ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0310.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Atlantis; Obsidian; Pantelleria; Strait of Sicily; Plato
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:07:09 CEST)
The legend of Atlantis was almost certainly invented by Plato to promote the political ideal of his masterwork The Republic, while praising the heroism of his own ancestors. This paper suggests that, in assembling the story, Plato might have reworked the myth of the foundation of Egypt, attributed to divine invaders bringing agriculture and unknown technologies to the country. The key issue explored is the curious coincidence between the period of the alleged foundation of Egypt (according to traditional Egyptian sources) and some remarkable events that characterized the end of the Ice Age. Indeed, besides the sudden increase in temperature and the consequent rise in sea level, the period was also marked by the birth of agriculture and the appearance of totally new technologies in diverse Middle Eastern locations. The memory of these events would have been handed down through the myth of the foundation of Egypt and, through this, to Greek culture, enabling Plato to exaggerate the antiquity of his noble ancestors while embellishing the characteristics of the invaders. Such occasional technological leaps may also have occurred elsewhere in the world, for instance on the deltas of the Indus or the Yangtze, driven by the same change in climate that affected the whole planet. Although today there is no archaeological evidence of such events besides in the Middle East, the article suggests that the possible discovery of obsidian in a submerged site would be a strong indication of a local technological leap. To this end it examines, amongst suspected Mediterranean sites, some flooded islands in the Strait of Sicily, which, lying on the route to Pantelleria, may retain traces of ancient obsidian exploitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0531.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: River mouth; Rupat Strait; sediment transport; tidal current
Online: 21 December 2020 (14:32:15 CET)
The Rupat Strait, a part of the Malacca Strait, is recognized as semi-closed waters and shows a high activity; thus, discovering the transport sediment mechanism of the strait as a consequence of ambient and anthropogenic forces is essential. Hydrodynamic and sediment transport modelling was constructed using the 2-Dimensional Explicit method which is averaged over depth. The results show that the dispersion of sediment at high tide is longer than that at low tide. This follows the hydrodynamic model in which current velocity at high tide is greater than the ocean current at the low tide. The previous sediment observation supports the results of transport sediment modelling, indicating that the anthropogenic factors are highly associated with the sedimentation in the Rupat strait
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0299.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Istanbul Strait; stratified flow; gravity driven flow; numerical modelling
Online: 28 August 2019 (15:23:55 CEST)
The aim of this study is to model hydrodynamic processes of the Istanbul Strait with its stratified flow characteristic and calibrate the most important parameters using local and global search algorithms. For that two open boundary conditions are defined, which are in the North and South part of the Strait. Observed bathymetric, hydrographic, meteorological and water level data are used to set up the Delft3D-FLOW model. First, the sensitivities of model parameters on the numerical model outputs are assessed using PEST toolbox. Then, the model is calibrated based on the objective functions focusing on the flowrates of upper and lower layers. The salinity and temperature profiles of the Strait are only used for model validation. The results show that the calibrated model outputs of Istanbul Strait are reliable and consistent with the in-situ measurements. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the Spatial Low-Pass Filter Coefficient, Horizontal Eddy Viscosity, Prandtl-Schmidt Number, Slope in log-log Spectrum and Manning Roughness Coefficient are most sensitive parameters affecting flowrate performance of the model. The agreement between observed salinity profiles and simulated model outputs is promising whereas the match between observed and simulated temperature profiles is weak showing that the model can be improved particularly for simulating the mixing layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0557.v1
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:42:21 CET)
The Tsunami disaster was the first and the biggest in Banten Province. However, in response to the health crisis, the preparedness was still lacking, even though in an emergency response situation, the management of disaster management carried out was quite good. The method of research is based on data reports that include quantitative and qualitative methods. Analyzing health facilities and the impacts that occurred in the field during the tsunami period is the basis for this article and, at the same time, a discussion of describing problems that can be anticipated in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0001.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Aboriginal; Australia; control; diagnosis; identification; prevention; scabies; sarcoptes scabiei; Torres Strait Islander; treatment
Online: 8 January 2018 (16:00:59 CET)
Background: Scabies is an unfortunately neglected tropical skin disease. Scabies occurs in Australia, however it is drastically more common amongst select socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Amongst these, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are affected particularly severely, likely secondary to rampant overcrowding. Methods: This literature review has comprehensively explored the relevant evidence available since the year 2000. Objectives: The objective of this article is to provide updates on the identification, management, and control of scabies in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The article also aims to reveal issues with these factors that may be contributing to the inflated prevalence of scabies amongst these groups. Conclusions: Diagnosis currently depends upon clinical examination, dermatoscopy, and skin scraping microscopy; all of which are prone to error. In Australia, topical permethrin remains first-line treatment, however resistance is developing. Other management aspects to consider are environmental measures and treating secondary infections. Scabies prevention is far more cost-effective than managing advanced individual cases, typically ensured through mass drug administration of permethrin or ivermectin. Sustained prevention can prove troublesome for some communities. In order to address the status of scabies as a neglected tropical disease, these issues must be managed first.