ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1117.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: metacognitive awareness; reading; global reading strategies; problem-solving strategies; support reading strategies; freshmen Slovak students; English
Online: 15 August 2023 (11:49:44 CEST)
There have been a vast number of studies on reading strategies from different angles performed at various age levels. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought a challenge to students´ lives, especially at the university level where they have to struggle with reading many materials online and offline. Therefore, this study investigated the levels of three different strategies of metacognitive awareness: global reading strategy, problem-solving strategy, and support reading strategy among 192 Slovak freshmen university students in a Business English class during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings reveal that the students used problem-solving strategies the most, followed by global and support reading strategies the least. The results also indicate a difference between male and female students at individual levels of reading strategies. The study proposes a set of recommendations with an alliance of COVID-19 learning environment based on the results such as taking notes while reading and highlighting the most important information with an emphasis on details or showing the importance of previewing the text, asking questions/making predictions about the text, and most importantly paying attention to self-regulation practices in a new school environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0366.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: quantum game theory; quantum automata; prisoner's dilemma; conditional strategies; quantum strategies
Online: 30 May 2019 (10:20:31 CEST)
Classic game theory is an important field with a long tradition of useful results. Recently, the quantum versions of classical games, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), have attracted a lot of attention. Similarly, state machines and specifically finite automata have also been under constant and thorough study for plenty of reasons. The quantum analogues of these abstract machines, like the quantum finite automata, have been studied extensively. In this work, we examine some well-known game conditional strategies that have been studied within the framework of the repeated PD game. Then, we try to associate these strategies to proper quantum finite automata that receive them as inputs and recognize them with probability 1, achieving some interesting results. We also study the quantum version of PD under the Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein scheme, proposing a novel conditional strategy for the repeated version of this game.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; approach; strategies; patient; methodologies
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:44:38 CET)
HIV infection invariably attracts the attention of medical staff in complex medical specialties. To achieve the goal of elimination by 2020, various approaches are required, including the establishment of prevention, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, control measures. These should be supported by statistical studies that report on restricted or extended geographical areas, to the level of social class and age. Such an approach, combing the medical and social science perspectives (medicosocial) can prove useful for developing control measures. Due to the complexity of this immunodeficiency pathology, the condition also attracts comorbidities (most notably tuberculosis). Hence, prospective strategies need to be developed and oriented towards the goal of eradicating HIV infection. This paper presents strategies for consideration.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stressor; Coping Strategies; HIV/AIDS
Online: 16 April 2021 (09:59:38 CEST)
Background: A person living with HIV / AIDS bargains with stressors such as discrimination, stigma depression, and several psychological impacts. The stressors experienced by people with HIV/ AIDS will certainly have an impact on daily activities, welfare, and management of medications which in general will have an impact on the quality of life. To deal with these stressors, it is necessary to have good and proper coping from within the PLWHA. Coping strategies need to be owned and carried out by PLWHA in order to respond adaptively to the stressor conditions experienced. Purpose: The aim of this review is to describe the stress experienced and the coping strategies used among PLWHA. Methods: This literature review used keywords in the search for international references are coping strategy, stressor, HIV-AIDS. Inclusion criteria: selection of titles that are relevant to the formulation of the problem and objectives, full-text articles in English, articles published from 2019 to 2021. The exclusion criteria used were coping strategy articles that did not involve HIV patients. Search references from electronic database sources namely ProQuest, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect.Six articles that are deemed worthy of analysis are then discussed or analyzed. Results: Age, gender and sexual orientation have contributed to the emerging stressor among PLWHA. The internal and external coping strategies focusing on the problem are important for PLWHA in handling the stressor. Conclusion: People with HIV-AIDS have many stressors in their lives, but they also have proper coping strategies depending on their internal and external conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0307.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: public sector; innovation strategies; optimality
Online: 25 December 2018 (14:03:10 CET)
For the time being, public sector innovation gains new and complex forms of expression: managerial, institutional, technological or communication. This fact is also due to national and international important bodies’ interest for using innovation as resource and tool for public sector development. Characterised by complexity and adaptation, the innovative processes in the public sector embrace the form of medium and long term innovation strategies, holding high key socio-economic impact on the social utility of public sector innovation. The optimality of innovation strategies becomes a tool for improved decisions in public sector management, providing the methodology for their evaluation related to the objectives of development in the public sector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Pre-exposure prophylaxis; HIV; prevention strategies
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:11:28 CEST)
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective HIV prevention strategy that involves the continuous administration of antiretroviral drugs to HIV-negative individuals wit a substantial risk of contracting an HIV infection. The use of PrEP has shown a reduction in the risk of HIV acquisition through sexual intercourse by up to 99%. Despite its effectiveness, PrEP uptake remains low among populations at high risk of HIV infection. This highlights the need for further research in stratetegies to enhance awareness and uptake of PrEP amongst these specific populations
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0567.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: cognitive strategies; digital games; teaching; learning
Online: 21 April 2021 (10:28:48 CEST)
This paper presents a case study analyzing which learning cognitive strategies are employed by students who play digital games in both in-school and out-of-school learning contexts. As a Case Study, it falls within the qualitative research category. The researcher integrated themselves to the subjects' learning facility for data-gathering, following all recommended ethical protocols for research involving underage subjects. The following data collection instruments were used: research diary, questionnaire, and interviews, conducted with teenagers who play digital games during formal learning activities. Analysis involved data-crossing and checking our data against existing studies and theories, as well as a cartographic production. Data indicates that digital games enhance student usage of cognitive strategies and favor competencies and abilities-based learning over formal learning contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; therapeutic strategies; drug; ACE2
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:59:25 CET)
Most recently, an outbreak of severe pneumonia caused by the infection of 2019-nCoV, a novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China, imposes serious threats to public health. Many important aspects about 2019-nCoV remain largely unknown, among which, the limitation of antiviral therapies represents one of the most critical problems. More recently, it was confirmed that human ACE2 is the receptor for the entry of 2019-nCoV into lower respiratory tract epithelial cells. Give this observation, it is thus expected that the virus could be inhibited if we decrease the expression of ACE2. Here by screening two databases, Connectivity Map (CMap) and our JeaMoon Map (JMap), we identified a number of candidate agents that decrease ACE2 expression. CMap analysis identified 5 compounds, among which, Azathioprine is a possible therapeutic strategy for anti-2019-nCoV. Moreover, JMap analysis revealed a number of comounds, biologics, and traditional Chinese medicine, among which, Andrographis, Urtica, Sambucus, Astragalus, valproic acid, butyrate, and epoxomicin represent the most significant and possible strategies for anti-2019-nCoV therapies. This study provides a number of clues and possible therapeutic strategies for 2019-nCoV prevention and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Human papillomavirus; Network model; Vaccination strategies
Online: 28 July 2017 (12:32:26 CEST)
HPV vaccine induces a herd immunity effect in genital warts when a large number of the population is vaccinated. That aspect should be taken into account when devising new vaccine strategies, like vaccination at older ages or male vaccination. Therefore it is important to develop mathematical models with good predictive capacities. We devised a sexual contact network that was calibrated to simulate the Spanish epidemiology of different HPV genotypes. Through this model we simulated the scenario that occurred in Australia in 2007, where 12-13 year-old girls where vaccinated with a three-dose schedule of a vaccine containing genotypes 6 and 11, that protect against genital warts, and also a catch-up program in women up to 26 years of age. Vaccine coverage were 73 % in girls with three doses and with coverage rates decreasing with age until 52 % for 20-26 year-olds. A fast 59 % reduction in the genital warts diagnoses occurred in the model in the first years after the start of the program, similar to what was described in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0993.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: effective tool diameter, milling strategies, tool engagement,
Online: 15 November 2023 (10:04:14 CET)
Nowadays, when milling complex parts or curved surfaces, we encounter several problems that must be taken into account in the production process. There are various factors that affect the quality and accuracy of production. The main objective of this paper was to analyze the size of the effective tool diameter when machining a shaped surface with respect to the selected position, namely at the perpendicular position of the tool. At the same time, the distribution of the engagement area on the tool surface was evaluated by extracting the area content and volume data at the point of contact. The experiment was also intended to highlight the importance of the choice of finishing strategy in a CAM system. The results showed that the tool engagement size corresponded to the extracted data describing the area and volume size for each tool position with respect to the curvature of the surface. The negative deviations obtained by the scanning method were due to machining close to the tool centre, which was affected by the changing effective tool diameter.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1363.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: New strategies for recovery of damaged functions
Online: 20 October 2023 (14:13:54 CEST)
Here in it is described a new genetic microvascular obstructive disease causing progressive hypo-perfusion of human brain, heart and kidney. Since the age of 30 years a male patient developed recurrent angina with normal coronary epicardial vessels but remarkable slow flow at angiography causing cardiac micro-aneurysms that at endomyocardial biopsy were associated to obstructive microvascular dysplasia. His history was followed in the seven decade by micro-hematuria characterized at kidney biopsy by renal microvascular dysplasia and frequent cerebral ischemic attacks with preserved structure of main brain arteries. Analysis of 5,600 genetic disease-causing genes revealed mutation of ABCC6, MMP2 and XYLT1 genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1794.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: maternal care; mortality rate; quality; services; strategies
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:41:31 CEST)
The maternal death rate remains high in South Africa despite the availability of many existing strategies to improve the quality of service. A 30% increase in maternal mortality rate was reported between 2020-2021, with Limpopo ranking fourth highest out of nine provinces. Vhembe district remained number three with a high maternal death rate. This study explored strategies to reduce the maternal death rate and improve the provision of quality maternal healthcare services in selected hospitals of Vhembe district, Limpopo province. One hospital was purposively sampled from every four municipalities. A qualitative approach using phenomenological design was employed. Twenty-eight participants were sampled using a convenience sampling method. The semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data. An audio recorder was also used until data saturation. Data saturation was reached at the 20th participant, but the researcher continued until 28 sampled participants were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used following the analytical stages of interpretative data analysis. The study proposal was ethically cleared by the University of Venda Ethics Committee (FHS/22/PH/08/3108). Results indicate that despite implementing strategies to improve maternal healthcare services and reduce the maternal death rate, several factors, such as lack of material resources, shortage of staff, incompetent staff, and poor infection control, affect the quality of maternal health service in Vhembe district. Limpopo Department of Health and hospital management should ensure that hospitals have all necessary resources and support healthcare professionals through in-service training to ensure the functionality of existing strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0676.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CRE; CRAB; CRPA; multidrug resistance; alternative strategies
Online: 11 July 2023 (07:12:08 CEST)
The global burden of bacterial resistance remains one of the most serious public health concerns. Infections caused by multiresistant (MDR) bacteria in critically ill patients require immediate empirical treatment, which may not only be ineffective due to the resistance of MDR bacteria to multiple classes of antibiotics, but may also contribute to the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Both the WHO and the ECDC consider carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) to be the highest priority. The ability to form biofilm and the acquisition of multiple drug resistance, in particular to carbapenems, have made these pathogens particularly difficult to treat. They are a growing cause of healthcare-associated infections and a significant threat to public health, associated with a high mortality rate. Moreover, co-colonization with these pathogens in critically ill patients was found to be a significant predictor for in-hospital mortality. Importantly, they have the potential to spread resistance using mobile genetic elements. Given the current situation, it is clear that finding new ways to combat antimicrobial resistance can no longer be delayed. The aim of this review was to evaluate the literature on how these pathogens contribute to the global burden of AMR. The review also highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics and the need to implement antimicrobial stewardship principles to prevent the transmission of drug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings. Finally, the review discusses the advantages and limitations of alternative therapies for the treatment of infections caused by these "titans" of antibiotic resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0210.v4
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: option pricing; realistic binomial model, hedging strategies
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:56:07 CEST)
There is no method of predicting the price of an option other than hedging strategies such as the binomial hedging strategy, the Black-Scholes hedging strategy and others. The price of an option is defined to be equal to the amount the seller needs to implement a hedging strategy. We will study these two basic hedging strategies in terms of their feasibility and we will see that the Black-Scholes hedging strategy is not feasible because this strategy demands instantaneously rebuilding the replicating portfolio. Consequently, the real world prices of the options are not relevant at all with the Black-Scholes hedging strategy! We will suitably redefine the binomial hedging strategy so that it will be practically useful and present other feasible and generally more effective hedging strategies with some of them are practically useful for options with no tradable underlying assets. Finally, we will mention some open questions related to the above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Cyberbullying; Knowledge; Education; Learners; Strategies; South Africa
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:17:37 CET)
Many educational institutions are using technology-enhanced learning. However, studies have shown that increased access to technological tools/gadgets is a precursor to incidents of cyberbullying. Using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory, we explored educators’ knowledge and intervention strategies regarding cyberbullying in schools. The design used in this study was qualitative and descriptive in nature. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit a sample of eight educators working at secondary school in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected using one-on-one interviews. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. The findings revealed educators had sufficient knowledge of cyberbullying and how it affects learners in schools. However, interventions the teachers had put in place to prevent and manage incidences of cyberbullying were found to be ineffective due to parental disengagement and learners not reporting cases of cyberbullying. Recommendations for enhancing management of cyberbullying cases are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0377.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: persuasion; persuasion strategies; influence; advertising; advertisements, adobe
Online: 22 August 2022 (07:51:33 CEST)
Modeling what makes an advertisement persuasive, i.e., eliciting the desired response from consumer, is critical to the study of propaganda, social psychology, and marketing. Despite its importance, computational modeling of per- suasion in computer vision is still in its infancy, primarily due to the lack of benchmark datasets that can provide persuasion-strategy labels associated with ads. Motivated by persuasion literature in social psychology and marketing, we introduce an extensive vocabulary of persuasion strategies and build the first ad image corpus annotated with persuasion strategies. We then formulate the task of persuasion strategy prediction with multi-modal learning, where we design a multi-task attention fusion model that can leverage other ad-understanding tasks to predict persuasion strategies. Further, we conduct a real-world case study on 1600 advertising campaigns of 30 Fortune-500 companies where we use our model’s predictions to analyze which strategies work with different demographics (age and gender). The dataset also provides image segmentation masks, which labels persuasion strategies in the corresponding ad images on the test split. We publicly release our code and dataset: https://midas-research.github.io/persuasion-advertisements/
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Self-Regulation Therapy; coping strategies; emotionality; drugs
Online: 7 September 2021 (17:01:06 CEST)
Background: This study consists of a brief psychological intervention, which uses the Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT, procedure based on suggestion and classical conditioning), to improve coping with stress and emotionality by reproducing the positive effects of illegal drugs: cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy. Method: 15 volunteers (8 males, 7 females), with a mean age of 24.67 (SD = 4.43), underwent intervention to improve their coping with stress and emotionality using SRT. They carried out pre- and post-intervention scores for 10 days and during a 4-week fol-low-up. The employed instruments were: COPE (Coping Skills Inventory) and PNAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Results: SRT was superior to non-intervention for the 4 coping strategies (2= .829, .453, .411 and .606) and for positive (2= .371) and negative emotionality (2= .419). An improvement in scores was evidenced in the follow-up scores compared to the pre-intervention measures. Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that it is possible to use illegal drugs, considered harmful to public health, to improve young people’s coping capacity and emotionality by reproducing their positive effects with SRT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Data integration; multi-omics; integration strategies; genomics
Online: 25 January 2021 (16:19:31 CET)
Metabolomics deals with multiple and complex chemical reactions within living organisms and how these are influenced by external or internal perturbations. It lies at the heart of omics profiling technologies not only as the underlying biochemical layer that reflects information expressed by the genome, the transcriptome and the proteome, but also as the closest layer to the phenome. The combination of metabolomics data with the information available from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics offers unprecedented possibilities to enhance current understanding of biological functions, elucidate their underlying mechanisms and uncover hidden associations between omics variables. As a result, a vast array of computational tools have been developed to assist with integrative analysis of metabolomics data with different omics. Here, we review and propose five criteria – hypothesis, data types, strategies, study design and study focus – to classify statistical multi-omics data integration approaches into state-of-the-art classes under which all existing statistical methods fall. The purpose of this review is to look at various aspects that lead the choice of the statistical integrative analysis pipeline in terms of the different classes. We will draw a particular attention to metabolomics and genomics data to assist those new to this field in the choice of the integrative analysis pipeline.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: rational decisions; resilience; coping strategies; annual flood
Online: 20 May 2019 (12:10:26 CEST)
A rational decision is a systematic and logical way of making a resolution. It is needed in critical situation, especially the unavoidable ones such as annual floods. People affected by this natural disaster, continue living their lives if good rational decisions are made. The current research consists of two studies. The first identifies rational decisions based on age, education, socio-economic and gender, while the second is based on decisions associated with resilience, coping strategies and age. A total number of 354 participants from various cities in East Java were used as participants of the study. The results in the first study, 58% of the people made good rational decisions, with the remaining 42% making low decisions. Furthermore, education was found to significantly influence the decision making process. The second study found a significant relationship between the resilience, coping strategies, age with the rational decisions. Conclusion of the study will be used make better decisions for the community in order to minimize physical and psychological impacts.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: orthodox soil science, alternative practices, corrective strategies
Online: 26 March 2019 (09:43:00 CET)
In Australia, orthodox soil scientists and alternative practitioners who promote ‘regenerative agriculture’ have not been communicating and engaging effectively with each other. Over many years scientists in CSIRO, state departments and universities have made significant achievements in mapping soil distribution, describing soil behaviour and identifying key soil properties and processes that are fundamental to healthy soil function. However, many alternative practitioners are dismissive of these achievements and highly critical of orthodox soil science. Yet many of the tools of soil science are essential to conduct evidence-based research towards elucidating how and why the exceptional results claimed by some alternative practitioners are achieved. We stress the importance of effective engagement and communication among all parties to resolve this ‘clash of cultures’.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: natural products; biosynthetic gene clusters; synthetic biology; genome mining strategies; modification strategies; design-build-test-learn (DBTL) cycle
Online: 8 October 2021 (09:10:02 CEST)
A wide variety of bacteria, fungi and plants can produce bioactive secondary metabolites, which are often referred to as natural products. With the rapid development of DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics, a large number of putative biosynthetic gene clusters have been reported. However, only a few natural products can be detected when isolated species are grown under conventional laboratory conditions, as most biosynthetic gene clusters are not expressed or are expressed at extremely low levels at these conditions. With the rapid development of synthetic biology, advanced genome mining and modification strategies have been reported, and they provide new opportunities for discovery of natural products. This review discusses advances in recent years that can accelerate the design, build, test, and learn (DBTL) cycle of natural product discovery, and prospects trends and key challenges for future research directions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; biofilms; planktonic; antibiotic resistance; extra polymeric substance; abiotic/biotic adhesion; dispersion; clinical treatment strategies; anti-biofilm strategies
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:41:48 CEST)
Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that infects nearly half of the global population and is recognized as a group 1 carcinogen by the Word Health Organization. The global rise in antibiotic resistance has increased clinical challenges in treating H. pylori infections. Biofilm growth has been proposed to contribute to H. pylori’s chronic colonization of the host stomach, treatment failures, and the eventual development of gastric diseases. Several components of H. pylori have been identified to promote biofilm growth, and several of these may also facilitate antibiotic tolerance, including the extracellular matrix, outer membrane proteins, the coccoid morphology, modulated metabolism, efflux pumps, and virulence factors. Recent developments in therapeutic approaches targeting H. pylori biofilm have shown that synthetic compounds, such as small molecule drugs and plant-derived compounds, are effective at eradicating H. pylori biofilms. These combined topics highlight the necessity for biofilm-based research in H. pylori, to improve current H. pylori targeted therapeutic approaches and alleviate relative public health burden. In this review we discuss recent discoveries that have decoded the life cycle of H. pylori biofilms and current biofilm targeted treatment strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HIV; anatomical reservoirs; nervous system; persistence; cure strategies
Online: 6 November 2023 (11:31:26 CET)
There is currently no cure for HIV infection although adherence to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses replication of the virus in blood, increases CD4+ T-cell counts, reverses immunodeficiency, and increases life expectancy. Despite these substantial advances, ART is a lifelong treatment for people with HIV (PWH) and upon cessation or interruption, the virus quickly rebounds in plasma and anatomic sites including the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in disease progression. With recent advances in quantifying viral burden, detection of genetically intact viral genomes, and isolation of replication-competent virus from brain tissues of PWH receiving ART, it has become apparent that the CNS viral reservoir (largely comprised of macrophage type cells) poses a substantial challenge for HIV cure strategies. Other obstacles impacting the cure of HIV include ageing populations, substance use, comorbidities, limited antiretroviral drug efficacy in CNS cells and ART-associated neurotoxicity. Herein, we review recent findings including studies of the proviral integration sites, reservoir decay rates, and new treatment/prevention strategies in the context of the CNS, together with highlighting the next steps for investigations of the CNS as a viral reservoir.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0245.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Complex network; Epidemic threshold; Global stability; Control Strategies
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:40:19 CET)
The stability and optimal control for an SIS epidemic model with demographics and heterogeneous control strategies (immunization and quarantine) on complex networks are investigated. The epidemic threshold, disease-free and endemic equilibria are derived. Then, global asymptotical stability about the two equilibria are studied based on different methods. Furthermore, the optimal control issue about the system is also considered. We obtain the existence and uniqueness of the optimal control and optimal control tactics. Some numerical simulations were conducted to illustrate and supplement the theoretical results. Meanwhile, the effects of the combination of various immunization and quarantine schemes are studied and also compared with the optimal control strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1975.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: foreign language learning; language learning strategies; iconic gestures
Online: 31 October 2023 (03:02:46 CET)
This review paper investigates the influence of gestures on foreign language (FL) vocabulary learning through a series of experiments conducted in our laboratory. The manipulation of the gesture-word relationship was a consistent factor across the studies. Firstly, we examined the impact of gestures on noun and verb learning. The results revealed that participants exhibited better learning outcomes when FL words were accompanied by congruent gestures compared to a no gesture condition. This suggests that gestures have a positive effect on FL learning when there is a meaningful connection between the words and the accompanying gestures. However, in general, the recall of words in conditions where gestures were incongruent or lacked meaning was lower than in the no gesture condition. This indicates that under certain circumstances, gestures may have a detrimental impact on FL learning. We analyzed these findings in terms of their implications for facilitating or interfering with FL acquisition. Secondly, we addressed the question of whether individuals need to physically perform the gestures themselves to observe the effects of gestures on vocabulary learning. To explore this, participants were divided into two experimental groups. In one group, participants learned the words by actively performing the gestures ("do" learning group), while the other group simply observed the gestures performed by others ("see" learning group). The processing of congruent gestures facilitated the recall of FL words in both the "see" and "do" learning groups. However, the interference effect associated with processing incongruent gestures was more pronounced in the "see" learning group than in the "do" learning group. Thus, the performance of gestures appears to mitigate the negative impact that gestures may have on the acquisition of FL vocabulary. In conclusion, our findings suggest that iconic gestures can serve as an effective tool for learning vocabulary in a FL, particularly when the gestures align with the meaning of the words. Furthermore, the active performance of gestures helps counteract the negative effects associated with inconsistencies between gestures and word meanings. Consequently, if a choice must be made, a FL learning strategy in which learners acquire words while making gestures congruent with their meaning would be highly desirable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1932.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: coping strategies; neuropsychology; interventions; stress pathways; clinical settings
Online: 30 October 2023 (12:54:28 CET)
The primary focus of this review is to explore the application and significance of coping strategies within the domains of clinical psychology and neuropsychology. These strategies consist of a variety of techniques, behaviors, and cognitive interventions, and their critical role in reinforcing resilience and facilitating adaptive responses to stressors has been highlighted. At the core of this exploration, the intricate neuropsychological relationship between brain stress pathways and the application of coping mechanisms has been analyzed. The neural aspects of stress, and how they can be influenced by adaptive strategies, are detailed, illustrating the profound impact these coping mechanisms have at a neurobiological level. Delving into the neuropsychological underpinnings, this review will shed light on how stress response pathways in the brain interact with, and can be modulated by, various coping strategies. These mechanisms are particularly salient when addressing the multifaceted challenges faced by individuals with neuropsychological or mental health issues. While these strategies span a broad spectrum, from introspection and cognitive reframing to behavioral activation and social support seeking, their integration and application remain diverse within clinical contexts. This review endeavors to elucidate the theoretical underpinnings of these strategies, their empirical support, and their practical implications within therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, the intricate interplay between individualized coping techniques and structured therapeutic methodologies will be examined, emphasizing the potential for a holistic treatment paradigm, thereby enhancing therapeutic outcomes and fostering individual resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1511.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: feeding strategies; food webs; native species; trophic niche
Online: 24 October 2023 (09:39:44 CEST)
Background: Understanding the trophic ecology of threatened freshwater fishes is relevant to managing their conservation. The genus Orestias is endemic to the Andes region and shows great biogeographical interest in the Neotropics due to its adaptation to the high-altitude systems of the Andes as well as because several species are considered threatened. (2) Methods: Here, we synthesize the documented trophic interaction of Orestias spp. in freshwater ecosystems of the Andes region available in the literature and use available data to explore the trophic interaction of Orestias species via null models. (3) Results: Our findings showed that Orestias spp. consume a wide range of prey (i.e., mainly aquatic insects, crustaceans, and mollusks) that varied according to their habitats and feeding morphology. The null model revealed that species associations in diet were random because of the presence of many repeated species. Our results would reveal that some Orestias spp. may show an opportunistic feeding strategy that concurs with previous reports. Additionally, we highlight major information gaps associated with the trophic ecology of Orestias spp. and propose some direction for future studies. (4): Our study provides valuable in-formation on Orestias spp. trophic ecology, which may be useful for developing conservation strategies for native fish in the Neotropical region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1352.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change, mitigation strategies, crops, biochar, biostimulants, soil
Online: 19 July 2023 (12:01:13 CEST)
In recent days, the adverse effect of climate change on soil properties in the agriculture sector is a dreadful reality worldwide. Climate change-induced abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought and temperature fluctuations are devastating the crops’ physiological responses, productivity and overall yield which is ultimately posing a serious threat to global food security and agroecosystems. The applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides contribute towards further deterioration and rapid change in climate. Therefore, more careful, eco-friendly and sustainable strategies are required to mitigate the impact of climate-induced damage on agriculture sector. This paper reviews the recently reported damaging impacts of abiotic stresses on various crops along with two emerging mitigation strategies; biochar and biostimulants, in light of recent studies for combating the worsening impact of deteriorated environment and climate change on crops physiological responses, yields, soil properties, and environment. Here we highlighted the impact of climate change on agriculture and soil properties along with recently emerging mitigation strategies applying biochar and biostimulants, towards protecting the soil, agriculture and environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0224.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Climate change; contract farming; coping; adaptation strategies; Zimbabwe
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:27:58 CEST)
The literature on contract farming and climate change in Zimbabwe has blind spots in relation to the study of contract farming as a climate change response. While the literature on contract farming and climate change abounds, such literature is lacking when it comes to the exploration of how contract farming can facilitate climate change coping and adaptation strategies by smallholder farmers. This paper fills this gap. It draws on in-depth interviews with 10 contracted and 10 non-contract farmers who were engaged through face-to-face in-depth interviews in the Chipinge South Constituency. It found that contract farming does not only boost productivity, but it also enables farmers to positively respond to the ravages of climate change, and therefore, it should be supported and encouraged. Future research should explore more viable and sustainable way through which the state, instead of private sector actors, should be at the centre of contract farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: gamification methodology; teaching strategies; online teaching; chemical engineering
Online: 16 May 2022 (04:08:16 CEST)
As consequence of the digital transformation, e-learning methodologies have become an inseparable part of the standard classes in schools and universities, assuming an increasingly significant role in compensating for the difficulties resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Numerous pedagogical methodologies and strategies can be easily implemented in high education, promoting students’ motivation and interest in learning. This research study analyses the implementation of gamification pedagogical strategy on 50-60 undergraduate chemical engineering students at the university, by evaluating its effect on the success rate on a specific topic of Chemical Reactions Engineering subject and the motivation effect for the following topics. Our results show a significant positive effect of the gamification strategy on university lectures, increasing up to 25-30 % of the success ratio with an apparent motivation effect. During the subsequent years, the changes in the lifestyle of study also play a role in students’ performance. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate case studies such as the one presented here to understand better the use of these pedagogical methods and strategies in high education, especially in technical subjects described in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: raw materials; supply chain; logistics planning; logistics strategies
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:21:56 CEST)
Raw material logistics reflects an important aspect of global trade. Raw materials form an essential basis for society, for daily life, and range from apples to zinc. This paper addresses the analysis and optimization of supply chains of raw materials in terms of their economic viability and their sustainability. Type representatives are chosen according to annual transported quantities. Hard coal represents bulk goods, aluminum primary raw materials with medium quantities, and rare earths primary raw materials with small quantities. Their respective supply chains are analyzed and subsequently possible strategies and methods and their application are discussed. The paper shows for the first time that the selection and application of optimization priorities (e.g. profitability or sustainability) depends on the primary raw material and its integration into global production chains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Anti-MDR strategies; anti-persistent treatments; drug repurposing
Online: 25 December 2019 (09:33:57 CET)
Antibiotic failure is one of the most worrying health problems worldwide. Nowadays we are facing an international crisis where several issues are involved: new antibiotics are not being discovered any longer, resistance mechanisms become spread in nearly every clinical isolate of bacteria and the appearance of recurrent infections caused by persistent bacteria complicates the overcoming of infections. In this context, it has been explored new anti-infectious strategies against MDR and persistent bacteria as well as the rescue of FDA-approved compounds (drug repurposing). Among the highlighted new anti-infectious strategies we find anti-microbial peptides, anti-virulence compounds, phage therapy and new molecules. On the other hand, as drugs of repurposing that have been described, we have anti-inflammatory compounds, anti-psychotics, anti-helmintic drugs, anti-cancerous and statins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: anxiety; COPD; coping strategies; corticosteroid; depression; rehabilomics; rs471396
Online: 8 July 2019 (03:36:21 CEST)
Background: COPD is characterized by dyspnea, chronic cough, sputum production and extra pulmonary multimorbidity including depression, anxiety and cognitive problems. Methods: Cognitive and psychological clinical alterations/disorders; QoL/Health-related QoL; and Coping strategies were evaluated in 71 COPD patients characterized for FKBP5 gene (rs4713916). Instruments: MMSE, MoCA, ROCF, BDI-II, CES-D, SAS, SF-36, ADL, IADL, SGRQ, MRF 26, CIRS, Brief COPE. Results: Carriers of the rs4713916 polymorphisms (G:A) show better cognitive performances, higher degree of independence in the ADL and IADL, better QoL before and after rehabilitation, no presence of depressive mood and anxiety symptoms, no family history of psychiatric disorder, more ability to cope with stressors by avoiding emotions but demanding emotional support, and lesser use of anti-anxiety, anti-depressant anti-psychotic, hypnotic-sedative drugs. On the other hand, no difference was found as regards the number of comorbidities. Conclusions: Our study shows that rs4713916 is positively associated with better outcome for COPD. These results offer valuable insights into the role of FKBP5 in the complex network of mechanisms associated to clinical and behavioral features of COPD patients.. Our data may be used as initial benchmark for future clinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: drought; coffee farmers; adaptation; coping strategies; central highlands
Online: 28 December 2018 (07:00:52 CET)
Vietnam is the second largest coffee producer in the world, mostly from the Central Highlands region where water has been becoming a scarce resource. Since 2014, drought has been strongly affecting Central Highlands’ agriculture, particularly coffee production. The drought leads to changes in flowering, ripening and thus harvesting times of coffee. Coffee productivity has reduced about 50 percent. Ultimately, coffee quantity and quality is jeopardized which endangers coffee farmers who occupy 90 per cent of population and their livelihoods mainly rely on coffee. Most of coffee farmers have had to develop alternative strategies to respond to the drought. Based on quantitative and qualitative data collected from 50 coffee households in a community in the Central Highlands, this research has indicated that farmers had to find the ways to adapt as well as to cope with drought. The ways of adaptation and coping were diverse, including short, medium and long-term plans. To strengthen the adaptation and coping strategies of farmers with drought in the short term, it is recommended that authorities provide more technical and financial support to farmers. Furthermore, longer term strategies need to focus on land use planning, investment in irrigation schemes, and consolidated afforestation schemes in appropriate areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: coping strategies; children; imprisoned parents; interventions; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2017 (06:14:31 CEST)
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk for health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This review aims to describe current knowledge on children who have imprisoned parents in a global context and highlight areas for additional research. This review highlights the coping strategies that children of imprisoned parents use and explore interventions that exist to support children of imprisoned parents. This review employed a qualitative narrative synthesis. The database search yielded 1989 articles, of which 11 met inclusion and quality criteria. Stigmatizing children due to parental imprisonment was a widespread problem. Children’s coping strategies included maintaining distance from the imprisoned parent, normalizing the parent’s situation and taking better control over their lives through distraction, sports, supportive people and therapy. Children received the best support in school-based interventions or mentoring programmes. The overall low quality of the included studies indicates a need for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1249.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: jealousy; partner retention strategies; romantic relationship; age; relationship length
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:06:42 CEST)
Jealousy and mate retention have received attention in the research over the last decades. Despite this, most of the research examined male jealousy and male mate retention, emphasizing cost-inflicting behavior due to its role in relationship and domestic violence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between jealousy and all mate retention strategies in romantic relationship among women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 772 Croatian women aged 19 to 40 who were in a heterosexual relationship at the time. The study was conducted online, and the participants completed the Multidimensional jealousy scale and Mate Retention Inventory. The results showed that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral jealousy are positively correlated with all mate retention strategies which indicate that a stronger experience of jealousy can be expected to result in more frequent use of all partner retention strategies. We also found that all three dimensions of jealousy and relationship length positively predicted both cost-inflicting and benefit-provisioning mate retention behavior, whereas age was a negative predictor of benefit-provisioning behavior only. Findings of this study suggest that although jealousy can substantially explain interpersonally risky and damaging behavior in relationships, it can also explain affectionate and attentive behavior to some extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1660.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water; water accessibility; water system; resilient; coping strategies; households.
Online: 25 September 2023 (08:15:25 CEST)
Calabar is a city where 65 per cent of people are living in poverty in informal settlements with low and decreasing access to improved water. In the low-income informal areas of the city, residents are being made responsible for securing their own water supply through several coping strategies. This paper explores the decreasing access to water and coping strategies to shortage in Calabar, Nigeria. It analyses two complementary pieces of data: (i) the households’ coping strategies and (ii) satisfaction with improved water services. A mixed method was introduced and data was collected via fieldwork at three settlements in Calabar. A household survey of 360 respondents, 27 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups were conducted. Findings show that households engaged in different coping strategies to access water, including conservation (changing routine/reusing), purchasing (spent a significant proportion of their income on buying water) and pumping as a coping strategy. The household's tenure, socioeconomic status and water accessibility determines their decision to move if services are not provided. A crucial differentiation exists between a larger population being granted less access to water versus certain individuals receiving access to a greater quantity of water.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0186.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Inherited Retinal Dystrophies; Retinitis Pigmentosa; therapeutic strategies; cell therapies
Online: 4 September 2023 (11:29:44 CEST)
Retinitis Pigmentosa, defined more properly as rod-cone dystrophy, is the paradigm of diffuse inherited retinal dystrophies, one of the rare diseases with the highest prevalence in the worldwide population and one of the main causes of low vision in pediatric and elderly age groups. Advancement and understanding in molecular biology and gene editing technologies raised the interest in putting the basis for new therapeutic strategies in rare diseases. As a consequence, new possibilities for clinicians and patients are arising due to the feasibility of treating such a devastating disorder reducing its complications. The scope of this review is to focus on the pathomolecular mechanisms underlying RP better to understand the prospective for its treatment with innovative approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; Fibrosis; Cirrhosis; Strategies
Online: 15 June 2023 (10:52:41 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become globally prevalent and is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. Although NAFLD is reversible in the early stage without medical intervention, the condition could be sequentially worsened to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in the end, cirrhosis and hepatic cancer. The progression of NAFLD is related to various factors such as genetics, pre-disposed metabolic disorders, and immunologic factors. Because of the complexity of the disease, the treatment options are very limited, and, unfortunately, there is yet no clinically available drug. Thankfully, to date, there have been accumulating research efforts and, as a result, different classes of potent drug candidates have been discovered. Besides, there have also been various attempts to explore pharmaceutical strategies to make the drug candidates to be better drugs. In this review, we provided a brief overview of the drug candidates that have undergone clinical trials. In the latter part, the strategies for developing better drugs are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Ankaful Prison Complex; depression; inmates; management strategies; stress levels
Online: 20 January 2023 (04:21:00 CET)
Background: Stress among prison inmates is a neglected psychological health issues, but this phenomenon seems worse in Ghana’s prisons. This study examined the stress levels, predictors and management strategies utilized among inmates at Ankaful Prison Complex. Method: This survey sampled 1,160 inmates using the census approach at the Ankaful Prison Complex with a self-developed questionnaire for the data collection. Frequency counts, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to the data. Results: The findings indicate that more than half of the inmates were moderately or highly stressed. Specifically, inmates at the Maximum-Security Prison were the most stressed, followed by Annex Prison, Communicable Disease Prison, and the least, Main Camp Prison inmates. Inmate engagement in exercises, sporting activities, visit and chat with colleagues, and family connectedness outside the prison were stress management strategies. Inmates’ self-reported stress levels were influenced by the prison of custody and state of depression. Conclusion: The moderate to high stress levels identified among inmates of Ankaful Prison Complex are influenced by person-environment factors. Management of Ankaful Prisons Complex is encouraged to initiate health screening services for inmates on common mental health challenges like stress and promote functional stress reduction interventions to improve prisoners’ mental health and overall wellbeing
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS CoV-2; Variants; Epidemiology; Treatment Plans; Preventive Strategies
Online: 26 December 2022 (15:48:43 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 which induces severe pneumonia that has considerable death rate. In this article, we summarised the evolution of SARS CoV-2 from alpha to omicron variant. The origin, transmission capability, and innate immunity potential of the Omicron variety remain unknown in the aftermath of its appearance. It's also unclear whether further varieties based on Omicron may emerge in the future. However, there is no question that the Omicron version of SARS-CoV-2 would not be the last. The COVID-19 pandemic has become more difficult to control due to the constant appearance of new SARS-CoV-2 mutations. We have discussed about the epidemiology, treatment plans for SARS CoV-2 and preventive strategies for future pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0435.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Federated Learning Strategies; Relational-Regularized Autoencoder; Time-Series Classification
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:06:58 CEST)
Increasingly measured data in the context of smart cities can be used to develop new and innovative business models to increase efficiency and the value of life. A time-series classification algorithm can support to automatize many different processes such as forecasting services. In order to ensure data security and privacy, Federated Learning trains a global model collaboratively on multiple clients. Having different data-distributions and data-quantities across participating clients, neural networks suffer from slow convergence and overfitting. Based on different data-distributions, data-quantities and number of clients, we develop and evaluate different data-clustering strategies to update global model weights in comparison to the state of the art. We use public time-series data, generate various synthetic datasets and train a Relational-Regularized Autoencoder for classification purposes. Our results show an improvement of model performance concerning generalization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant Pathogen; Biocontrol; Microbes; AMF; Bacteriophages; Microbiome; Sustainable strategies
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:45:32 CET)
Food security has become a major concern worldwide in recent years due to ever increasing population. Providing food for the growing billions without disturbing environmental balance is incessantly required in the current scenario. In view of this, sustainable modes of agricultural practices offer better promise and hence are gaining prominence recently. Moreover, these methods have taken precedence currently over chemical-based methods of pest restriction and pathogen control. Adoption of Biological Control is one such crucial technique that is currently in the forefront. Over a period of time, various biocontrol strategies have been experimented with and some have exhibited great success and promise. This review highlights the different methods of plant-pathogen control, types of plant pathogens, their modus operandi and various biocontrol approaches employing a range of microorganisms and their byproducts. The study lays emphasis on the use of upcoming methodologies like microbiome management and engineering, phage cocktails, genetically modified biocontrol agents and microbial volatilome as available strategies to sustainable agricultural practices. More importantly, a critical analysis of the various methods enumerated in the paper indicates the need to amalgamate these techniques in order to improve the degree of biocontrol offered by them.
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Patents; Plant Breeders Rights; IPR laws; Traditional Knowledge; Strategies
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:11:16 CEST)
This paper discusses the bioethics of intellectual property (IP) and intellectual property rights (IPR) applicable to biotechnology-based IP. It outlines some of the laws that are related to IPR in Zimbabwe and globally. The paper additionally highlights gaps, opportunities and concerns with the laws. Finally, the paper highlights some initiatives already underway in Zimbabwe targeted at promoting entrepreneurship, commercialization and industrialization while proposing strategies that can be used to further promote the generation and granting of biotechnology-related IP and IPR in Zimbabwe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0547.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Developing countries; Environmental Impact Assessment; Rapid urbanization; Smart strategies
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:01:36 CEST)
One of the main drivers behind the urbanization process is attributed to economic fundamentals of urban growth, which boost migration from rural to urban context. This migration can be studied geographically, with increasing rates of population as the main component in developing countries, over Asia and Africa, specifically. Research has been focusing in creating models and adaptative schemes to manage and plan cities to promote sustainable development for housing large quantities of population and preserve a long-term living environment. The approach from a smart city perspective, adjusted to the rapid urbanization condition can be helpful to deal urban issues by convergence and interaction between urban agents and information technology. At academia, few works have addressed the role of Smart Cities to face the challenge of rapid urbanization. The aim of this study is to research and analyze if strategies with smart city vision can lessen environmental impacts at cases with rapid urbanization, and how can we leverage technology to promote environmental sustainability at rapid urbanization phenomena occurring at developing countries using RIAM environmental assessment method in the case of Beijing, China'.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0639.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID 19; response strategies; African continent; pandemic; innovative solutions
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:53:22 CET)
The ongoing crisis of COVID-19 pandemic that swept across the world, poses serious challenges on health delivery systems particularly in developing countries. In Africa however, the crisis rather inspires and sparks creativity and innovation at the national, institutional, organizational, and individual levels. This paper unravels Africa’s response mechanisms to the virus that might have relatively contributed to the low infection rate of the pandemic within the continent. Some criteria are adopted to assess and assemble the most influential government policies and home-grown innovations from various African countries and territories within the continent. It is found that, some of the innovations do not only help in combating the virus, but also have socio-economic benefits as they substantially complement government efforts in easing the burden of the citizenry as they cope with preventive protocols imposed on them. This study will be helpful in identifying the most significant home-based innovations that can be improved and used to reduce health delivery crises within the continent even after COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0178.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: strategies; design; footwear industry; structural equation model; competitive edge
Online: 13 December 2019 (05:27:06 CET)
The potential of Thai industrial product design is still inferior to those of leading competitors in world market that give more importance on the design during their product development to increase their competitive edges on commercial scale. The product design is very important part for sustainable growth in this industry. Thus, this research aims at investigating footwear design strategies for Thai footwear industry to be excellence in world market. The research has been designed with the mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative study. The quantitative data were collected through semi-structure interview from 500 designers who presented their designs to join the award competition. The results revealed that the footwear design strategies consisted of 4 factors, i.e. 1) design, 2) market analysis, 3) innovation, and 4) information technology. This paper utilizes the method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to establish a strategies model for competitive advantage in Thai footwear industry. The analysis results indicated that the footwear design strategies model could help make more effective policies and organization strategies for enterprises and designers to develop themselves to be excellence in world market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: ESL Reading; ELLs; reading strategies; reading aloud; silent reading
Online: 10 December 2019 (06:45:51 CET)
Research has shown that second language reading is the bridge that leads to developing otherlanguage skills such as speaking, writing, and vocabulary acquisition. Hence, the present studyaimed to explore adult language learners’ perspectives regarding the most effective andbeneficial reading strategies that can be used to develop their reading competency. Using aqualitative research method, the study examined what specific reading strategies languagelearners believe is effective in developing their reading skills. Analysis of the focus groupsrevealed five different reading strategies mentioned by the participants. These strategies were:Reading Aloud, Silent Reading, Shared Reading, Scanning or Skimming, and Timed Reading. Findings suggest that understanding the use of different reading strategies is important, solanguage teachers need to devote more learning time to introduce reading strategies during ESL classes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biotechnologies; marine bacteria; secondary metabolites; nonribosomal biosynthesis; antibacterial strategies
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:15:50 CEST)
The highly dangerous trend of escalating bacterial resistance to modern antibiotics has evolved in recent decades, with increasingly more drug-resistant strains of pathogens emerging and spreading each year. This poses a threat to not only public health, but also to entire mankind. Marine bioresources, considered as a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics and a valuable source of biologically active compounds with high pharmacological potential, now attract increasing attention of researchers. Modern biotechnology combines the genetic engineering methods and the unusual biosynthetic pathways utilized by marine microorganisms to produce natural antibiotics. The goal of this review is to summarize the latest trends in searching for new natural antimicrobial agents based on secondary metabolites of marine bacteria. The targeted control of biosynthesis mechanisms using the metabolic engineering methods in order to create hybrid peptide synthetases or to obtain hybrid peptides by disrupting the target gene of nonribosomal synthesis becomes a noteworthy trend in modern biotechnology. This pathway is not only one of the most promising approaches to the development of new antibiotics, but also a potential target for controlling the exocrine activity of pathogenic bacteria and, consequently, their viability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1994.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: selection, timing; capital allocation; evolutionary strategies; dynamic decision making; optimization
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:12:11 CET)
Among the plethora of financial management tools available, stock investments stand out as the most recognizable and widely accepted option. However, investors often make buying and selling decisions based on unverified information provided by stock analysts. Since the credibility of this information remains uncertain, it frequently results in investment losses. Ordinary investors relying solely on rumors often miss out on prime opportunities for buying and selling stocks. In the current volatile investment landscape, various investment strategies cater to different situations. If individuals can effectively identify opportunities within this complex environment and dynamically adapt suitable investment strategies at any given time, substantial returns can be achieved. The ability of investors to promptly detect shifts in the current stock market environment and make accurate decisions regarding stock selection, timing, and capital allocation strategies is of utmost importance. This study presents a dynamic framework for investment decision support, which utilizes evolutionary strategies to determine the optimal timing for key strategic tools such as stock selection, timing, and capital allocation. By leveraging historical data for training and testing, this approach aims to assist investors in adapting to the ever-changing stock market environment. If investors can successfully identify and implement an appropriate investment strategy to aid in making accurate decisions, it is possible to achieve significant excess returns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1426.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: personality types; coping strategies; perceived coping efficacy; academic stress; gender
Online: 20 July 2023 (13:02:49 CEST)
Some evidence suggests that personality types are a useful construct to understand stress and coping. However, further research is needed, especially on academic stress. Our aim was to explore how personality types and gender relate to coping strategies for academic stress and perceived coping efficacy. A total of 810 university psychology students completed the NEO-FFI Inventory and the Coping Strategies Inventory. Post-hoc tests for MANOVA and ANOVA were performed, where personality types and gender were treated as predictors and use of coping strategies and perceived coping efficacy as criteria. Finally, a one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc comparisons was performed to analyse the associations between personality types and perceived coping efficacy. Those with personality types combining low neuroticism with high conscientiousness chose the most adaptive coping strategies and showed the highest levels of perceived coping efficacy, while those whose personality types combined high neuroticism with low conscientiousness opted for maladaptive coping strategies and presented the lowest level of perceived coping efficacy. As for gender, women chose emotional expression more frequently. The personality type classification provided useful information on individual differences in coping with academic stress, which can help guide specific strategies to manage it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Rosacea; inflammation; inflammatory skin disease; pathogenesis; therapeutic strategies; treatment options
Online: 6 July 2023 (09:02:30 CEST)
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by recurrent erythema, flushing, telangiectasia, papules, pustules, and phymatous changes in the central area of the face. Patients with this condition often experience a significant negative impact on their quality of life, self-esteem, and overall well-being. Despite its prevalence, the pathogenesis of rosacea is not yet fully understood. Recent research advances are reshaping our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of rosacea, and treatment options based on the pathophysiological perspective hold promise to improve patient outcomes and reduce incidence. In this comprehensive review, we investigate the pathogenesis of rosacea in-depth, with a focus on emerging and novel mechanisms, and provide an up-to-date overview of therapeutic strategies that target the diverse pathogenic mechanisms of rosacea. Lastly, we discuss potential future research directions aimed at enhancing our understanding of the condition and developing effective treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Biofilm formation; Biomaterials; Antibiotic resistance mechanisms; Biofilm infection; Antibiofilm strategies
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:03:39 CEST)
Bacterial biofilms can cause widespread infection. In addition to causing urinary tract infections and pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, biofilms can help microorganisms adhere to the surfaces of various medical devices, causing biofilm-associated infections on the surfaces of biomaterials such as venous ducts, joint prostheses, mechanical heart valves, and catheters. Biofilms provide a protective barrier for bacteria and provide resistance to antimicrobial agents, which increases the morbidity and mortality of patients. This review introduces the formation process and drug resistance mechanism of biofilms in detail, and further summarizes the main characteristics of clinical persistent infection caused by biofilms and the many methods of treating biomaterial-related biofilm. This provides ideas and directions for the development of new biofilm infection strategies related to therapeutic materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0697.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Marketing Strategies; Adoption; diffusion; organizational resilience; social platforms; products; services
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:41:42 CEST)
This paper explores the relationships between marketing strategies, social media platforms, the adoption and diffusion of products and services, and organizational resilience to gain an understanding of the ability of organizations to cope with disruptive events (e.g., COVID-19). This can be achieved through effective marketing strategies and the efficient use of social media platforms. In fact, resilience thinking can help organizations maintain their operations by increasing the adoption and diffusion of their products and services through the use of effective marketing strategies. To achieve this article’s objectives, a literature review is conducted to help develop a conceptual framework that highlights a clear relationship between the previously discussed concepts. In addition, the novel nature of the relationship between marketing strategies and organizational resilience is dissected and its significance for organizations is demonstrated. In fact, the findings of this study suggest that effective marketing strategies that consider the "what," "who," and "how" dichotomies and the efficient use of social media to promote the adoption and diffusion of products and services can significantly enhance the resilience of organizations. These relationships can serve as a starting point for further studies examining and empirically analyzing marketing strategies and their positive effect on strengthening organizational resilience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1565.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Data Strategies and learning approaches; Challenges and Opportunities; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:37:17 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more prevalent across industries as diverse as healthcare, finance, and transportation. Artificial intelligence is based on the analysis of large data sets and requires a continuous supply of high-quality data. However, using data for AI is not without its challenges. This paper comprehensively reviews and critically examine the challenges of using data for AI, including data quality, data volume, privacy and security, bias and fairness, interpretability and explainability, ethical concern, and technical expertise and skills. This paper examines e these challenges in details and offers advices on how companies can address them. By understanding and addressing these challenges, organizations can harness the power of AI to make smarter decisions and gain a competitive advantage in the digital age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal Depression; Attachment Style; Coping Strategies; Gender Medicine; Women Health
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:42:26 CEST)
Abstract Peripartum depression (PPD) is a major complication of pregnancy and many risk factors have been associated with its development, including dysfunctional coping strategies and insecure attachment styles, both during pregnancy and postpartum. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of coping strategies in mediating the relationship between women’s attachment style and PPD in pregnancy, and one week after childbirth, in a large cohort of women. We hypothesized that the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and PPD would be mediated by use of maladaptive coping strategies. The assessment instruments were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE), Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR). The results indicated that the effect of insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant attachment) on antepartum depressive symptomatology was partially mediated by dysfunctional coping styles. Anxious attachment has also an indirect significant effect on postpartum depression through emotional coping; however, avoidant attachment does not seem to be significantly related to postpartum depression. Our findings revealed that not only it is important to consider attachment in understanding PPD but also that coping plays an important role in these relationships. These findings would help a preventive coping-based intervention strategy to enhance the capacity of women with insecure attachment styles to use more adaptive coping during and after pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1442.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; co-infection; secondary infection; multidrug resistance; alternative strategies
Online: 19 May 2023 (12:02:20 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a potentially serious acute respiratory infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, the virus has spread to more than 200 countries with more than 500 million cases and more than 6 million deaths reported globally. It has long been known that viral respiratory tract infections predispose patients to bacterial infections and that these co-infections often have an unfavourable clinical outcome. Moreover, nosocomial infections, also known as health care-associated infections (HAIs), are those infections that are absent at the time of admission and acquired after hospitalization. However, the impact of coinfections or secondary infections on the progression of COVID-19 disease and its lethal outcome is still debated. The aim of this review was to assess the literature on the incidence of bacterial co-infections and superinfections in patients with COVID-19. The review also highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics in patients with COVID-19 and the need to implement antimicrobial stewardship principles to prevent the transmission of drug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings. Finally, alternative antimicrobial agents to counter the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections in COVID-19 patients will also be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0113.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; daylighting simulation; radiative exchanges; design strategies; healthy architecture
Online: 12 April 2022 (12:24:36 CEST)
The beneficial effects of solar radiation on human health are well documented. One necessary mechanism triggers the production of vitamin D whose insufficiency has been linked to a variety of disorders like diabetes, hypertension and more recently amyloidosis and Alzheimer disease. However, there are few architectural designs capable on ensuring adequate provision of solar radiation inside buildings. Conventional fenestration is not sufficient to provide for significant doses of sunlight even to prevent seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this paper we discuss the effect of new design alternatives for skylights, especially in the refurbishment of obsolete facilities. After such complex retrofit is executed, we have analyzed the performance of a building in warm and sunny climates as is the case of southern Spain. It has been considered as a priority the study of the factors that relate sunlight and energy, as well as, to a certain extent, other aspects like ventilation and insulation. Many architectural designs are presented as correct if the thermal requirements alone are met, even at the risk of later energy waste in lighting devices and visual or physical discomfort. On the other hand, large glazed areas allow more daylight into a space, but they may also allow excessive heat gains or losses which increase the air-conditioning cooling or heating load. To avoid these problems, we have considered the combined effect of daylight and energy from the beginning of the skylight design-process. A daylighting software based on configuration factors that we have apply in former researches to study the problems of direct sun over architectural structures have been used. This question cannot be treated adequately with conventional programs for overcast skies. The skylights have already been constructed and on-site measurements in the offices have been taken to complement the computer simulations data. The results show that it is possible to achieve energy saving and high radiation levels in winter without increasing heat loads during the summer. All this is considered beneficial to improve the condition of users with cognitive diseases as Alzheimer’s disease by virtue of adapted spaces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0596.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Climate change; Urban Heat Islands; Mosquito-borne Disease; Mitigation Strategies
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:27:16 CET)
Cities worldwide are facing ever-increasing pressure to develop mitigation strategies for all sectors to deal with the impacts of climate change. Cities are expected to house 70% of the world’s population by 2050 and developing related resilient health systems is a significant challenge. Because of their physical nature, cities’ surface temperatures are often substantially higher than that of the surrounding rural areas, generating the so-called Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Whilst considerable emphasis has been placed on strategies to mitigate against the UHI-associated negative health effects of heat and pollution, the World Health Organization estimates that one of the main consequences of global warming will be an increased burden of such vector-borne diseases. Many of the major mosquito-borne diseases are urban and thus the global population exposed to these pathogens will steadily increase. Mitigation strategies beneficial for one sector may, however, be detrimental for another. Implementation of inter-sectoral strategies that can benefit many sectors (such as water, labour and health) do exist and would enable optimal use of the meagre resources available. Discussion among inter-sectoral stakeholders should be actively encouraged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0409.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: innovation service; pricing model; multiobjective problem; genetic algorithm; negotiating strategies
Online: 19 August 2020 (10:26:06 CEST)
Service pricing is a bottleneck in the development of innovation services, as it is the issue of most concern between the suppliers and demanders. In this paper, a negotiation pricing model that is based on the multiobjective genetic algorithm is developed for innovation service pricing. Regarding the service pricing process as a multiobjective problem, the objective functions, which include the service price, service efficiency, and service quality, for suppliers and demanders are constructed. As the solution of a multiobjective problem is typically a series of alternatives, another negotiation process is necessary for determining the final decision. A learning strategy is adopted during the negotiation process to simulate reality. Finally, the model is implemented for an innovation service transaction, the objective of which is to identify the optimal price plan. The results demonstrate that the model can provide quantitative decision support for the pricing of an innovation service and ultimately yield a win-win result for both the supplier and demander of the innovation service. Furthermore, the influence of the parameters during the negotiation process is analyzed in detail. The effects of the learning strategy on accelerating the negotiation process, as well as the chosen of reasonable parameters are given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0086.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Genome organisation and expression; Polyproteins; Prevention strategies
Online: 14 June 2020 (16:49:10 CEST)
COVID-19 manifests regarding extreme acute respiratory conditions caused by a novel beta coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) which is reported to be the seventh coronavirus to infect humans. Like other SARS-CoVs it has a large positive-stranded RNA genome. But specific furin site in the spike protein, mutation prone and phylogenetically mess Orf1ab separates SARS-CoV-2 from other RNA viruses. Since, the outbreak (February - March 2020) which originated in China, researchers, scientists, and medical professionals are inspecting all possible facts from every possible aspect including its replication, detection, and prevention strategies. This led to the prompt identification of its basic biology, genome characterization, structural based functional information of proteins, and strategies to prevent its spread. Due to the rapid mutation rate, the functional characterization of a few proteins is still lagging. This review summarizes the recent updates on the basic molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2 and prevention strategies undertaken worldwide to tackle COVID-19. This recent information can be implemented for the development and designing of therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Leadership; schools; education for sustainable development; ESD; management strategies; principals
Online: 2 April 2020 (11:23:23 CEST)
Education is expected to support the development of a more sustainable way of thinking, working, and living. Although there is a broad range of literature on Education for Sustainable development (ESD), the role of principals in the implementation of sustainability and ESD in schools has rarely been taken into consideration. However, based on the results of school effectiveness research, one can assume that school principals exert a significant influence on ESD. Sustainability is a leadership issue. When a school aims at integrating sustainability and ESD, the principal plays a pivotal role. She or he has to support the endeavor wholeheartedly and credibly, organize a participative process of school development, push ahead sustainability and ESD in the daily life of the school, support teaching staff in the application of ESD, involve students and offer them opportunities to launch their own initiatives. This article seeks to support principals in leading their schools towards sustainability. Four stages of the integration of Sustainability and ESD in a school are defined. For each of these stages, a number of actions and management strategies are suggested and explained in detail.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: international tourism; coronavirus; COVID-19; post-viral tourism; recovery strategies
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:08 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. It is already clear now that its economic impact would be more severe that in the case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. Although not as deadly as SARS, coronavirus infection has a longer incubation period and leaves about 85% of the infected without any (or with just mild) symptoms which makes it more difficult to track and to contain. Moreover, it appears to be much more contagious than its predecessor. The goods news is that most people recover from the disease and develop antibodies that can protect them from getting infected again (natural vaccination). Those cured might become the key element for the post-virus recovery strategies of tourism organisations. People with the acquired immunity to the virus would be capable of travelling freely without spreading the disease. Airlines, hotels and gastronomy should aim at this group offering them discounts and special offers. However, the problem is how to effectively ensure that everyone who claims to be cured from COVID-19 is telling the truth. Health tracking bracelets, apps, and other advanced technological solutions should be put in place. Recent best practices from Hong Kong, mainland China, or India might be applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Autophagy; positive stranded RNA virus; proviral autophagy; viral subversion strategies
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:00:27 CEST)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved central process in host metabolism. Among its major functions are conservation of energy during starvation, recycling organelles, and turnover of long-lived proteins. Besides, autophagy plays a critical role in removing intracellular pathogens and very likely represents a primordial intrinsic cellular defence mechanism. More recent findings indicate that it has not only retained its ability to degrade intracellular pathogens, but also functions to augment and fine tune antiviral immune responses. Interestingly, viruses have also co-evolved strategies to manipulate this pathway and use it to their advantage. Particularly intriguing is infection-dependent activation of autophagy with positive stranded (+)RNA virus infections, which benefit from the pathway without succumbing to lysosomal degradation. In this review we summarise recent data on viral manipulation of autophagy, with a particular emphasis on +RNA viruses and highlight key unanswered questions in the field that we believe merit further attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: foreign language teaching; teacher expectation; expectancy strategies; attitude; academic achievement
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:38:50 CET)
The aim of the existing study is to investigate the influence of teacher expectation on students’ achievement and their attitudes towards English lesson and to increase the students’ academic success and positive attitudes towards this issue. In the study, a process which defined the existing situtation and which provided the educational processes to improve by changing the existing situation could be seen. For this reason, emancipatory/improving/critical action research model was used. The study was carried out on a sample group consisting of 87 students; 43 6th graders and 44 8th graders attending a school located in the city center of Düzce during the 2015-2016 academic year. In order to collect the data, “Teacher Expectancy Scale” developed by the researchers, “Attitude Scale towards English Course” and 7 test exams prepared by Turkish Ministry of National Education (MoNE) were used. The study was conducted for a total 48 hours in 12 weeks, 4 hours a week. As the result of the study, it was revealed that teacher expectation influenced the attitudes of the students towards the English lesson in a positive way and increased their academic achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0197.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water-energy nexus; MENA region; climate change; mitigation/adaptation strategies
Online: 10 October 2018 (03:59:07 CEST)
The present paper aims to elucidate the impact of climate change on the availability and security of water and energy in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA Region). The region is particularly challenged by a number of factors including a large variability of bio-geographical characteristics, extreme population growth over the last few decades and substantial societal and economical transitions as well as armed conflicts in some of the countries of the region. Anticipated changes in climate conditions will exacerbate the challenges with regard to providing sufficient amounts of water and energy to the communities in the region. Impacts of climate change will materialize as an increasing number of heat waves, primarily in urban structures and the decline in water availability as a result of enhanced droughts and a growing numbers of dry spells. The interrelationships between energy and water and their mutual dependencies are addressed by the Water-Energy-Nexus concept. With regard to the challenges addressed here, Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean are a particular point in case. Mitigation and adaptation strategies include enhanced efficiency of energy and water use, integrated technology assessments regarding electricity generation and the production of potable water and electricity through concentrated solar power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0039.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Disaster, Operational Strategies, UAV, Drones, Man Made & Natural Disaster, CBRNE
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:08:43 CEST)
The disaster response operational strategies requires tool that a may provide time bound clear picture of potential spots. Natural disaster sometimes comes slowly like increment of water level resulting flood or early warning of tsunami whereas in manmade disasters like 1CBRNE attack or chemical accident or industrial structure collapse or leakage through a pipeline of some toxic hazardous gas requires very accurate and quick response strategies. 2Unmanned Aerial System is commercially used tools present in the market and also used by military organization for various operations throughout the world. The accuracy and time bound pictorial representation of the spots by these tow tools makes them very useful for providing clear picture of potential disaster sites and enabling decision makers to take decision on these representation. Apart of these the potential to deliver important material faster than any other mode also makes these equipment and technology a very important asset for making disaster risk reduction strategies. This paper elaborates the efficacy and utility of Unmanned Aerial System or Drones in developing robust and time bound strategies for disaster risk reduction. This paper also evaluates some experiences and describes some initiatives using Unmanned Aerial System to support disaster risk reduction strategies and post disaster decision making efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Gender expression; High-risk alcohol use; Protective coping strategies; Canadian universities
Online: 27 November 2023 (07:16:19 CET)
Background: This study, conducted in October 2017 at two Canadian universities, aimed to explore the relationships between gender expression, protective coping strategies, alcohol saliency, and high-risk alcohol use. Methods: Validated scales were employed to assess these variables using survey data. Multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between these factors and high-risk drinking. Results: The study revealed significant associations between high-risk drinking and androgynous gender roles (OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.19-2.10) as well as among self-reported males (OR=2.21; 95% CI: 1.77-2.75). Additionally, protective behavioral strategies were inversely related to high-risk drinking (OR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.94-0.96), while higher alcohol saliency exhibited a positive correlation with high-risk drinking (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.11-1.14). Conclusions: These findings underscore the importance of considering gender, alcohol saliency beliefs, and protective behavioral strategies in the development and refinement of interventions aimed at reducing high-risk alcohol use on Canadian campuses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1381.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: immunization; Lot Quality Assurance Sampling; GIS Mapping; methodology; barriers; innovative strategies
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:55:44 CET)
(1) Background: Childhood immunization is vital for preventing morbidities and mortalities globally. However, rural Pakistan is facing persistent challenges, particularly after recent global health crises in gauging accurate vaccination coverage estimates. This study aimed to apply a novel Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology due to its rapid and reliable estimates of the routine immunization rates among children aged 12-23 months old in Shikarpur, Sindh, and to identify priority areas for future interventions. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional household survey design was adopted for an in-depth assessment of vaccination coverage in a previously under-studied rural context. (3) Results: Data were collected from 1,402 children aged 12-23 months across 47/49 Union Councils in Shikarpur within 141 randomly identified clusters. LQAS was innovatively employed along with GIS Mapping which provided a spatial analysis of the distribution of immunization coverage and the spot map of clusters. The weighted average for fully immunized children was 42.4% after applying Direct Adjustment Method. A steep decline in coverage for each successive vaccine dose was observed, and 39 key priority areas were identified on GIS-based plotting for intensive health interventions. Multivariate Logistic Regression Model further revealed informational gaps and fear of side effects as major barriers to achieving complete immunization. (4) Conclusions: The innovative application of LQAS and GIS Mapping in this study has provided a comprehensive glimpse of its utility in future follow-ups and similar assessments. The findings stress the critical need to tackle the foundational reasons behind the vaccination gaps, with a special focus on enhancing awareness and information dissemination in the key priority areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Social isolation stress; Neuropsychiatric disorders; Biopsychosocial vulnerability; Therapeutic strategies
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:30:29 CEST)
The COVID-19 Pandemic generated, in addition to severe symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths worldwide, stress from the fear of the disease and social uncertainties, from restriction measures and social isolation. Stress from social isolation impacts mental health, aggravating conditions, and triggering neuropsychiatric symptoms in individuals with biopsychosocial vulnerability. During and immediately after the period of social restriction imposed by the Pandemic, the scientific community carried out several research protocols. It revealed results that relevantly demonstrate the harmful effect of the stress induced by the Pandemic situation. This review reports and discusses research results demonstrating impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, dementia, eating disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. In addition to studies showing the effect of social isolation on disorders, research results are reported and discussed that evaluated protocols with some possible therapeutic intervention strategies during times of social restriction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Immune-mediated bowel diseases; intestinal parasites; microbiome; homeostasis; targeted therapeutic strategies.
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:21:43 CEST)
Immune-mediated bowel diseases (IMBD), including Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, represent a significant global health burden with their complex etiology and increasing prevalence. The connection between intestinal parasites and the gut microbiome in immune-mediated bowel disease is a complex and evolving field of research. Several studies have demonstrated that intestinal parasites can modulate the composition and function of the gut microbiome. Parasitic infections can result in alterations in the gut microbial community, including changes in microbial diversity, abundance, and metabolic activity. These changes can influence the immune response and contribute to the development of IMBDs. In contrast, the gut microbiome serves a pivotal function in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and immune regulation. Dysbiosis, characterized by changes in the gut microbial composition, has been associated with the pathogenesis of IMBDs. Imbalances in the gut microbiota can result in increased gut permeability, chronic inflammation, and aberrant immune responses, all of which are hallmarks of IMBDs. The bidirectional interaction between intestinal parasites and the gut microbiome further complicates the understanding of immune-mediated bowel diseases. Certain parasites, such as hookworms and Necator americanus, have been found to downregulate immune responses and may have therapeutic potential in treating celiac disease. On the other hand, infections with parasites like Strongyloides stercoralis and Blastocystis have been shown to mimic the symptoms of IBD, highlighting the intricate relationship between parasites and the pathogenesis of these diseases. Additional investigation is required to comprehensively elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the association between intestinal parasites and the gut microbiome in immune-mediated bowel disease. This knowledge could potentially lead to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies that aim to restore gut microbiota homeostasis and alleviate the symptoms of these debilitating conditions. By understanding and harnessing the complex interplay between parasites, the gut microbiome, and the host immune system, researchers may uncover novel approaches for the management and treatment of immune-mediated bowel diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1260.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: marine ecosystem restoration; habitat restoration; artificial reef; restoration strategies; biodiversity conservation
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:30:05 CEST)
Maldivian coral reefs have been experiencing significant degradation due to a combination of global climate change and local anthropogenic pressures. To enforce the conservation of coral reefs worldwide, coral restoration is becoming a popular tool to restore ecosystems actively. In the Maldives, restoration interventions are performed only around touristic islands, where there are economic resources available to support these projects. Unfortunately, on local islands, coral restoration does not benefit from the same support and is rarely boosted. A challenging coral restoration intervention has been performed, for the first time, a on a local island of the Maldives affected by intense human pressures that caused the degradation of its reefs. A total of 242 coral fragments were collected from impacted colonies and transferred to the coral nursery of the island. Survival and growth rates of the fragments were monitored for 12 months. After one year, a survival rate of 70.2% was recorded. Although this rate might appear lower when compared to other restoration experiences, it is very promising considering the origin of the fragments and the poor quality of the environment where they have been transplanted. Some potential threats to the success of this restoration have also been identified, i.e., water temperature anomaly, diseases and parasites, the latter being the leading causes of coral mortality. The procedure presented here is comparatively less expensive than the typical relocation of entire coral colonies from donor healthy reefs to degraded reefs, thus providing an opportunity and a viable option also for local islands to restore their reefs and preserve local biodiversity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: NAFLD; NASH; pathogenesis; genetic factors; dietary factors; environmental factors; therapeutic strategies
Online: 15 August 2023 (12:51:25 CEST)
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), focusing on key factors influencing its pathogenesis and emerging therapeutic strategies. The background highlights the growing prevalence of NAFLD and NASH, emphasizing their multifactorial nature. The methods section outlines the various contributors to NAFLD development, including genetic, dietary, and environmental factors. The results highlight the intricate interplay between these factors and their impact on hepatic lipid metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Genetic predisposition, dietary fat intake, and excessive fructose consumption are discussed as significant contributors to NAFLD progression. The conclusions emphasize the lack of a single therapeutic approach and underscore the need for combination strategies. Lifestyle interventions, particularly weight loss through diet and exercise, remain crucial, while pharmacological options like GLP-1 receptor agonists, obeticholic acid, lanifibranor, and resmetirom show promise but require further validation. Bariatric surgery and emerging endoscopic procedures offer potential in eligible patients. In sum, this review underscores the complexity of NAFLD and NASH, advocating for a multifaceted approach to address this increasingly prevalent and clinically relevant condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0528.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: university students; anxiety stress perception; coping strategies; pandemic; COVID-19 patients
Online: 7 June 2023 (09:35:31 CEST)
Background: Studying anxiety, stress and the selection of coping strategies in the COVID-19 pandemic is necessary to minimize the adverse changes associated with the risk of infection and the consequences of the disease. Objective: To investigate the level of anxiety, stress perception and coping strategies in relation to the presence of illness. Material and Methods: The anonymous cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 3950 university students of northeastern Poland (1822), Lithuania (232) and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad (1896). Due to the almost identically applied anti-epidemic measures, the respondents were treated as a unified group. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale-10 and Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced questionnaires were used. Results: Among 1212 men and 2738 women, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 348 (28.7%) and 1020 (37.3%) individuals, respectively, according to the clinical protocol. The prolonged nature of the process and the longer consequences of the disease were indicated by an increase in anxiety levels. Conclusions: The risk of possible infection and coping with illness required the adoption of active anti-stress strategies, which was observed regardless of going through the disease. Convalescents differed from non-diseased individuals in having higher levels of concern about their own emotions and their more frequent turn to religion, notably among the females. The repertoire of strategies among women was broader, with elevated levels of helplessness and avoidance seen as integral strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: adaptive strategies; competitiveness; stress tolerance; ruderalism; natural selection; forest dynamics; Lithuania
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:24:46 CEST)
Forest vegetation dynamics (succession and dominance) is an ecological phenomenon that is still difficult to characterize and integrate into management practices. In this study, the understanding of forest dynamics is explored based on Grime’s theoretical triangular model of plant adaptive strategies using the example of Lithuania’s forest ecosystems. The idea behind this is the hypothesis that forest dynamics is linked to natural selection as an evolutionary process that exhibits differential species responses to competition, stress, and disturbance. The aim of this study is to explore the adaptive relationships in hemi-boreal forests. Grime’s and Pierce’s secondary CSR strategies, which describe various equilibria between competitiveness (C), stress tolerance (S), and ruderalism (R), were considered to reflect four establishment and development adaptive specialization characteristics of forest tree species. As a result of the study, four types of tree functional groups were identified: stress-resistant ruderals, competitive stress-sensitive ruderals, ruderal stress-sensitive competitors, and stress-resistant competitors. Based on this, we propose that reforestation move away from single species regeneration by implementing the maintenance of these four types of functional groups. In conclusion, forest management must consider the existence of the established equilibria between plant competitiveness, stress tolerance, and ruderalism. The formal concepts presented in this article can serve as a guide for future relevant research and development of appropriate methods for studying real forests. This study is unique in that no previous work has linked forest dynamics and natural selection in the context of Lithuania’s forest ecosystems.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: crowdsourcing; intangible heritage; territorial development; Italian inner areas; socially innovative strategies
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:15:39 CEST)
: The paper aims to present a conceptual framework for developing territorial development strategies based on crowdsourcing technologies to enhance intangible heritage, setting this framework within the context of Italian inner areas defined by a policy framework oriented towards the territorial development of marginal areas. For this reason, the work intends to provide the necessary background information for the development of such strategies, examining the technological aspects, a precise definition of the concept of intangible heritage, the application of a socially innovative strategy for marginal territories, and a framework of strategic actions necessary to implement solutions capable of involving local communities from the bottom up and ensuring a widespread redistribution of the benefits in the development of these technologies. The paper's objective is, therefore, to bridge the gap between different debates: technological innovation, the enhancement of intangible heritage, and territorial development based on socially innovative strategies, providing a key information framework for experts and scholars who intend to approach these topics or develop projects based on these tools and objectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0542.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Human papillomavirus; Epidemiology; Prevention Strategies; Vaccination; Screening; Cervical Cancer; Gender Gap
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:32:32 CEST)
Background and aim: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted, one of the three most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in both males and females, and the most common viral STI. A crucial public health strategy to protect people against HPV is through vaccination, which has shown its effectiveness in preventing HPV related diseases. Presently three types of vaccines are available (bivalent, quadrivalent, and nonavalent) and they all target at least the two most oncogenic virus genotypes (HPV 16, 18). In the past few years, the need to implement vaccination programmes that include all genders has been discussed in order to achieve herd immunity against HPV. To date, only a few countries have included young males in their vaccination programmes, so we aim through this review to provide an overview of the epidemiology of HPV and prevention strategies to prevent it, reporting the latest findings from the scientific literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0400.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Aflatoxin contamination; Cereals; Intrinsic factors; Extrinsic factors; Climate change; Mitigation strategies
Online: 26 January 2022 (13:12:06 CET)
Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of cereals is considered one of the greatest food safety concerns worldwide. Occurrence of AFs in maize, wheat, rice and sorghum is highly prevalent with each commodity accounting for more than 10% of world’s AF exposure. Their occurrence as food contaminants is also associated with huge economic losses. AFs are highly stable compounds that cannot be eliminated by regular processing of grains. Hence, prevention of AFs in food and feed is now considered more important than the subsequent interventions to mitigate the deleterious health effects of AFs in human and animals. However, the development of an effective preventive strategy hinges on a clear understanding of the underlying factors influencing AFs production. Therefore, the present review aims to highlight the most significant factors influencing AFs contamination of cereals at pre-and post-harvest stages. This is crucial for effective monitoring of critical control points and optimisation of preventive strategies in food and feed supply chains. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been reported of which nutritional composition, environmental factors (temperature, water activity and relative humidity) and climate change have been identified as primary factors, while pH of the substrate, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the gaseous environment, and agronomic and socioeconomic status are the main secondary factors promoting AFs biosynthesis in cereals. Additionally, an overview of global occurrence of AFs in cereals, with their health impacts and various preventive measures have also been highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0181.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: One Health Strategies; Antimicrobial Resistance; Salmonella isolates; Poultry Farms, Turkey Poults
Online: 12 January 2022 (18:12:21 CET)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing hazard to human and animal health that necessitates an international response. Surveillance methods in high-income nations aided in the development of measures to combat AMR in animals. Demand for meat is increasing in countries making it critical to implement anti-AMR initiatives. Surveillance of AMR, on the other hand, is at best in its infancy, and the current evidence base for informing policymakers is geographically disparate. All of the isolates had high rates of AMR to medicines that are critical/highly important in human and animal medicine. A higher incidence of AMR was found in poultry farms. Our findings show that AMR, including MDR, is common in coli, Salmonella spp., commonly found in poultry. The study promotes the development of national policies, programs, and additional research based on a "One Health" approach that helps humans and animals, as well as the environment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0117.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Big data predictive analytics; competitive strategies; strategic alliance performance; Telecom sector
Online: 5 November 2021 (11:29:12 CET)
Based on the resource-based theory, the current study examines the relationship between competitive strategies and strategic alliance performance. Furthermore, big data predictive analytics is treated as a boundary condition between competitive strategies and strategic alliance performance. Big data of predictive analytics in operations and industrial management has been a focal point in the current era. There has been little attention has about big data predictive analytics influences on competitive strategies and strategic alliance performance, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to record the responses from 331 employees of the telecom sectors companies working in Pakistan. Study findings show that big competitive strategies have a positive and significant relationship with strategic alliances performance. It was also found that big data predictive analytics plays the role of moderator between competitive strategies and strategic alliance performance. The study add a new perspective and contribution to the literature on big data predictive analytics, strategic alliance performance, and competitive strategies in Pakistan's telecom sector companies. Further, the study results explain that big data analytics is just like the companies' lifeblood in the current era. The efficient and effective use of big data analytics, companies can boost their standards in a competitive environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0213.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: crop diversification; C3 xerophtyes; food security; underutilized crops; drought adaptation strategies
Online: 12 January 2021 (10:19:08 CET)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an underexploited and under-researched crop species with potential to contribute to crop diversification in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. The species is commonly cultivated in the drier parts of Southern Africa, mainly by smallholder farmers who maintain a wide range of landraces. Understanding the molecular and morpho-physiological basis for drought adaptation of Citron watermelon in these dry environments can aid in screening local germplasm, identification of suitable traits for crop improvement and improving food system resilience among smallholder farmers by adding to crop diversification. This paper reviews literature on drought adaptation of C. lanatus spp. (C3 xerophytes), using the systematic review approach. The review discusses; (i) the potential role of citron watermelon in adding to crop diversification, (ii) alternative food uses and potential by-products that can be processed from citron watermelon and (iii) the role of Sub-Saharan farmers as key actors in conserving citron watermelon germplasm and biodiversity. Finally, the review provides a summary of significant findings and identifies critical knowledge gaps for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0182.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: France; urban air quality; aerosol chemical composition; source apportionment; monitoring strategies
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:57:48 CET)
The CARA program has been developed since 2008 by the French reference laboratory for air quality monitoring (LCSQA) and the regional monitoring networks to gain a better knowledge at the national level on the particulate matter (PM) chemistry and its diverse origins in urban environments. It results of strong collaborations with international-level academic partners, allowing to bring state-of-the-art, straightforward and robust results and methodologies within operational air quality stakeholders (and subsequently, decision makers). Here, we illustrate some of the main outputs obtained over the last decade thanks to this program, regarding methodological aspects (both in terms of measurement techniques and data treatment procedures) as well as acquired knowledge on the predominant PM sources. Offline and online methods are used following well-suited quality assurance and quality control procedures, notably including inter-laboratory comparison exercises. Source apportionment studies are conducted using various receptor modeling approaches. Overall, the results presented herewith underline the major influences of residential wood burning (during the cold period) and road transport emissions (exhaust and non-exhaust ones, all along the year), as well as substantial contributions of mineral dust and primary biogenic particles (mostly during the warm period). Long-range transport phenomena, e.g., advection of secondary inorganic aerosols from the European continental sector and of Saharan dust into the French West Indies, are also discussed in this paper. Finally, we briefly address the use of stable isotope measurements (δ15N) and of various organic molecular markers for a better understanding of the origins of ammonium and of the different organic aerosol fractions, respectively.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0034.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Maize, Food Safety, Community-based Support systems, Integrated Mycotoxin Control Strategies
Online: 8 April 2019 (13:21:53 CEST)
Grain production and storage are major components in food security. In the ancient times, food security was achieved through gathering of fruits, grains, herbs, tubers, and roots from the forests by individual households. Advancements in human civilization led to domestication of crops and a need to save food for not only a household, but the nation. This extended need for food security led to establishment of national reservoirs for major produces and this practice varies greatly in different states. Each of the applied food production, handling and storage approaches has got its benefits and challenges. In sub-Saharan Africa, several countries have a public funded budget to subsidize production costs, to buy grains from farmers and to store the produce for a specific period and/or until the next harvests. During the times of famine, the stored grains are later given free to the citizens. If there is no famine, the grain is sold to retailers and/or processors (e.g., millers) who later sell it to the consumers. This approach works well if the produce (mainly grain) is stored under conditions that do not favor growth of molds, as some of these could contaminate the grain with toxic and carcinogenic metabolites called mycotoxins. Conditions that alleviate contamination of grains are required during production, handling and storage. Most of the grain is produced by smallholder farmers under sub-optimal conditions, which make vulnerable to colonization and contamination by toxigenic fungi. Further, the grain is stored in silos at large masses, where it is hard to monitor the conditions at different points of these facilities, and hence it becomes vulnerable to additional contamination. Production and storage of grain under conditions that favor mycotoxins poses major food health and safety risks to humans and livestock who consume the grain. This concept paper focuses on how establishment of local grain production and banking system (LGPBS) could enhance food security and safety in East Africa. The concept of LGPBS provides an extension of advisory and finance support within warehouse receipting system to enhance grain production under optimal conditions. The major practices at the LGPBS, and how each could contribute to food security and safety are discussed. While the concept paper gives more strength on maize production and safety, similar practices could be applied to enhance safety of other grains in the same LGPBS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: long-term sustainability; soil health indicators; fertilization strategies; EPIC model; Central Italy
Online: 2 October 2023 (10:09:23 CEST)
Considering future tasks in soil health, resources management and environmental protection, farmers are challenged to develop sustainable strategies for managing soil and land resources. In this study, the long-term sustainability of two fertilization strategies, - current, with synthetic fertilizers (SYN) vs conservative, with organic sources of nitrogen (organic amendments plus green manure with a legume - CONS) - was assessed in a processing tomato/durum wheat rotation. The EPIC model was used, validated with field data then run to simulate the management for 30 years under 3 current and future climates. Yield, soil organic carbon (SOC) stock change, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrate leaching were considered as sustainability indicators. Under all the future climate scenarios, tomato yield increased in CONS, remaining almost stable in SYN. Wheat yield increased both in CONS and SYN, but the average yield in CONS was considerably lower than in SYN. NUE and nitrate leaching followed the same trend, both decreasing in CONS, while WUE was higher in CONS compared to SYN. The effect of CONS on SOC was always positive. Thus, the alternative N fertilization strategy proposed can be a favorable option for maintaining soil health and a sustainable crop production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0349.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: garden of Eden; attempts at location; history of biblical exegesis; narrative strategies.
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:50:18 CEST)
A close analysis of the text of Gen. 2:8-15, pertaining to the garden of Eden, shows the structural differences between said text and others from ancient mythologies that mention or describe a paradise. Likewise, that analysis suggests that the data provided by the Bible to locate paradise is merely a narrative device meant to dissipate all doubts as to the existence of the garden where God put human beings. Similarly to other spaces that appear in the Bible, the garden of Eden is but an impossible place. Throughout the centuries, however, recurring proposals have been made that aim to find paradise. As time went by, those proposals were progressively modified by the intellectual ideas dominant at any given era, thus leading the representations of the location of Paradise further and further away from the information provided by the biblical text.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0298.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Quantum games; classical games; sequential quantum games; groups of actions; winning strategies
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:45:52 CEST)
This paper studies sequential quantum games under the assumption that the moves of the players are drawn from groups and not just plain sets. The extra group structure makes possible to easily derive some very general results, which, to the best of our knowledge, are stated in this generality for the first time in the literature. The main conclusion of this paper is that the specific rules of a game are absolutely critical. The slightest variation may have important impact on the outcome of the game. It is the combination of two factors that determine who wins: (i) the sets of admissible moves for each player, and (ii) the order of moves, i.e., whether the same player makes the first and the last move. Quantum strategies do not a priori prevail over classical strategies. By carefully designing the rules of the game the advantage of either player can be established. Alternatively, the fairness of the game can also be guaranteed.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things(IoTs); Challenges; Test Strategies; Quality Assurance; Suggestion; Interoperability; Security
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:15:13 CET)
Immense challenges arise in the Quality Assurance area due to contemporary development in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Current issues are mainly related to test coverage, test diversity, IoT Stability, Use of Cellular Networks in IoTs, IoT Devices updates, Security, Data Integration, and interoperability. In this paper, we present all those issues with suggestions for tackling those issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0258.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: accounting profession; women; gender; inequality; glass ceiling; gendered organizations; diversity management strategies
Online: 22 November 2019 (07:54:39 CET)
Considering the increasing number of women entering the accounting profession; it is timely to explore inequalities that still exist; and consider what policy processes continue to forge inequalities between men and women. Through a SLR of accounting and management journals during the period 1994-2017 we assess the different dynamics that have shaped inequalities between men and women, presenting both employee and employer perspectives of professional enhancement. The study is framed around conceptualizations of gendered organizations and highlights how cultural and social practices impact men and women differently. Our study finds there are still arrays of organization practices that have profound gendered effects. Our study shows that there are commonalities in research which include HR practices of recruitment, selection, and advancement; perceptions of women's visibility and invisibility at work; motherhood and childcare responsibilities; and discourses of the glass ceiling that constitute barriers to women's progression. Most importantly we reveal that constraints nowadays are similar to those identified in the 90s. We explored these gendered constructions and suggest relevant HR strategies that can aid women's advancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0072.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Cross-Sector Alliance; Firm Strategies; Nongovernmental Organizations; Sustainability Labels
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:46:18 CET)
This article analyzes the emergence of partnerships between corporations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) through voluntary product labeling schemes. The economics, management, and business literatures are reviewed to highlight cross-checking, consistencies, and complementarities among these disciplines. The objective is to identify and analyze the motives, risks, and joint benefits of partnering via voluntary product labeling, using examples from the agri-food sector. This study is an attempt to offer a framework of corporate-NGO partnerships by showing that the drivers and risks of each partner merge because each takes a step into the sphere of the other. The main risks – namely, a loss of profitability, credibility and legitimacy – are related to the financial and existential dependency and the asymmetric information between the partners in favor of corporations, inducing an ``NGO-capture'' risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0589.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Uniform Clearing Price Auction; Electricity Market; Bidding Strategies; Asymmetric Information; Social Welfare
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:36:40 CET)
The deepening of electricity reform results in increasingly frequent auctions and the surge of generators, it becomes difficult to analyze generators’ behaviors. Since it’s hard to find analytical market equilibriums, approximate equilibriums were obtained instead in previous studies by market simulations, which are strict to initial estimations and simulation results are chaotic in some cases. In this paper, a multi-unit power bidding model is proposed to reveal the bidding mechanism under clearing pricing rule by employing auction approach, for which initial estimations are non-essential. Normalized bidding price is introduced to construct generator's price-related bidding strategy. Nash equilibriums are derived depend on the marginal cost and the winning probability which are computed from bidding quantity, transmission cost and demand distribution. Furthermore, we propose a comparative analysis to explore the impact of uncertain elastic demand on the performance of the electricity market. The result indicates that, there exists market power among generators leading to social welfare decreases even under competitive conditions but elastic demand is an effective way to restrain generators’ market power. The feasibility of the models is verified by a case study. Our work provides decision support for generators and a direction for improving market efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0508.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: sexual selection, sexual conflicts, contemporary evolution, mate choice, mating systems, mating strategies.
Online: 29 August 2018 (16:19:12 CEST)
The study of eco-evolutionary feedbacks is in clear recent expansion. However, most studies concern predator-prey and host-parasite interactions, while the analysis of eco-evolutionary feedbacks involving sexual interactions is lagging behind. This is at odds with the potential of these interactions to engage in such processes. Indeed, there is now ample evidence that sexual selection is affected by ecological change. There is also evidence that sexual selection traits evolve rapidly, which may modify the ecological context of species, and thus the selection pressures they will be exposed to. Here, we first set a clear distinction between processes in which ecology drives evolution and those in which the contemporary evolution of populations may change their ecology, depending on which traits act as drivers and objects of change. We then review evidence for these processes and discuss examples of closed eco-evolutionary feedbacks in an attempt to understand how we can tear this loop apart. We suggest that a better understanding of eco-evolutionary feedbacks of sexual selection may help us understand the effects of sexual selection on the rate of adaptation, speciation, and extinction, and thus foster future research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1975.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; mixed method; family well-being; emotions; coping strategies; mother; children; adolescents
Online: 29 August 2023 (14:15:12 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused many enduring changes in everyday life of families with negative effects on parents’ and children well-being. However, literature lacks of studies exploring emotional reactions and coping strategies of both mothers and children of different ages. Furthermore, most studies used only self-reports. This study aimed to identify the emotions and coping strategies of children, adolescents and their mothers and to verify the association between maternal and children well-being. A mixed-method design using interviews and questionnaires was applied to collect information on well-being (emotional reactions, behavioral/emotional problems) and coping strategies of both mothers (n=65), and their children (n=35, 8-10 year; n=30, 11-13 year) during the second wave of the pandemic (December 2020). No differences between the groups emerged concerning the emotional reactions reported. In contrast, mothers and children of different ages reported different self-regulation and other-regulation strategies. Moreover, maternal strategies had different effects on children well-being. The integration of qualitative and quantitative results was informative to understand how families adapted to the radical changes of everyday life caused by the pandemic. Implications for developing interventions in such similar stressful situations to promote family well-being are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1577.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy; Microglial activation; M1/M2 microglial polarization; cognitive impairment; therapeutic strategies
Online: 22 August 2023 (12:09:47 CEST)
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common brain dysfunction following sepsis that often results in severe cognitive and neurological sequelae and increases the mortality rate in patients with sepsis. Microglia are resident macrophages in the brain that play essential roles in the pathological and physiological processes of SAE. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can adopt two polarization states (M1/M2), which correspond to altered microglial morphology, gene expression, and function. Therefore, we systematically described the pathogenesis, morphology, function, and phenotype of microglial activation in SAE. We demonstrated that microglia are closely related to occurrence and development of SAE and concomitant cognitive impairement. Finally, we outlined some potential therapeutic approaches that can prime microglia and neuroinflammation towards the beneficial restorative microglial phenotype in SAE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0120.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Sustainable Cosmetics; Sustainable Packaging; Sustainability Strategies; Consumer Behavior; Corporate Social Responsibility; Technological Developments
Online: 2 August 2023 (11:03:18 CEST)
In spite of the significant progress towards sustainable cosmetics, mass-produced sustainable packaging has proven to be a challenge. The complexity of environmental, economic, social, technological and policy considerations in conjunction with varying consumer behaviors and corporate goals can make it difficult to select an optimal strategy across heterogeneous supply-chain components spread over the globe; and the cost and effort of developing, testing and validating alternative strategies discourages empirical exploration of potential alternatives. This review discusses the challenges that can be expected in the context of broader sustainability efforts, as well as the experience gained in related fields such as sustainable cosmetics and sustainable packaging, to identify potential pitfalls as well as promising trends towards development of sustainable cosmetics packaging. The findings suggest there may be little to be gained from attempting to induce customers to change their behavior; waiting for a significant increase in global recycling infrastructure; or expecting regulatory constraints to substitute for the lack of technological and business solutions. A research strategy is delineated towards development of sustainable packaging that, with appropriate policy support, could minimize externalities and provide mass-produced packaging that is acceptable to both consumers and producers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM teaching; technology in education; teaching strategies; online inter-class tournaments; computational thinking
Online: 10 February 2023 (11:20:01 CET)
There are increasing calls in education for deeper integration of disciplines and better preparation for the personal and job challenges of a fast-changing and smarter society. Thus, we need to search for new effective didactic strategies. However, current classrooms are isolated. They practically never connect. This hinders the exchange of ideas. It inhibits imitation and recombination, the basic blocks of cultural evolution and innovation. In this paper, we analyze online inter-class tournaments. These are lessons where entire elementary or middle school classes interconnect synchronously and play an educational game. These are new types of academic activities, and only possible thanks to digital communication technology. In this paper, we examine four online tournaments, we analyze how feasible it is to carry them out and the benefits they bring. One tournament is for teaching machine learning and statistics. The second one teaches the conservation of momentum in physics and an engineering optimization challenge. The third tournament is for learning to solve word problems. The fourth one is for teaching natural and sexual selection along with developing statistical and population thinking. We found that these inter-class tournaments are feasible to implement in schools and that they are a promising mechanism to facilitate imitation, recombination, and innovation of teaching strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: arbovirus, dengue, viral hemorrhagic fever, viral immunopathogenesis, viral toxin, NS1, dengue vaccine strategies
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:10:53 CEST)
Mosquito-borne viral disease dengue is a global public health problem causing a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild dengue fever to severe dengue with plasma leakage and bleeding which are often associated to fatality. To date, there are no specific medications to treat dengue and prevent the risk of hemorrhage. Dengue is caused by one of the four related antigenically distinct serotypes, DENV-1 to DENV-4. The growing burden that represents the four DENV serotypes has intensified both basic and applied researches to better understand the dengue physiopathology. It has been proposed a significant role for the secreted soluble DENV nonstructural protein 1 (sNS1) glycoprotein in the pathogenesis of severe dengue. Here, we provided an overview on current knowledge about the role of sNS1 in the immunopathogenesis of dengue disease. The reasons for the consideration of sNS1 in the design of future dengue vaccine candidates will be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0299.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: On-road emissions; Real-world assessments; Electrification; Fleet renovating; Mitigation strategies; West Midlands
Online: 15 January 2021 (14:22:04 CET)
This study reports the likely real-world effects of fleet replacement with electric vehicles (EVs) and higher efficiency EURO6 vehicles on the exhaust emissions of NOx, PM, and CO2 in the seven boroughs of the West Midlands (WM) region, UK. National fleet composition data, local EURO distributions and traffic compositions were used to project vehicle fleet compositions for different roads in each borough. A large dataset of real-world emission factors including over 90,000 remote-sensing measurements, obtained from remote sensing campaigns in five UK cities, was used to parameterise the emission profiles of the studied scenarios. Results show that adoption of the fleet electrification approach would have the highest emission reduction potential on urban roads in WM boroughs. It would result in maximum reductions ranging from 35.0-37.9%, 44.3-48.3%, 46.9-50.3% for NOx, PM, and CO2, respectively. In comparison, the EURO6 replacement fleet scenario would lead to reductions ranging from 10.0-10.4%, 4.0-4.2%, and 6.0-6.4% for NOx, PM, and CO2, respectively. The studied mitigation scenarios have higher efficacies on motorways than on rural and urban roads because of the differences in traffic fleet composition. The findings presented will help policymakers choose climate and air quality mitigation strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0552.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Malaria; Amazon; Brazil; Anopheles darlingi; Plasmodium; Control; Challenges; Strategies; Conventional; Novel; Vector; Mosquito
Online: 23 September 2020 (15:26:43 CEST)
In Brazil, malaria transmission is mostly confined to the Amazon, where substantial progress has been achieved towards disease control in the past decade. Vector control has been historically considered a fundamental part of the main malaria control programs implemented in Brazil. However, the conventional vector-control tools have been insufficient to eliminate local vector populations due to the complexity of the Amazonian rainforest environment and ecological features of malaria vector species in the Amazon, especially Anopheles darlingi. Malaria elimination in Brazil and worldwide eradication will require a combination of conventional and new approaches that takes into account the regional specificities of vector populations and malaria transmission dynamics. Here we present an overview on both conventional and novel promising vector-focused tools to curb malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon. If well designed and employed, these new vector-based approaches may improve the implementation of malaria-control programs, particularly in remote or difficult-to-access areas and in regions where existing interventions have been unable to eliminate disease transmission. However, much effort still has to be put on research expanding the knowledge of neotropical malaria vectors to set the steppingstones for the development of such innovative tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0403.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: zoonotic; corona virus; COVID-19; SARS; MERS; global health emergency; India; lockdown strategies
Online: 24 May 2020 (19:34:03 CEST)
Global emerge of zoonotic novel corona virus (COVID-19) became a pandemic and its effect to mankind is talk of the town now a days. This tiny, invisible enemy has affected every country in the world and almost every living directly or indirectly and nationwide complete lockdown has triggered a short-term environmental impact. Since 2003, corona virus came into existence in the form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and more evolved Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. This time, at the end of December 2019, outbreak of novel corona virus COVID-19 (also known as SARS-CoV2, nCoV-2019) draw attention as global health emergency. World Health Organization (WHO) report says that the outbreak of this virus is so immense, it has already affected 35,57,235 people and caused death to 2,45,150 people worldwide and 46,433 Indians got affected with 1568 death as on 5th May 2020 (2:00 am) and these numbers are increasing exponentially day by day. Virologist, micro-biologist and science community are hammering their head very hard to find out cure and vaccine against this powerful virus and to prevent mass demise of mankind. In order to curb the spread of COVID-19, Janta curfew on 22.03.2020 and nationwide complete lockdown was implemented in India for 21 days (phase-I, from 25.03.2020 to 14.04.2020) to stop community transmission of third stage, for 19 days (phase-II, 15.04.2020 to 03.05.2020) and 14 days (phase-III, 04.05.2020 to 17.05.2020) complete lockdown to minimize the community transmission effect. During complete lockdown and quarantine period a drastic change in Earth’s atmosphere, including reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, air pollution (~50% fall in air quality index), noise pollution, water pollution and solid waste pollution, have been recorded by government agencies as well as private agencies. In this paper we considered data of Janta curfew, phase-I and phase-II lockdown to link between geological and environmental aspect related to environmental impact due to emerge of COVID-19 and massive reduction in pollution level during complete lockdown in India. We propose future lockdown strategies to minimize the emission of greenhouse gas by ~100 Mt to ~200Mt (3.33% to 6.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month nationwide lockdown or ~70 Mt to ~140 Mt (2.33% to 4.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month complete lockdown of energy sectors only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0240.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainable assets; sustainable strategies; income of forestry household; forestry income; non-forestry income
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:25:08 CEST)
This study aims to identify the factors determining the income of forestry household in South Korea. We examine an empirical analysis using 3-year panel data conducted by the Korea Forest Service charged with maintaining South Korea's forest lands. The hypothesized factors determining the income of forestry household are classified into four types of assets and three types of livelihood strategies. We divided the income of forestry household (IFH) into three elements: forestry income (FI), non-forestry income (NFI), and transfer income (TI). We assessed the influences of household assets and livelihood strategies on each income. A random effect model was used as a statistical analysis with valid 979 of forestry household for three years. We found that household head's age, labor hours, savings, business category, cultivated land size, and region are significantly associated with IFH. Also, FI is influenced by labor capacity, cultivated size, business category, forestry business portfolio, and region while NFI is determined by household head's age, household head's gender, forestry business portfolio, and savings. TI is affected by household head's age, household head's education level, forestry business portfolios, savings, and region. The effect sizes and directions vary across different types of income (IFH, FI, NFI, and TI). The findings show that forestry in South Korea is highly dependent on sustainable assets and strategies. It is therefore expected that the effectiveness of forest policies to increase the income of forestry household would be differed by the source of each income. The results of this study draw attention to the need for an income support policy that should consider the characteristics of household assets and livelihood strategies in order to enhance IFH in South Korea.