ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0238.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: relativistic astrophysics; theoretical and observational cosmology; redshift; Hubble parameter; quasar; black hole; SNIa; galaxy; M87
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:28:25 CET)
In this part of the two-part series of essays, we first derive some equations for further physical redshift distances. We then analyze a catalog with 132,975 quasars, for which both the apparent magnitude m and the redshift z are given, in order to find the today’s value of the parameter β0 of the theory presented. We then use this value to determine the today’s value of the radius R0a of the Friedmann sphere using a magnitude redshift diagram of 19 SNIa. With the help of the known values of R0a and β0, statements about astrophysical data from the black hole in the galaxy M87 can be made. In addition, the today’s Hubble parameter H0 results from both parameters. Furthermore, we calculate the values of the further physical redshift distances for the black hole in M87 and all 19 SNIa. The resulting parameter values are: β0 ≈ 0.731, R0a ≈ 2,712.48 Mpc and H0 ≈ 65.638 km / (s ∙ Mpc). The today’s mass density of the Friedmann sphere is ρ0 ≈ 4.843 x 10-27 g / cm 3. For the mass of the Friedmann sphere we find MFK ≈ 1.206 x 1056 g. Annotation: Knowledge of the first part  of the series of articles is a prerequisite for understanding this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0039.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: relativistic astrophysics; theoretical and observational cosmology; redshift; Hubble parameter; quasar
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:54:08 CET)
Here we use the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric describing a spatially homogeneous and isotropic universe to derive the cosmological redshift distance in a way which differs from that which can be found in the astrophysical literature. We use the co-moving coordinate re (the subscript e indicates emission) for the place of a galaxy which is emitting photons and ra (the subscript a indicates absorption) for the place of an observer within a different galaxy on which the photons - which were traveling thru the universe - are absorbed. Therefore the real physical distance - the way of light - is calculated by D = a(t0) ra - a(te) re. Here means a(t0) the today’s (t0) scale parameter and a(te) the scale parameter at the time of emission (te) of the photons. Nobody can doubt this real travel way of light: The photons are emitted on the co-moving coordinate place re and are than traveling to the co-moving coordinate place ra. During this traveling the time is moving from te to t0 (te ≤ t0) and therefore the scale parameter is changing in the meantime from a(te) to a(t0). Using this right way of light we calculate some relevant classical cosmological equations (effects) and compare these theoretical results with some measurements of astrophysics. As one result we get e.g. the today’s Hubble parameter H0a ≈ 62.34 km/(s Mpc). This value is smaller than the Hubble parameter H0,Planck ≈ 67.66 km/(s Mpc) resulting from Planck 2018 data  which is discussed in the literature.