ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0381.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sun photometer, Aerosols, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOT), New Orleans
Online: 30 April 2018 (12:28:29 CEST)
Aerosol optical depth (AOT) was measured at Xavier University of Louisiana (29.96ᵒ N, 90.11ᵒ W and about 3m above sea level) using a hand-held sun photometer. AOT was measured at two different wavelengths (green at 505nm and red at 625nm) during the period from Sept-2017 to Feb-2018. In this study, we investigate the relationship between AOT and temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure and relative humidity. The maximum monthly average value for green AOT was 0.176 (measured in September) and the minimum monthly value is 0.040 (measured in January). For the red AOT the maximum monthly average value was 0.123 (measured in September) and the minimum is 0.034 (measured in December). The AOT–temperature relationship was predominantly positive, meaning that high AOT values correspond to high temperatures and low AOT values correspond to low temperatures. Relationship between AOT and rainfall is negative, meaning high rainfall averages are associated with low AOT values. AOT and atmospheric pressure have a predominantly negative relationship. The relationship between relative humidity and AOT is a complicated one and is hard to qualify as relative humidity varies very little during the study period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0176.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: aerosol; AERONET; lidar; air pollution; sun-photometer
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:33:32 CEST)
The climate change impacts on some regions of the planet faster and stronger. These areas are known as the hot spots for climate change and Cyprus (Nicosia) in the Mediterranean is one of these spots. This paper aims to analyze the significant changes of atmospheric aerosol characteristics in 2019 and during the extreme event of 25 April 2019. We study the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, refractive index (imaginary and real parts), size, and vertical distribution of aerosol particles during the event of a high atmospheric aerosol contamination over Nicosia in details. For this purpose, we used the ground-based lidar, observations of the sun-photometer AERONET Nicosia station, satellite products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and back trajectories of air movements calculated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). On 23–25 April, according to lidar and sun-photometer observations, strong aerosol pollution over Nicosia was detected. On April 25, 2019, the AOT value exceeds 1.0 at λ = 440 nm. Analysis of the optical and microphysical characteristics supported that the pollution consists of mainly Saharan dust and partly urban aerosols. This assumption was confirmed by HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS images where air masses containing dust particles came from North Africa and from the Eastern part of Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0663.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Solar System, Planetary System, Planet, Satellite, Sun, Earth, Moon, Topology, Circle, Ellipse, Orbit, Trajectory, Orbital Mechanics
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:14:51 CEST)
Based on measured astronomical position data of heavenly objects in the Solar System and other planetary systems, all bodies in space seem to move in some kind of elliptical motion with respect to each other. According to Kepler’s 1st Law, “orbit of a planet with respect to the Sun is an ellipse, with the Sun at one of the two foci.” Orbit of the Moon with respect to Earth is also distinctly elliptical, but this ellipse has a varying eccentricity as the Moon comes closer to and goes farther away from the Earth in a harmonic style along a full cycle of this ellipse. In this paper, our research results are summarized, where it is first mathematically shown that the “distance between points around any two different circles in three dimensional space” is equivalent to the “distance of points around a vector ellipse to another fixed or moving point, as in two dimensional space”. What is done is equivalent to showing that bodies moving on two different circular orbits in space vector wise behave as if moving on an elliptical path with respect to each other, and virtually seeing each other as positioned at an instantaneously stationary point in space on their relative ecliptic plane, whether they are moving with the same angular velocity, or different but fixed angular velocities, or even with different and changing angular velocities with respect to their own centers of revolution. This mathematical revelation has the potential to lead to far reaching discoveries in physics, enabling more insight into forces of nature, with a formulation of a new fundamental model regarding the motions of bodies in the Universe, including the Sun, Planets, and Satellites in the Solar System and elsewhere, as well as at particle and subatomic level. Based on the demonstrated mathematical analysis, as they exhibit almost fixed elliptic orbits relative to one another over time, the assertion is made that the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon must each be revolving in their individual circular orbits of revolution in space. With this expectation, individual orbital parameters of the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon are calculated based on observed Earth to Sun and Earth to Moon distance data, also using analytical methods developed as part of this research to an approximation. This calculation and analysis process have revealed additional results aligned with observation, and this also supports our assertion that the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon must actually be revolving in individual circular orbits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0508.v2
Online: 12 October 2021 (14:27:15 CEST)
This paper aims to investigate the rate of expansion and extraction within the solar system. We carried out the Solar system expansion calculations to do such a review. The Universe is expected to look the same from every point in it. After the big bang, Universe is expanding at some speed. Astrophysicists have been in a race to measure precisely how fast the Universe is expanding since Hubble announced that galaxies were systematically moving away from Milky Way Galaxy with a current speed in 1929. Hubble’s observations came after Einstein’s general relativity, which inspired the big bang theory. According to the Big Bang theory, the Universe has created billions of years ago with an explosion and started to expand until today. The expansion of the Universe mostly happens in vast spaces, so clusters of galaxies move away from each other. For example, raising bread during baking will expand, but the raisings will stay the same size while moving each other to expand the bread. Observers have proven that an object (galaxies, a cluster of planets) held together by gravity has a patch of nonexpanding space produced by a gravitational field. However, some observers claimed the solar system is not expanding, while others claimed it is expanding. Does our solar system expand in an expanding Universe? The cosmological expansion of local systems is reviewed in the modern cosmological models. We showed answers related to this question with the help of literature. This review article revisited the proof of the Solar System’s expansion and its speed with about 0.32 nm/s in an expanding Universe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0498.v1
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:58:29 CEST)
The sun bear is conservation mammal in Indonesia. The ecological problems as conflict among mammals and human often happen around wildlife, the one of the case is the conflict between sun bear (helarctos malayanus) with human. In Pasaman where around the anthropogenic landscape is bounded by natural forest as sun bear habitat. In this decade, the story has recorded about ±16 incidents. The aim of this research is to geospatial modeling the area of potential conflict between sun bear- human. The method in this research is to use natural logarithmic and regression logistic. The tool is geographical information system and maximum entropy. The result of this research, there has found the distribute energy each variable landscape ecosystem. The statistical model of the potential conflict it has spread on landscape ecosystem. The average value of AUC prediction in this model is at number of 0.91. The variable contribution which affect are forest edge at number of 39.2%, the alternative food (plantation) at number of 31.4%, and forest fragmentation at number of 16.9%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0048.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ocean color; sun glint; atmospheric correction; Landsat 8
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:57:15 CEST)
Sun glint, i.e., direct solar radiation reflected from a water surface, negatively affects the accuracy of ocean color retrieval schemes if entering the field-of-view of the observing instrument. Herein, a simple and robust method to quantify the sun glint contribution to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) is proposed, exploiting concomitant observations of the sun glint’s morphology in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) characterized by reflectance contrasts typically higher than those resulting from other in-water or atmospheric processes. The proposed method, termed Glint Removal through Contrast Minimization (GRCM), requires high spatial resolution (ca. 10–50 m) imagery to resolve the sun glint’s characteristic morphology, meeting additional criteria on radiometric resolution and temporal delay between the individual band’s acquisitions. It has been applied with good success to a selection of Landsat 8 (L8) Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes encompassing a wide range of environmental conditions in terms of observation geometry and glint intensity, as well as aerosol and Rayleigh optical depth. The method proposed herein is entirely image based and does not require ancillary information on the sea surface roughness or related parameters (e.g., surface wind), neither the presence of clear water areas in the image under consideration. Limitations of the proposed method are discussed, and its potential for sensors other than OLI and applications beyond glint removal is sketched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cooking power; Solar energy; Solar radiations; Sun tracking.; Emperical Analysis
Online: 18 October 2022 (03:21:26 CEST)
The environmental impact and associated health issues have been seen as a significant global challenge. Efforts have been made to make solar cookers efficient to reduce the health risk and environmental impact of traditional cooking energy supplies used in rural areas. The solar cookers effectiveness for cooking purposes must be assessed in a specific area before installation. In essence, this paper assesses the experimental efficiency of German Scheffler, small mirror pieces, and aluminum foil based solar cookers. The solar cookers performances are evaluated at international standards by analyzing the figure of merits such as standard cooking power, sensible heating time, and exergy efficiency by using 1.7652 kg water and 1-liter oil as a heating material. The regression analysis is also performed to observe experimental data compliance with regression line. The time required to attain a water temperature of 95˚C by German Scheffler and small mirror pieces is 25 min and 1 hour with their exergy efficiency of 48.51% and 19.16% respectively, while the aluminum foil solar cooker achieves maximum water temperature of 74˚C within 2 hours and 5 minutes with 13.47% exergy efficiency. Similarly, the highest oil temperature of 275˚C is observed for the German Scheffler solar cooker. From experimental and regression results, it is revealed that German Scheffler possesses more cooking power relative to other solar cookers and their performances are highly dependent on following factors such as solar radiations, ambient temperature, environment (dust particles concentration and wind speed), radiation reflective material, aperture area, and heat losses respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0279.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Expanding Earth; Exolife; Faint Young Sun Paradox; Radiation Balance Equation.
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:07:09 CET)
We present a plausible solution to the now forty seven year old paleoclimatology riddle of the so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox via the combined hypothesis of the conservation of the state of radiation balance between the Earth and Sun and that of an expanding Earth, where, in the face of a changing (increasing) Solar luminosity, the Earth would maintain steady temperatures by re-adjusting the height of its atmosphere. That is to say, depending on whether or not the radius of the solid Earth is changing, this re-adjustment of the height of the Earth’s atmosphere would mean two things — i.e.: (1) either the height increases — in which event the Earth accretes matter from its immediate surroundings (i.e., the obvious pool formed by the Solar wind) thereby increasing the mass of the Earth’s atmosphere, or: (2) the height decreases — in which event the Earth naturally expels matter from its atmosphere, thereby decreasing the effective mass of the Earth. We demonstrate that if –- as the current state of the art ITRF observations seem to indicate, namely that — the Earth’s landmass is steadily expanding globally at a paltry rate of ∼+0.45±0.05mm·yr−1, and, that the Earth’s atmosphere is to have a present radial vertical height of about one third of the Earth’s radius (∼2860km) from the Earth’s surface, then, one can (might) with relative ease, explain not only the presence of liquid water on the Earth’s surface some ∼3.20±0.70Gyr ago during the Archaean eon when the Sun was about 75% of its current luminosity, but also the present radial expansion rate of the Earth. When all is said and done, the Earth system is herein cast as an auto-self-regulating incubator where the auto-self-regulating mechanism is as a result of the Earth’s atmosphere responding by automatically re-adjusting its height.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: progeria; aging; omics; RNA Sequencing; bioinformatics; sun exposure; HGPS; IGFBP2; ACKR4; WNT
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:10:10 CEST)
Abstract: Since ancient times aging has also been regarded as a disease, and humankind has always strived to extend the natural lifespan. Analyzing the genes involved in aging and disease allows for finding important indicators and biological markers for pathologies and possible therapeutic targets. An example of the use of omics technologies is the research regarding aging and the rare and fatal premature aging syndrome progeria (Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, HGPS). In our study, we focused on the in silico analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in progeria and aging, using a publicly available RNA Seq dataset (GEO dataset GSE113957) and a variety of bioinformatics tools. We identified several genes that appear to be involved both in natural aging and progeria (KRT8, KRT18, ACKR4, CCL2, UCP2, ADAMTS15, ACTN4P1, WNT16, IGFBP2). Further analyzing these genes and the pathways involved confirmed their possible roles in aging, suggesting the need for further in vitro and in vivo research. The graphical abstract illustrates the analysis workflow we used and will introduce in the following as an example to demonstrate the power of omics and bioinformatics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: health attitudes; health knowledge; skin cancer; sun protection; ultraviolet radiation; UV index
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:56:09 CET)
More than twenty-five years ago the Global Solar UV index (UVI) has been introduced as a simple means of visualizing the intensity of ultraviolet radiation and to alert people to the need for sun protection. In our survey among directors of 436 kindergartens in southern Germany we investigated the level of awareness and knowledge about the UVI as well as the practical consequences for sun protection in kindergartens. Less than half of the directors (n=208, 47.7%) had ever heard of the UVI, and only a small minority of them (n=34, 8.7%) used the daily UVI information to adapt sun protective measures in their kindergartens. Detailed knowledge about the UVI was a rarity among the respondents. The proportion of respondents with self-perceived detailed UVI knowledge was five times higher than actual knowledge assessed by an in-depth structured interview using open-ended questions about the UVI (14.2% vs. 2.8%). No clear relationship of UVI awareness, knowledge, and use to directors' age and gender was found. The UVI-related variables also showed no association with directors' knowledge of risk factors for skin cancer and their attitudes towards tanned skin. Overall, the results paint a sobering picture regarding the penetration of the UVI into sun protection policies of German kindergartens. Future public health campaigns should target increasing awareness and understanding of the UVI as well as its importance for sun protection of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: epidemiology, causality, association, smoking, lung cancer, vitamin D, sun exposure, multiple sclerosis
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:42:02 CEST)
If environmental exposures are shown to cause an adverse health outcome, reducing exposure should reduce the disease risk. Links between exposures and outcomes are typically based on ‘associations’ derived from observational studies, and causality may not be clear. Randomised controlled trials to ‘prove’ causality are often not feasible or ethical. Here the history of evidence that tobacco smoking causes lung cancer – in observational studies – is compared to that of low sun exposure and/or low vitamin D status as causal risk factors for the autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis. Evidence derives from in vitro and animal studies, as well as ecological, case-control and cohort studies, in order of increasing strength. For smoking and lung cancer, the associations are strong, consistent, and biologically plausible – the evidence is coherent or ‘in harmony’. For low sun exposure/vitamin D as risk factors for MS, the evidence is weaker, with smaller effect sizes, but coherent across a range of sources of evidence, and biologically plausible. The association is less direct – smoking is directly toxic and carcinogenic to the lung, but sun exposure/vitamin D modulate the immune system, which in turn may reduce the risk of immune attack on self-proteins in the central nervous system. Opinion about whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that low sun exposure/vitamin D increase the risk of multiple sclerosis, is divided. General public health advice to receive sufficient sun exposure to avoid vitamin D deficiency (<50nmol/L) should also ensure any benefits for multiple sclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0085.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: The Sun; Solar Flare; Solar Core; Solar Interior layers; Radiative Zone; Convection Zone
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:59:45 CEST)
The Sun is a huge gaseous body. However, we cannot observe events in the inner Sun due to the convection zone opacity according to previous models. Therefore, the flares originate from the front surface of the Sun. But the current study relied on the distance distribution of X-Ray solar flares, which concluded that the inner layers have much lower opacity than expected. It is even less than what was expected by the latest models based on helioseismology. This means that the flares may originate from the solar interior or solar core, and perhaps from the backside surface, and even appear to us from the frontside surface. Which the re-estimate and correct the currently listed solar flare’s location is needed. Additionally, the flare’s distance illustrations the solar interior layers and appears their boundaries from the core to the photosphere. This method allows us to monitor the variation of the core’s radius with time. The model of the flare’s distance has been developed in current study. But this needs to redevelopment after re-estimating the solar flares locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0123.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: gravity; theory; propulsion; sun; fusion; dark matter; deviation; electrons; charged particles; ions; curvature
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:25:27 CET)
This is an introduction to a new concept of quantum gravity that seamlessly merges General Relativity to the Standard Model. Based upon a novel patent-pending magnetic confinement method that was designed to emulate how our sun confines and rotates charged particles about a singularity; this confinement method uses a collective of off-centered confinement coils that are directed to curve rotating charged particles about a singularity in a way that allows charged particles to relatively accelerate from geodesic deviation. With this confinement method, the subtle Relative Accelerated Energy (RAE) from deviating charged particles has the capability to be focused and exponentially increased relative to the mass-energy of a closed system; which allows for a simple pathway to understand how black holes operate at their singularities. While in the pursuit of proving that this novel method of confinement mimics how our sun operates; I was also able to develop a logical explanation of how our sun reverses its magnetic poles and cycles using the core principles of Michael Faraday. If this concept of quantum gravity is correct, there is a simple explanation for the additional observed gravitational force about the galaxies that are said to obtain dark matter. In short, this theory of quantum gravity has the potential to fully discredit the existence of theorized dark matter with a simple experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0075.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: extreme weather events; heat waves; sun-earth relationships; sun and weather; space weather and extreme atmospheric events; global atmospheric anomalies; SEP events and weather; SEP and NAO; gulf stream and heat waves
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:01:50 CET)
In the past two decades the world experienced an exceptional number of unprecedented extreme weather events, some causing major human suffering and economic damage, such as the March 2012 heat event, which was called “Meteorological March Madness.” From the beginning of space era a correlation of solar ﬂares with pressure changes in atmosphere within 2–3 days or even less was reported. In this study we wanted to test the possible relation of highly warm weather events in North-East America with Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. For this reason we compared ground temperatures TM in Madison, Wisconsin, with energetic particle fluxes P measured by the EPAM instrument onboard the ACE spacecraft. In particular, we elaborated case events and the results of a statistical study of the SEP events related with the largest (Dst ≤ −150nT) Coronal Mass Ejection (CME)-induced geomagnetic storms, between with the years 1997–2015. The most striking result of our statistical analysis is a very significant positive correlation between the highest temperature increase. ΔTM and the time duration of the temperature increase ΔTM (r = 0.8, p <0.001) at “winter times” ( r = 0.5, p , 0.01 for the whole sample of 26 SEP examined events). The time response of TM to P was found to be in general short (a few days), but in the case of March 2015, during a gradual P8 increase, a cross-correlation test indicated highest c.c. within 1 day (p < 0.05). The March 2012 “meteorological anomaly” was elaborated in the case of South-East Europe, where, beside a period of strong winds and rainfall (6-13.3.2012), intense precipitation in North-East Greece (Alexandroupoli) were found to be correlated with distinct high energy flux enhancements. A rough theoretical interpretation is discussed for the space—atmospheric extreme weather relationship we found. However, much work should be done to achieve early warning of space weather dependent extreme meteorological events. Such future advances in understanding the relationships between space weather and extreme atmospheric events would improve atmospheric models and help people’s safety, health and life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0632.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Conic Sections, Topology, Circle, Ellipse, Hyperbola, Parabola, Orbit, Trajectory, Orbital Mechanics, Solar System, Planetary System, Planet, Satellite, Comet, Sun, Earth, Moon
Online: 23 April 2021 (11:36:05 CEST)
Based on measured astronomical position data of heavenly objects in the Solar System and other planetary systems, all bodies in space seem to move in some kind of elliptical motion with respect to each other, whereas objects follow parabolic escape orbits while moving away from Earth and bodies asserting a gravitational pull, and some comets move in near-hyperbolic orbits when they approach the Sun. In this article, it is first mathematically proven that the “distance between points on any two different circles in three-dimensional space” is equivalent to the “distance of points on a vector ellipse from another fixed or moving point, as in two-dimensional space.” Then, it is further mathematically demonstrated that “distance between points on any two different circles in any number of multiple dimensions” is equivalent to “distance of points on a vector ellipse from another fixed or moving point”. Finally, two special cases when the “distance between points on two different circles in multi-dimensional space” become mathematically equivalent to distances in “parabolic” or “near-hyperbolic” trajectories are investigated. Concepts of “vector ellipse”, “vector hyperbola”, and “vector parabola” are also mathematically defined. The mathematical basis derived in this Article is utilized in the book “Everyhing Is A Circle: A New Model For Orbits Of Bodies In The Universe” in asserting a new Circular Orbital Model for moving bodies in the Universe, leading to further insights in Astrophysics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0018.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: non-acylated anthocyanins; anthocyanins with aromatic acylation; SAR; mahaleb cherry; blackcurrant; black carrot; ‘Sun Black’ tomato; VCAM-1; ICAM-1; endothelial adhesion molecules
Online: 4 December 2017 (07:04:17 CET)
Anthocyanins, the naturally occurring pigments responsible for most red to blue colours of flowers, fruits and vegetables, have also attracted interests because of their potential health effects. With the aim of contributing to major insights into their structure-activity relationship (SAR), we have evaluated the radical scavenging and biological activities of selected purified anthocyanin samples (PASs) from various anthocyanin-rich plant materials: two fruits (mahaleb cherry and blackcurrant) and two vegetables (black carrot and ‘Sun Black’ tomato). PASs from the above-mentioned plant material have been evaluated for their antioxidant capacity, using TEAC and ORAC assays. In human endothelial cells, we analysed the biological activity of different PASs by measuring their effects on the expression of endothelial inflammatory markers, including endothelial adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. We demonstrated that all the different PASs showed biological activity. They exhibited antioxidant capacity of different magnitude, higher for samples containing non-acylated anthocyanins (typical for fruits) compared to samples containing more complex anthocyanins acylated with cinnamic acid derivatives (typical for vegetables), even though this order was slightly reversed when ORAC assay values were expressed on molar basis. Concordantly, PASs containing non-acylated anthocyanins reduced the expression of endothelial inflammatory antigens more than samples with aromatic acylated anthocyanins, suggesting the potential beneficial effect of structurally diverse anthocyanins in cardiovascular protection.