ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: diseases; ethnomedicine; Suryabinayak Municipality; traditional knowledge
Online: 10 August 2020 (08:05:53 CEST)
Ethnomedicine refers to the use of medicinal plants by a society, ethnic group or tribe for health benefits and for the prevention, treatment, and cure of different ailments. The healthy relationship between plants and humans has been continuing since the start of human civilization. The present study aims to document the medicinal information about plants used by ethnic people in different wards of Suryabinyak Municipality, Bhaktapur district, to conserve and utilize the traditional knowledge. Ethnomedicinal data were collected by a Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) method such as door to door surveys, direct observation. Individual interviews, field visits, and a questionnaire survey with the guidance of key informants. The present study has documented 107 medicinal plant species under 60 families which are used for prevention and treatment of 39 different diseases like Jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, and cancer and 46 distinct health benefits like cough, cold, anti-bleeding, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, blood pressure, fracture, toothache, etc. Suryabinayak Municipality has a rich diversity in culture, ethnic groups, and medicinal plants, along with a wide geographic and climatic condition. However, with modernization, urbanization, deforestation, and increasing residential areas, the occurrence and use of medicinal plants have been diminished. Thus, documentation of this research is vital for further pharmaceutical research and enhancement and preservation of traditional knowledge of local people living in Suryabinayak Municipality and Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0486.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; Bio-surfactants; emulsification index; Hydrocarbons; surface tension.
Online: 21 August 2020 (13:27:24 CEST)
Bio-surfactants are surface-active molecules which are produced by the wide range of microbes including bacteria, fungi, and yeast. This study was conducted to identify bio-surfactants by Bacillus subtilis combined with use of cheap substrates and industrial wastes (Mustard cake, Whey and Soya cake) which are found locally in Nepal. Bacillus subtilis, one of the most potential bio-surfactants producer; was isolated from soil sample of hydrocarbon contaminated site. Isolates were grown in a Minimal Salt Media (MSM) with 10% (v/v) mustard oil cake, whey and soya cake separately. The presence and potential of surfactant was determined by the oil spreading technique, emulsification index (%E24) and surface tension measurement. It was revealed that the surface tensions of cell free extract were 54.41, 60.02 and 56.64 mN/m for from mustard cake, whey and soya cake respectively as compared to distilled water (72.09) at 25oC. The emulsification index values are was found to be highest in engine oil from the bio-surfactant extracted from mustard cake, soya cake and whey respectively. Similarly, mustard oil showed the lowest value of emulsification index. The highest emulsification activity was shown in mustard oil i.e. 1.13 from the cell free extract from mustard oil and lowest in engine oil i.e., 0.07, by the extract from soya cake medium, when measured in spectrophotometer at 540 nm. In conclusion, strain of Bacillus subtilis was found to be the potential surface active agent producers on the mustard oil cake, which can be useful medium for various environmental, food and industrial processes.