of key variables, is then developed to find the optimized parameters of a composite rule for various production states. Further, dynamic scheduling of semiconductor manufacturing is studied based on support vector regression (SVR). This approach dynamically obtains a composite dispatching rule (i.e. parameters of the composite dispatching rule) that can be used to optimize production performance according to real-time production line state. Following optimization, the proposed dynamic scheduling approach is tested in a real semiconductor production line to validate the effectiveness of the proposed composite rule set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0055.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: EMR; data preprocessing; text mining; information extraction; medical decision support system
Online: 15 August 2017 (05:46:43 CEST)
At present, medical institutes generally use EMR to record patient's condition, including diagnostic information, procedures performed and treatment results. EMR has been recognized as a valuable resource for large scale analysis. However, EMR has the characteristics of diversity, incompleteness, redundancy and privacy, which make it difficult to carry out data mining and analysis directly. Therefore, it is necessary to preprocess the source data in order to improve data quality and improve the data mining results. Different types of data require different processing technologies. Most structured data commonly needs classic preprocessing technologies, including data cleansing, data integration, data transformation and data reduction. For semi-structured or unstructured data, such as medical text, containing more health information, it requires more complex and challenging processing methods. The task of information extraction for medical texts mainly includes NER (Named Entity Recognition) and RE (Relation Extraction). In this paper, we introduce the process of EMR processing, including data collection, data preprocessing, data mining, evaluation and knowledge application, analyze the current status of the key technologies, such as data preprocessing and data mining, and provide an overview of the application domains and prospects of EMR mining technologies. Finally, we summarize the existing problems in the research of EMR mining, and review the development trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: rural-urban fringe; walkability; road intersections; decision support methods; Electre Tri
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:50:46 CEST)
The study investigates the influence of road intersections on pedestrian accessibility in urban-rural fringe areas. An evaluation method to support planners and decision makers in the classification of crossing areas according to their effect on walking and in the prioritization of improvement interventions is proposed. In these peripheral parts of towns, pedestrians are almost ignored and people depend on car use for any necessity. Initiatives to improve livability can include the design of walkable friendly environments aiming at offering potential users good levels of security, comfort and convenience when walking to destinations. These spatial requirements have to be provided along road segments and even more on crossing areas which represent sensitive points of the entire connection system with a hindering influence on people’s propensity to walk. Starting with spatial basic interventions aiming at enhancing the continuity, safety and quality of pedestrian paths it is possible to reduce the physical and perceptual distance which separates fringe contexts from the rest of the city leading to a progressive integration of urban functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0104.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: icing forecasting; fireworks algorithm; least square support vector machine; feature selection
Online: 27 September 2016 (11:16:44 CEST)
Accurate forecasting of icing thickness has a great significance for ensuring the security and stability of power grid. In order to improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes an icing forecasting system based on fireworks algorithm and weighted least square support vector machine (W-LSSVM). The method of fireworks algorithm is employed to select the proper input features with the purpose of eliminating the redundant influence. In addition, the aim of W-LSSVM model is to train and test the historical data-set with the selected features. The capability of this proposed icing forecasting model and framework is tested through the simulation experiments using real-world icing data from monitoring center of key laboratory of anti-ice disaster, Hunan, South China. The results show that the proposed W-LSSVM-FA method has a higher prediction accuracy and it may be a promising alternative for icing thickness forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Hyperspectral Technology; Non-destructive Testing; Black Soil; Ensemble learning; Support Vector Machine
Online: 16 September 2022 (07:40:27 CEST)
For the soil in different regions, the nutrient fertility contained in it is different, and the detection and zoning management of soil nutrients before tillage every year can improve grain yield. In this paper, an integrated learning strategy model based on black soil hyperspectral data is designed for rapid classification of organic matter content classification of black soil. Soil hyperspectral image dataset of Xiangyang Experimental Base was collected; by changing the internal structure of the stacking model, an LSVM-stacking model with (MLP, SVC, DTree, XGBl, kNN) five classifiers as the L1 layer was built, and the simulated annealing algorithm was used for hyperparameter optimization. Compared to other stacking models, the LSVM-stacking metrics are significantly improved. The accuracy rate of hyperparameter optimization is improved by 38.6515%, the accuracy rate of the independent test data set is 0.9488, and the comparison of individual learners can improve the recognition classification accuracy of label"1" to 1.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0034.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: active transport; PPGIS; planning support systems; infrastructure prioritisation; bicycle planning; public participation
Online: 2 December 2021 (11:42:25 CET)
The planning of bicycle infrastructure across our cities remains is a complex task involving many key stakeholders including the community, who traditionally have had limited involvement in the planning process. This research develops an interactive bicycle prioritisation index tool which includes participatory spatial and textual citizen feedback. The research involves three components. Firstly, a survey of current cyclists in Sydney, their current level of participation, priorities in investment in cycling, and preferred locations for cycling infrastructure. Secondly, it documents the development of an interactive digital bicycle planning tool which is informed through citizen feedback. Thirdly, it evaluates the approach in conversation with potential end-users, including government, planning practitioners, and advocacy group members. The research proposes the combination of multiple passive and active data traces with end-user evaluation to legitimise the citizen co-design of bicycle investment prioritisation initiatives. A case study approach has been taken, focusing on the city of Sydney, Australia. The bicycle planning support system can be used by cities when engaging in cycle prioritisation initiatives, particularly with a focus on integrating citizen feedback and navigating new and complex data landscapes introduced through recent, passively collected big data sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pseudomonas; antimicrobial; QSAR; chemical descriptors; machine-learning; KNN; support vector classifier; AdaBoost
Online: 4 February 2021 (22:04:37 CET)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus included among the six "ESKAPE" microbial species with an outstanding ability to "escape" currently used antibiotics and developing new antibiotics against it is of the highest priority. Whereas minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been used previously for QSAR model development, disk diffusion results (inhibition zones) have not been apparently used for this purpose in the literature, and we decided to explore their use in this sense. We developed multiple QSAR methods using several machine learning algorithms (Support vector classifier, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Forest Classifier, Decision Tree Classifier, AdaBoost Classifier, Logistic Regression, and Naive Bayes Classifier). The main descriptors used in building the models belonged to the families of adjacency matrix, constitutional descriptors, first highest eigenvalue of Burden matrix, centered Moreau-Broto autocorrelation, and averaged and centered Moreau-Broto autocorrelation descriptors. A total of 32 models were built, of which 28 were selected and stacked to create a meta-model. In terms of balanced accuracy, the best performance was provided by KNN, SVM and AdaBoost algorithms, but the ensemble method had slightly superior results in nested cross-validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0277.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Collaborative forecast; Support vector regression; China-Japan-South Korea; Primary energy consumption
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:13:35 CEST)
This study aims at improving the forecast accuracy of primary energy consumptions in China, Japan and South Korea and verifying the correlation in primary energy consumptions among the neighboring countries. Considering the diversity of primary energy composition, this study selects 6 components of primary energy, including oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, hydropower and renewable energy as characteristic variables. A collaborative prediction model based on SVR for primary energy consumption prediction is proposed to explore the correlation of primary energy consumption among three countries in China, Japan and South Korea. The results show that there is a strong correlation between primary energy consumption when multiple countries make collaborative prediction, among which the primary energy consumption of South Korea has the largest impact on the primary energy consumption of China and Japan. In the primary energy cooperation of China-Japan-South Korea, a primary energy cooperation system with the South Korea as the link should be established through regional coordination to alleviate the shortage of traditional fossil energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: eHealth; big data; deep learning; watson; spark; decision support system; prevention pathways
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:14:36 CET)
Data collection and analysis are becoming more and more important in a variety of application domains as long as the novel technologies advance. At the same time, we are experiencing a growing need for human-machine interaction with expert systems pushing research through new knowledge representation models and interaction paradigms. In particular, in the last years eHealth - that indicates all the health-care practices supported by electronic elaboration and remote communications - calls for the availability of smart environment and big computational resources. The aim of this paper is to introduce the HOLMeS (Health On-Line Medical Suggestions) framework. The introduced system proposes to change the eHealth paradigm where a trained machine learning algorithm, deployed on a cluster-computing environment, provides medical suggestion via both chat-bot and web-app modules. The chat-bot, based on deep learning approaches, is able to overcome the limitation of biased interaction between users and software, exhibiting a human-like behavior. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the machine learning algorithms showing 74.65% of Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) when first-level features are used to assess the occurrence of different prevention pathways. When disease-specific features are added, HOLMeS shows 86.78% of AUC achieving a more specific prevention pathway evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0160.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: false discovery rate; machine learning; protein function prediction; support vector machine; BLAST
Online: 24 November 2017 (11:14:05 CET)
The knowledge of protein function is essential for the study of biological processes, the understanding of disease mechanism and the exploration of novel therapeutic target. Apart from experimental methods, a number of in-silico approaches have been developed and extensively used for protein function prediction. Among these approaches, BLAST predicts functions based on protein sequence similarity, and machine learning predicts functional families from protein sequences irrespective of their similarity, which complements BLAST and other methods in predicting diverse classes of proteins including distantly related proteins and homologous proteins of different functions. However, their identification accuracies and the false discovery rate have not yet been assessed so far, which greatly limits the usage of these prediction algorithms. Herein, a comprehensive comparison of the performances among four popular functional prediction algorithms (BLAST, SVM, PNN and KNN) was conducted. In particular, the performance of these algorithms were systematically assessed by four metrics (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient) based on the independent test datasets generated from 93 protein families defined by UniProtKB Keywords. Moreover, the false discovery rates of these algorithms were evaluated by scanning the genomes of four representative model species (homo sapiens, arabidopsis thaliana, saccharomyces cerevisiae and mycobacterium tuberculosis). As a result, the substantially higher sensitivity and stability of BLAST and SVM were observed compared with that of PNN and KNN. But the machine learning algorithms (PNN, KNN and SVM) were found capable of significantly reducing the false discovery rate (SVM < PNN ≈ KNN). In summary, this study comprehensively assessed the performance of four popular algorithms applied to protein function prediction, which could facilitate the selection of the most appropriate method in the related biomedical research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes self-management; family support; glycemic uncontrolled; type 2 DM; systematic review
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:27:28 CEST)
Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the wide world. The managing of diabetes care emphasized the self-management education and support into patients’ care and family care. Objective: to review and synthesizes the effectiveness of DSME strategies involving family as a key person to provide social support for diabetes mellitus self-management of glycemic uncontrolled patients Method: Three databases through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed to assess the relevant articles. The following search terms: “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “family support,” and “glycemic uncontrolled.” We summarized details of family support on self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients for 14 existing studies. Results: A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. Those studies have a heterogeneous of the education strategies, support perceived, follow-ups strategies and outcomes among type 2 DM. Family integration on diabetes self-management education (DSME) has a positive impact on several outcomes including, self-care behaviors, psychological outcomes, self-efficacy and clinical outcomes Conclusions: This systematic review found robust data related to the integration of family support on diabetes self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients. Consequently, the improvement in outcomes was identified. Implications: The findings suggest model of family engagement is better and needed for sustaining the diabetes care in the long-term care
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0298.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Affinity chromatography; matrix; solid support; resin; support materials; glass filter; glass frit; high-pressure; HPLC; FPLC; antibodies; immunoglobulins; purification; downstream processing; protein purification; preparative; analytical; separation; clean-up; automation
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:37:01 CET)
A novel stationary phase for affinity separations is presented. This material is based on sintered borosilicate glass readily available as semi-finished filter plates with defined porosity and surface area. The material shows fast binding kinetics and excellent long-term stability under real application conditions due to lacking macropores and high mechanical rigidity. The glass surface can be easily modified with standard organosilane chemistry to immobilize selective binders or other molecules used for biointeraction. In this paper, the manufacturing of the columns and their respective column holders by 3D printing is shown in detail. The model system protein A/IgG was chosen as an example to examine the properties of such monolithic columns under realistic application conditions. Several specifications, such as (dynamic) IgG capacity, pressure stability, long-term performance, productivity, non-specific binding, and peak shape, are presented. It could be shown that due to the very high separation speed, 250 mg antibody per hour and column can be collected, which surpasses the productivity of most standard columns of the same size. The total IgG capacity of the shown columns is around 4 mg (5.5 mg/mL), which is sufficient for most tasks in research laboratories. The cycle time of an IgG separation can be less than 1 minute. Due to the glass material's excellent pressure resistance, these columns are compatible with standard HPLC systems. This is usually not the case with standard affinity columns, limited to manual use or application in low-pressure systems. The use of a standard HPLC system also improves the ability for automation, which enables the purification of hundreds of cell supernatants in one day. The sharp peak shape of the elution leads to an enrichment effect, which might increase the concentration of IgG by a factor of 3. The final concentration of IgG can be around 7.5 mg/mL without the need for an additional nanofiltration step. The purity of the IgG was > 95% in one step and nearly 99% with a second polishing run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0232.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coronavirus; genome; recombination; COVID-19; reservoir host; secondary host; phylogenetic support; tree reconstruction
Online: 13 December 2022 (07:44:48 CET)
Phylogenetic trees of coronaviruses are difficult to interpret because they undergo frequent ge-nomic recombination. Here, we propose a new method, named coloured genomic bootstrap (CGB) barcodes, to highlight the polyphyletic origins of human sarbecoviruses and understand their host and geographic ori-gins. The results indicate that SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 contain genomic regions of mixed an-cestry originating from horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus) viruses. First, different regions of SARS-CoV share exclusive ancestry with five Rhinolophus viruses from Southwest China (RfYNLF/31C: 17.9%; RpF46: 3.3%; RspSC2018: 2.0%; Rpe3: 1.3%; RaLYRa11: 1.0%) and 97% of its genome can be related to bat viruses from Yunnan (China), supporting its emergence in Rhinolophus species of this province. Second, different regions of SARS-Cov-2 share exclusive ancestry with eight Rhi-nolophus viruses from Yunnan (RpYN06: 5.8%; RaTG13: 4.8%; RmYN02: 3.8%), Laos (RpBA-NAL103: 3.3%; RmarBANAL236: 1.7%; RmBANAL52: 1.0%; RmBANAL247: 0.7%), and Cam-bodia (RshSTT200: 2.3%), and 98% of its genome can be related to bat viruses from northern Laos and Yunnan, supporting its emergence in Rhinolophus species of this region. Although CGB barcodes are very useful to retrace the origins of human sarbecoviruses, further investigations are needed to better apprehend the diversity of coronaviruses in bats from Cambo-dia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Data integration; Decision Support System; Information Systems; Infrastructure Asset Management; Water supply systems
Online: 16 November 2022 (03:31:31 CET)
This paper presents a new information technology platform specially tailored for infrastructure asset management of urban water systems operated by water utilities of lower digital maturity level, developed in the scope of DECIdE research project. This platform aims at the integration of different data from the water utilities with several information systems and the assessment of the system performance, in terms of water losses, energy efficiency and quality of service by using developed tools (i.e., water and energy balances and key performance indicators). This platform was tested with data from five small to medium size Portuguese water utilities with different maturity levels in terms of technological and human resources. Obtained results are very promising since the platform allows to assess the systems performance periodically which constitute an important part of the infrastructure asset management for small and medium-sized water utilities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Convolution; Boehmian; fractional Hilbert transform; Hilbert transform; equivalence class; delta sequences; compact support
Online: 2 September 2022 (02:54:50 CEST)
The fractional Hilbert transform, a generalization of the Hilbert transform, has been extensively studied in the literature because of its extensive use in optics, engineering, and signal processing. In the present work, we aimed to expand the fractional Hilbert transform to a space of generalized functions known as Boehmians. We introduce a new fractional convolution operator for the fractional Hilbert transform to prove a convolution theorem similar to the classical Hilbert transform and also to extend the fractional Hilbert transform to Boehmians. We also construct a suitable Boehmian space on which the fractional Hilbert transform exists. Further, we investigate convergence of the fractional Hilbert transform for the class of Boehmians and discuss the continuity of the extended fractional Hilbert transform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0332.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: iPReditor-CMG; RNA editing site; Mitochondrial genomes; genomic sequence feature; support vector machine
Online: 22 October 2021 (15:11:40 CEST)
Cytosine (C) to uracil (U) RNA editing is one of the most important post-transcriptional processes, however exploring C-to-U editing events efficiently within the crop mitochondrial genome remains a challenge. An improving predictive RNA editor for crop mitochondrial genomes, iPReditor-CMG, was proposed, which was based on SVM, three common crop mitochondrial genomes and self-sequenced tobacco mitochondrial ATPase. After multi-combination feature extracting, high-dimension feature screening and multi-test independent predicting, the results showed that the average accuracy of intraspecific prediction was 0.85, and the highest value even up to 0.91, which outperformed the previous reference models. While the prediction accuracies were 0.78 between dicotyledons and no more than 0.56 between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, implying a possible similarity in C-to-U editing mechanisms among close relatives. The best model was finally identified with an independent test accuracy of 0.91 and an area under the curve of 0.88, and further suggested that five unreported feature sequences TGACA, ACAAC, GTAGA, CCGTT and TAACA were closely associated with the editing phenomenon. Multiple evaluation findings supported that the iPReditor-CMG could be effectively applied to predict crop mitochondrial editing sites, which may contribute to insight into their recognition mechanisms and even other post-transcriptional events in crop mitochondria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: mechanical circulatory support; heart transplantation; survival curve; ventricular assist device; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:39:13 CEST)
BACKGROUND: The number of waitlisted patients requiring mechanical circulatory support (MCS) as a bridge to heart transplantation is increasing. The data concerning the results of double-bridge strategy are limited. We sought to investigate the post-transplant outcomes across the different bridge strategies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a heart transplantation database from Jan 2009 to Jan 2019. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and ventricular assist devices (VAD) were the MCS that we investigated. The pre- and post-transplant characteristics and variables of patients bridged with the different types of MCS were collected. The post-transplant survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 251 heart transplants were reviewed; 115 without MCS and 136 with MCS. The patients were divided to five groups: Group 1 (no MCS): n=115; Group 2 (IABP): n=15; Group 3 (ECMO): n=33; Group 4 (ECMO-VAD): double-bridge (n=59); Group 5 (VAD): n=29. Survival analysis demonstrated that the 3-year post-transplant survival rates were significantly different among the groups (Log-rank p < 0.001). There was no difference in survival between group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 1(no MCS)1 (p = 0.136), or between group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 5(VAD) (p = 0.994). Group 3(ECMO) had significantly inferior 3-year survival than group 4(ECMO-VAD) and group 5(VAD). CONCLUSION: Double bridge may not lead to worse mid-term results in patients who could receive a transplantation. Initial stabilization with ECMO for critical patients before implantation of VAD might be considered as a strategy for obtaining an optimal post-transplant outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: geoportal; location intelligence; geospatial data; emergency response; health expert system; decision support system
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:42:06 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 is a public health emergency that caused disastrous results in many countries. The global aim is to stop transmission and prevent the spread of the disease. To achieve it, every country needs to scale up emergency response mechanisms, educate and actively communicate with the public, intensify infected case finding, contact tracing, monitoring, quarantine of contacts, and isolation of cases. Responding to an emergency requires efficient collaboration and a multi-skilled approach (medical, information, statistical, political, social, and other expertise), which makes it hard to define one interface for all. As actors from different perspectives and domain backgrounds need to address diverse functions, the possibility to exchange available information quickly would be desirable. Geoportal provides an entry point to access a variety of data (geospatial data, epidemiological data) and could be used for data discovery, view, download, and transformation. It helps to deal with challenges like data analysis, confirmed cases geocoding, recognition of disease dynamics, vulnerable groups identification, and capacity mapping. Predicting and modeling the spread of infection, along with application support for communication and collaboration, are the biggest challenges. In response to all these challenges, we have established the Epidemic Location Intelligence System (ELIS) using open-source software components in the cloud, as a working platform with all the required functionalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0573.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: prediction; solar irradiation; machine learning; artificial neural network; random forest; vector support machine
Online: 23 March 2021 (15:51:55 CET)
Different machine learning models (multiple linear regression, vector support machines, artificial neural networks and random forests) are applied to predict the monthly global irradiation (MGI) from different input variables (latitude, longitude and altitude of meteorological station, month, average temperatures, among others) of different areas of Galicia (Spain). The models were trained, validated and queried using data from three stations, and each best machine model was checked in two independent stations. The results obtained confirmed that the best ML methodology is the ANN model which presents the lowest RMSE value in the validation and querying phases 122.6·10kJ/(m2∙day) and 113.6·10kJ/(m2∙day), respectively, and predict conveniently for independent stations, 201.3·10kJ/(m2∙day) and 209.4·10kJ/(m2∙day), respectively. Given the good results obtained, it is convenient to continue with the design of artificial neural networks applied to the analysis of monthly global irradiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0455.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Total Quality Management; construction projects; Saudi Arabia; Harris-hawks optimization; support vector regression
Online: 17 March 2021 (17:01:02 CET)
This research is aimed at evaluating two different scenarios, firstly, appraising the impacts of employing the concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) to the construction projects in Saudi Arabia. The results of the study were obtained through utilization of a descriptive analytical approach, where 300 questionnaires were distributed to engineering firms and companies with a response rate of 200 questionnaires, hence achieving the study sample for this research. The data gathered was analyzed by applying the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program and calculating the Relative importance index (RII) and the mean values. From the research conducted, the outcomes showed that the management’s ability to commit using TQM while applying BIM obtained a relative importance of (0.717), while the relative importance for the management’s ability to commit using TQM without the application of BIM is (0.552). The results showed that construction projects in Saudi Arabia still sustain setbacks from applying TQM concepts and suffer from the lack of administrative, scientific and technical applications. In a second scenario, a hybridized support vector regression (SVR) Harris-hawks optimization (HHO) (i.e., SVR-HHO) were used to predict the TQM. The performance accuracy of the models was checked through three different evaluation metrics namely; mean square error (MSE), correlation co-efficient (CC) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). the hybridized emerging SVR-HHO outperformed the other two data driven approaches in both the training and testing stages based on the employed evaluation metrics. Overall, the obtained results showed that both the machine learning and metaheuristic approaches were capable of predicting TQM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0006.v1
Subject: Keywords: Additive manufacturing; laser powder bed fusion; support structures; lattice structures; easily removable; overhang
Online: 1 February 2021 (10:16:51 CET)
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is a type of additive manufacturing technology that processes metal powders into a component. Support structures are an essential part of the L- PBF process as they transfer the laser-induced heat during and shortly after the process to the substrate, sustaining positional accuracy of downward facing surfaces of the component. Since the use of support structures is inevitable, optimized designs for them are crucial in realizing more sustainable production process. In a serial production setup, reducing the lead time and cost of a non-value-added process step like support structure removal is of significance when improving the overall business case and competitiveness.The goal of this study was to verify the applicability of lattice-based support structures for L-PBF. To achieve this, different lattice types as support structures were designed. They were tested, compared and verified for a Siemens gas turbine component. The results showed that the generated lattice-based support structures could be suitable for L-PBF. The supports had to be designed appropriately such that they could preserve the geometry of the part. Furthermore, they had to have a short fabrication time and to be removable easily, preferably without machining or sawing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0519.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Meta-prediction; Encoding data; ClinVar; Classification; Random Forest; Naive Bayes; Support Vector Machine
Online: 19 November 2020 (16:43:51 CET)
ClinVar is a web platform that stores around 774k curated entries, which allows exploring genetic variants and their associations with complex phenotypes. A partial set of ClinVar’s genetic associations were reported with conflict of interpretation or uncertain clinical impact significance, which currently challenges clinicians and geneticists. Here, we evaluate the performance of data pre-processing methods combined with classical prediction methods, such as Naive Bayes, Random Forest, and Support Vector Machine to build a meta-prediction model aiming to improve genetic pathogenicity interpretation. Models were trained with ClinVar data (September 2020), and genetic variants were annotated with eight functional impact predictors catalogued with SnpEff/SnpSift (v4.3). A 10-fold cross-validation strategy was performed for evaluation by accuracy, F1-Score, Receiver Operating Characteristic, Area Under Curve. The best meta-prediction model raises by combining one-hot encoding with tree-based classifiers as Random Forest, which shows Area Under Curve ≥ 0,93. We predict pathogenicity for 109k genetic variants, which were found labeled as uncertain significance or conflict of interpretation. Additionally, we implemented AmazonForest (https://www.lghm.ufpa.br/amazonforest), a web tool to query data for a set of 5k variants that were predicted with high pathogenic probability (RFprob >= 0.9).
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: disaster management; virtual operation support teams; privacy; data retention; hyperloglog; focus group discussion
Online: 1 October 2020 (13:58:16 CEST)
Social media data is heavily used to analyze and evaluate situations in times of disasters, and derive decisions for action from it. A cruicial part of the analysis is to avoid unnecessary data retention during that process, in order to prevent subsequent abuse, theft or public exposure of collected datasets and thus, protect the privacy of social media users. There are a number of technical approaches out to face the problem. One of them is using a cardinality estimation algorithm called HyperLogLog to store data in a privacy-aware structure, that can not be used for purposes other than the originally intended. In this case study, we developed and conducted a focus group discussion with teams of social media analysts, in which we identified challenges and opportunities of working with such a privacy-enhanced social media data structure in place of conventional techniques. Our findings show that, with the exception of training scenarios, deploying HyperLogLog in the data acquisiton process will not distract the data analysis process. Instead, it will improve working with huge datasets due to the improved characteristics of the resulting data structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: multilayer perceptron; support vector machine; COVID19; SarsCov2; forecasting; machine learning; public health; pandemic
Online: 10 September 2020 (08:05:49 CEST)
This paper presents a Multilayer Perceptron and Support Vector Machine algorithms approach to predict the number of COVID19 infections in different countries of America. It intends to serve as a tool for decision-making and tackling the pandemic that the world is currently facing. The models were trained and tested using open data from the European Union repository where a time series of confirmed contagious cases was modeled until May 25, 2020. The hyperparameters as number of neurons per layer were set up using a tabu list algorithm. The countries selected to carry out the study were Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and the United States. The metrics used are Pearson's correlation coefficient (CP), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Mean Percentage Error (MPE). For the testing stage we obtained the following results: Brazil, CP=0.65, MAE=2508 and MPE=17%; Chile, CP=0.64, MAE=504, MPE=16%; Colombia, CP=0.83, MAE=76, MPE=9%; Mexico, CP=0.77, MAE=231, MPE=9%; Peru, CP=0.76, MAE=686, MPE=18% and the United States of America, CP=0.93, MAE=799, MPE=4%. This resulted in powerful machine learning tools although it is necessary to use specific algorithms depending on the data and the stage of the country’s pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030060
Subject: Keywords: locomotion; machine learning; support vector machines; activity classification; activity of daily life (ADL)
Online: 18 July 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Although Support Vector Machines (SVM) are widely used for classifying human motion patterns, their application in the automatic recognition of dynamic and static activities of daily life in the healthy older adults is limited. Using a body mounted wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU), this paper explores the use of SVM approach for classifying dynamic (walking) and static (sitting, standing and lying) activities of the older adults. Specifically, data formatting and feature extraction methods associated with IMU signals are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the SVM algorithm, the effects of two parameters involved in SVM algorithm—the soft margin constant C and the kernel function parameter
—are investigated. The changes associated with adding white-noise and pink-noise on these two parameters along with adding different sources of movement variations (i.e., localized muscle fatigue and mixed activities) are further discussed. The results indicate that the SVM algorithm is capable of keeping high overall accuracy by adjusting the two parameters for dynamic as well as static activities, and may be applied as a tool for automatically identifying dynamic and static activities of daily life in the older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; mild patients; quarantine facility; video-consultation; living and treatment support center
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:23:06 CEST)
With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is a need for efficient management of patients with mild or no symptoms, which account for the majority. The aim of this study is to introduce the structure and operation protocol of a living and treatment support centre (LTSC) operated by Seoul National University Hospital in South Korea. The existing accommodation facility was converted into a 'patient centre' where patients was isolated. A few Medical staff here performed medical tests and responded to emergencies. Another part of the LTSC was 'remote monitoring centre'. In this center, patients’ self-measured vital signs and symptoms were monitored twice a day, and the medical staff staying here provided video-consultation via a smartphone. During the 3 weeks from March 5 to March 26, 2020, 113 patients were admitted and treated. LTSC could be an efficient alternative to hospital admission in pandemic situation like COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0280.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: scientific visualization; interactive data analysis; support for earth system science; cross-platform application
Online: 25 July 2019 (06:32:24 CEST)
Visualization is an essential tool for analysis of data and communication of findings in the sciences, and the Earth System Science (ESS) are no exception. However, within ESS specialized visualization requirements and data models --- particularly for those data arising from numerical models --- often make general-purpose visualization packages difficult, if not impossible, to effectively use. This paper presents VAPOR: a domain-specific visualization package that targets the specialized needs of ESS modelers, particularly those working in research settings where highly interactive exploratory visualization is beneficial. We specifically describe VAPOR’s ability to handle ESS simulation data from a wide variety of numerical models, as well as a multi-resolution representation that enables interactive visualization on very large data while using only commodity computing resources. We also describe VAPOR’s visualization capabilities, paying particular attention to features for geo-referenced data and advanced rendering algorithms suitable for time-varying, 3D data. Finally, we illustrate VAPOR's utility in the study of a numerically simulated tornado. Our results demonstrate both ease-of-use and the rich capabilities of VAPOR in such a use case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0365.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: TCFA; VH-IVUS image; plaque border detection; active counter method; support vector machines.
Online: 15 November 2018 (15:03:55 CET)
Virtual Histology- Intravascular Ultrasound (VH-IVUS) image is an available method for visualizing plaque component to detect thin cap fibroatheroma. Nevertheless, this imaging modality has considerable limitations to extract the plaque component features and identifying the TCFA plaque. The aim of this paper is to improve the identification of TCFA using fusion of IVUS and VH-IVUS images. In order to generate the automatic technique for reducing the human interaction, a new method namely Active Contour based Plaque Border Detection (ACPB) is proposed. In order to perform the pixel wise classification, hybrid of K-means algorithm with Particle Swarm Optimization and Plaque based Minimum Euclidean Distance (KMPSO-PMED) method is presented to classify the plaque region as well. Moreover, to obtain more significant information of imaging modalities, fusion of two different images consisting of VH-IVUS and IVUS is performed. Therefore, geometric features are extracted from the plaque region and combine with IVUS features. Furthermore, different group of plaque features are divided by means of the histopathological studies. SVM classifiers is applied to detect the TCFA and non-TCFA plaques. The proposed method is applied on 566 in-vivo IVUS and their matching VH-IVUS images obtained from 9 patients. The best result of SVM illustrates the accuracy rates of 99.41% for classification of TCFA plaque. The results prove that the highest accuracy is achieved by integrated features of IVUS and VH-IVUS images.