ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0299.v1
Online: 26 September 2019 (11:53:23 CEST)
This letter solves an open question of paper spring risen by Yoneda (2019). Universal scaling laws of a paper spring are proposed by using both dimensional analysis and data fitting. It is found that spring force obeys power square law of spring extension, however strong nonlinear to the total twist angle. Without doing any additional works, we have successfully generalize the scaling laws for Poisson ratio 0.3 to the materials with an arbitrary Poisson's ratio with the help of dimensional analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0032.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Karst spring, groundwater, discharge modelling, water management
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:13:29 CET)
The increasing occurrence of widespread drought phenomena is a global environmental emergency, especially for the effects of ongoing climate change on groundwater availability. Dry years and extreme temperatures are common drivers of current climate impacts all over the world, including, for example, freshwater supply for drinking and agriculture purposes, ecosystems, forestry, health, etc.. In this frame, to ensure temporal water availability in water-stressed areas, a sustainable groundwater management is an increasing challenge. Most of groundwater in the South-East Latium Region, Central Italy, as in the whole Apennine Mountains chain, is stored in karst aquifers. In this area important water resources are present, but even here in the last decades they are affected by groundwater depletion as a consequence of occurring drought events, the upward trend in the globally average temperature and the increasing of anthropogenic activities. Due to the lack of flow rates data of springs in many areas of Italy, the spring response modeling could be a useful tool for supporting a proper water resource management. Several research studies proposed methods based on relationships between spring discharges and rainfall data. The goal of this paper is to propose a model, based on rainfall-discharges cross correlations, in order to assess the spring flow rate patterns of Capodacqua di Spigno Spring, which is the main one in the study area. The results obtained using the developed model has been compared to an existing method that uses the SPI index for the estimation of the minimum annual spring discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0085.v1
Online: 14 November 2017 (05:23:06 CET)
This paper deals with the analytical modeling and control of rectilinear snake robots. During recent times snake robots have created much interest among researchers. The rectilinear pattern gait is one of the four biological snake locomotion modes. Rectilinear snakes have been widely used in rescue operations especially in rough terrains especially in narrow spaces where human intervention is not easy. Computational analysis of rectilinear motion is done using MATLAB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0327.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; remote sensing; ecosystems; spring-summer; forest
Online: 14 August 2020 (12:11:37 CEST)
The European heatwave of 2018 led to record-breaking temperatures and extremely dry conditions in many parts of the continent resulting in widespread decrease in agricultural yield, early tree-leaf senescence, and increase in forest fires in Northern Europe. Our study aims to capture the impact of the 2018 European heatwave on terrestrial ecosystem through the lens of a high-resolution solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) data acquired from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. SIF is proposed to be a direct proxy for gross primary productivity (GPP) and thus can be used to draw inferences about changes in photosynthetic activity in vegetation due to extreme events. We explore spatial and temporal SIF variation and anomaly during spring and summer months across different vegetation types (agriculture, broadleaved forest, coniferous forest, and mixed forest) during the European heatwave of 2018 and compare it to non-drought conditions (most of Southern Europe). About one-third of Europe’s land area experienced a consecutive spring and summer drought in 2018. Comparing 2018 to mean (2015-2017) conditions, we found a change in intra-spring season SIF dynamics for all vegetation types, with lower SIF during the start of spring followed by an increase in fluorescence from mid-April. Summer, however, showed a significant decrease in SIF. Our results show that particularly agricultural areas were severely affected by the hotter drought of 2018. Furthermore, the intense heat wave in Central Europe showed about 31% decrease in SIF values during July and August as compared to the mean over three previous years. Furthermore, our MODIS and OCO-2 comparative results indicate that especially for forests, OCO-2 SIF has a quicker response and possible higher sensitivity to drought in comparison to MODIS’s fPAR and NDVI when considering shorter reference periods, which highlights the added value of remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence for studying the impact of drought on vegetation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0681.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: chiseling depth; spring corn; canopy characteristics; photosynthesis quality
Online: 29 October 2018 (12:02:03 CET)
Subsoil tillage loosens compacted soil for better plant growth, but promotes water loss, which is a concern in areas commonly irrigated. Therefore, our objective was to determine the physiological responses of high yield spring corn (Zea mays L.) to Subsoil tillage depth when grown in the western plain irrigation area of Inner Mongolia that leads to the best water use efficiency. The experiment during 2014 and 2015 used Zhengdan958 and Xianyu335 with three differing subsoil tillage depths (30, 40, or 50 cm) as trial factor and shallow rotary as a control. Subsoil tillage increased shoot dry matter accumulation, leading to a greater shoot/root ratio. Subsoil tillage helped retain greater leaf area index in each growth stage, increase the leaf area duration, net assimilation rate, and relative growth rate, with greater effects as tillage was deeper, effectively delaying the aging of the blade. Grain yields were increased by 0.7%–8.9% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment shallow rotary, Water use efficiency were increased by 1.93%–18.49% on average in subsoil tillage treatment compared to shallow rotary, resulting in net income increases by 2.24% to 6.97% compared to shallow rotary. Among the three different subsoil tillage depth treatment, the grain yield, water use efficiency, and net income is the best under the treatment of subsoil tillage depth of 50 cm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0192.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: local climate change; spring drying; rainfall pattern changes
Online: 22 March 2018 (03:59:30 CET)
The City of Pasadena is located in southern California; a region which has a Mediterranean climate and where the vast majority of rainfall occurs between October and April with the period between January and March being the most intense. A significant amount of the local water supply comes from regional rainfall, therefore any changes in precipitation patterns in the area has considerable significance. HYPOTHESIS: Local climate change has been occurring in the Pasadena area over the last 100 years resulting in changes in air temperature and rainfall. AIR TEMPERATURES: Between 1886 and 2016 the air temperature in Pasadena, California has increased significantly, from a minimum of 23.8°C in the daytime and 8.1°C at night between 1911 and 1920 to 27.2°C and 13.3°C between 2011 and 2016. The increase in nighttime temperature was uniform throughout the year, however daytime temperatures showed more seasonal variation. There was little change in the daytime temperatures May through July but more change the rest of the year. For example, the median daytime temperature for June between 1911 and 1920 was 27.9°C but was 28.7°C between 2011 and 2016, a difference of 0.8°C. In contrast, for October for the same periods the median daytime temperatures were 25.6°C and 28.9°C, a difference of 3.3°C. RAINFALL: There has been a change in local rainfall pattern over the same period. In comparing rainfall between 1883 – 1949 and 1950 – 2016, there appeared to be less rainfall in the months of October, December, and April while other months seemed to show no change in rainfall. For example, between the two periods mentioned above, the median rainfall in October was 12.4 mm and 8.9 mm respectively while for December they were 68.6 mm and 40.4 mm. There was comparatively a smaller change in the median volume of rainfall in April (18.8 mm vs. 17.5 mm). However, between 1883 and 2016 there were 13 with less than 1 mm of rain, 12 of which occurred after 1961. In the same line of logic, no measureable amount of rain occurred for 23 Octobers, 15 of those occurred after 1961. CONCLUSION: As air temperatures increased over the last 100 years in the Pasadena area, rainfall may have decreased in October, December, and April.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0139.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: clutch; diaphragm spring; multi-objective; optimization; NSGA-II
Online: 29 November 2016 (05:02:44 CET)
The weight coefficients of the diaphragm spring depend on experiences in the traditional optimization. However, this method not only cannot guarantee the optimal solution but it is also not universal. Therefore, a new optimization target function is proposed. The new function takes the minimum of average compress force changing of the spring and the minimum force of the separation as total objectives. Based on the optimization function, the result of the clutch diaphragm spring in a car is analyzed by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and the solution set of Pareto is obtained. The results show that the pressing force of the diaphragm spring is improved by 4.09%by the new algorithmand the steering separation force is improved by 6.55%, which has better stability and steering portability. The problem of the weight coefficient in the traditional empirical design is solved. The pressing force of the optimized diaphragm spring varied slightly during the abrasion range of the friction film, and the manipulation became remarkably light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0175.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Parametric excitation; Dry-Friction; Magnetic Spring Force; Electronic circuit
Online: 12 January 2022 (14:33:34 CET)
In this paper, we have shown the electronic circuit equivalence of a mechanical system consists of two oscillators coupled with each other. The mechanical design has the effects of the magnetic, resistance forces and the spring constant of the system is periodically varying. We have shown that the system’s state variables, such as the displacements and the velocities, under the effects of different forces, lead to some nonlinear behaviors, like a transition from the fixed point attractor to the chaotic attractor through the periodic and quasi-periodic attractors. We have constructed the equivalent electronic circuit of this mechanical system and have verified the numerically obtained behaviors using the electronic circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD-DEM; Particle-particle interaction; Upper airway; DE; Spring constant
Online: 28 November 2022 (07:29:49 CET)
The fluid flow field at the upper airways is highly complex due to the complex structure of the airway. The inhaled particle flow, the air streamline and the interaction of the continuum and discrete phase could significantly affect the transport behaviour of the inhaled particles. A range of analytical, mathematical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models analyzed the airflow and particle transport in different idealized and asymmetric airway models. A precise understanding of the continuum and discrete phase interaction in realistic human airways is missing, and this study aims to develop a CFD-DEM model for particle transport in realistic airways. This study uses the CFD model for the continuum phase and the discrete element method (DEM) for the discrete phase. A soft sphere approach is used for the interaction of the discrete phase. Proper validation is performed for particle transport efficiency. The CFD-DEM model analyzed the particle transport in an idealized and realistic airway model, and different methods are used to analyze the transport behaviour. During the particle-particle interaction, a stagnation point and a high-pressure zone are observed at the airway model's carinal angle. The numerical results report higher deposition efficiency (DE) for particle-particle interaction than without interaction. The flow field becomes highly complex with the spring constant values, and higher DE is found for high spring constant values. The spring dashpot friction-dshf method shows higher deposition at the upper part of the airways than other interaction methods. The findings of this study and more case-specific analysis would improve the knowledge of aerosol transport in airways and the health risk assessment of the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: humidity sensor; low-power sensors; MEMS; parametric amplification; spring softening
Online: 31 July 2019 (12:00:31 CEST)
We present the design, fabrication, and response of a polymer-based Laterally Amplified Chemo-Mechanical (LACM) humidity sensor based on mechanical leveraging and parametric amplification. The device consists of a sense cantilever asymmetrically patterned with a polymer and flanked by two stationary electrodes on the sides. When exposed to a humidity change, the polymer swells after absorbing the analyte and causes the central cantilever to bend laterally towards one side, causing a change in the measured capacitance. The device features an intrinsic gain due to parametric amplification resulting in an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). 11-fold magnification in sensor response was observed via voltage biasing of the side electrodes without the use of conventional electronic amplifiers. The sensor showed a repeatable and recoverable capacitance change of 11% when exposed to a change in relative humidity from 25-85%. The dynamic characterization of the device also revealed a response time ~1s and demonstrated a competitive response with respect to a commercially available reference chip.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: core-spring-shell system; gravitating system; negative mass; Coulomb-like forces
Online: 8 April 2022 (11:12:34 CEST)
The effect of the negative effective mass emerging in the gravitating core-spring-shell system is considered. The effect appears when the entire system is exerted to the external harmonic force and the frequency of external force approaches to the critical frequency from above. The critical frequency depends on the density of the self-gravitating system only. The scaling law predicting the value of for condensed phases is derived. The generalization of the effect for the Coulomb-like forces is reported
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0259.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: spring water; karst; 16S rRNA gene; membrane filters; metabarcoding; pathogenic bacteria
Online: 12 October 2020 (17:39:14 CEST)
(1) Introduction: Karstic springs are used worldwide by rural communities as sources of fresh water for human use and livestock survival. In Romania, 1/3 of the population has no direct access to the public water supply. The present study is part of a country-wide project on developing simple, quick and cheap methods for seasonal environmental and microbiological monitoring of karstic springs used as drinking water supply by rural populations. Critical steps for the monitoring workflow consist in the evaluation of water quality and choosing of suitable membrane filters to efficiently capture environmental DNA for further microbial diversity estimation by 16S rRNA gene-based metabarcoding; (2) Methods: Several commercial membrane filters of different composition and pore sizes were tested on the water sampled from three karstic springs in Romania, followed by water chemistry and whole community 16S rRNA gene-based metabarcoding analysis; (3) Results: We found that the different types of applied membrane filters provide a varying recovery of diversities and abundances of both overall and pathogenic bacteria; and (4) Conclusions: The result of the experiment with different filters shows which are the best for amplicon-based metabarcoding monitoring of karst springs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0200.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Augmentation,; exoskeleton; lifting strategy; lumbar support; SEA; series elastic actuator; spiral spring; machine design
Online: 14 June 2022 (08:50:27 CEST)
Lumbar support exoskeletons with active and passive actuators are currently the cutting-edge technology for preventing back injuries in workers while lifting heavy objects. However, many challenges still exist in both types of exoskeletons, including rigid actuators, risks of human-robot interaction, high battery consumption, bulky design, and limited assistance. In this paper, the design of a compact, lightweight energy storage device combined with rotary series elastic (ES-RSEA) is proposed for use in a lumbar support exoskeleton to increase the level of assistance and exploit the human bioenergy during the two stages of the lifting task. ES takes the responsibility to store and release passive mechanical energy while RSEA provides excellent compliance and prevents injury from the human body's undesired movement. The experimental tests on the spiral spring showed excellent linear characteristics (above 99%) with an actual spring stiffness of 9.96 Nm/rad. The results demonstrate that ES-RSEA can provide maximum torque assistance in the ascent phase with 66.6 Nm while generating nearly 21 Nm of spring torque during descent without turning on the DC motor. Ultimately, the proposed design can maximize the energy storage of human energy, exploit the biomechanics of lifting tasks, and reduce the burden on human effort to perform lifting tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0414.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: avelets; Non-uniform wavelets; CAPM; Wavelets CAPM; systematic (market) risk; scaling; Arab spring revolutions.
Online: 20 August 2021 (12:43:26 CEST)
The Capital Asset Pricing Model is a widely applied model to describe risky markets and to deduce their systematic risk. Its estimation, therefore, remains an important task in Econo-financial studies. Empirically, it focuses on the impact of return interval on the betas. Existing studies somehow turn around the same idea of measuring the value of the beta according to the uniform intervals of time during a fixed period. However, it is noticed easily, and especially in the last decade that many factors such as socio-political, and Econo-environmental ones have led to a perturbation in the timeline of the worldwide development, and especially in countries and regions having political changes. This led us to introduce a new idea of risk estimation taking into account the non-uniform changes in markets by introducing a non-uniform wavelet analysis. We aim to explain the Econo-political situation of Arab spring countries and the effect of the revolutions on the market beta. The main novelty is firstly the construction of a dynamic backward-forward model for missing data, and next the application of random non-uniform wavelets. The proposed procedure will be acted empirically on a sample corresponding to TUNINDEX stock as a representative index of the Tunisian market actively traded over the period January 14, 2016, to January 13, 2021. The chosen 5-years period is important as it constitutes the first 5-years-after the revolution and depends strongly on the Socio-Econo-political stability in the revolutionary countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Discrete Multiphysics Modelling; Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics; Lattice Spring Model; Particle-base method; Aortic Valve; Calcification; Stenosis
Online: 7 April 2020 (13:33:02 CEST)
This study proposes a 3D particle-base (discrete) multiphysics approach for modelling calcification in the aortic valve. Different stages of calcification (from mild to severe) were simulated, and their effect on the cardiac output assessed. The cardiac flow rate decreases with the level of calcification. In particular, there is a critical level of calcification below which the flow rate decreases dramatically. Mechanical stress on the membrane is also calculated. The results show that, as calcification progresses, spots of high mechanical stress appear. Firstly, they concentrate in the regions connecting two leaflets; when severe calcification is reached, then they extend to the area at the basis of the valve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0733.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Discrete multiphysics; smooth particle hydrodynamics; Lattice Spring Model; Fluid-structure interaction; particle-based method; Coronary stent; Atherosclerosis
Online: 30 June 2021 (11:55:59 CEST)
Stenting is a common method for treating atherosclerosis. A metal or polymer stent is deployed to open the stenosed artery or vein. After the stent is deployed, the blood flow dynamics influence the mechanics by compressing and expanding the structure. If the stent does not respond properly to the resulting stress, vascular wall injury or re-stenosis can occur. In this work, Discrete Multiphysics is used to study the mechanical deformation of the coronary stent and its relationship with the blood flow dynamics. The major parameters responsible for deforming the stent are sort in terms of dimensionless numbers and a relationship between the elastic forces in the stent and pressure forces in the fluid is established. The blood flow and the stiffness of the stent material contribute significantly to the stent deformation and affect the rate of deformation. The stress distribution in the stent is not uniform with the higher stresses occurring at the nodes of the structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0216.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: tidal power density; in-stream renewable energy; peak spring tide flow; annual energy production; Gulf of California
Online: 24 February 2020 (03:14:28 CET)
We analyzed the peak spring tidal current speeds, annual mean tidal power densities (TPD) and annual energy production (AEP) obtained from experiment 06.1, referred as the "HYCOM model" throughout, of the three dimensional (3D), global model HYCOM in an area covering the Baja California Pacific and the Gulf of California. The HYCOM model is forced with astronomical tides and surface winds alone, and therefore is particularly suitable to assess the tidal current and wind-driven current contribution to in-stream energy resources. We find two areas within the Gulf of California, one in the Great Island Region and one in the Upper Gulf of California, where peak spring tidal flows reach speeds of 1.1 meters per second. Second to fifth-generation tidal stream devices would be suitable for deployment in these two areas, which are very similar in terms of tidal in-stream energy resources. However, they are also very different in terms of sediment type and range in water depth, posing different challenges for in-stream technologies. The highest mean TPD value when excluding TPDs equal or less than 50 W/m2 (corresponding to the minimum velocity threshold for energy production) is of 172.8 W/m2, and is found near the town of San Felipe, at (lat lon) = (31.006 -114.64); here energy would be produced during 39.00% of the time. Finally, wind-driven currents contribute very little to the mean TPD and the total AEP. Therefore, the device, the grid, and any energy storage plans need to take into account the periodic tidal current fluctuations, for optimal exploitation of the resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Central Europe; climate warming; flowering; frost damage; genetic variability; historical roses; climber roses; seasonality; spring phenology; winter hardiness
Online: 20 December 2021 (12:38:55 CET)
The genetic pool of valuable old ornamental cultivars and their in situ maintenance may be threated by climate change. Meanwhile, the ornamental plants like roses make up an important share of both gardens and urban green spaces, where they are particularly vulnerable to multistress growth conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of changing climatic conditions on growth and flowering of 11 historic climber roses through long-term studies (2000-2017) conducted in Central Europe. The evaluation of plants consisted of assessment of frost damage and the timing of early phenological stages (starting of bud break, leaf unfolding) as well as gathering data on beginning, fullness and end of flowering and its abundance. Frost damage was not recorded in any year only in ‘Mme Plantier’, and did not occur for any cultivar after the winter in the years 2007, 2008, and 2014. Only a little damage to one-year shoots was recorded after the winter in the years 2015-2017. Frost damage to ‘Alberic Barbier’, ‘Albertine’, ‘Chaplin's Pink Climber’, ‘Orange Triumph clg’ and ‘Venusta Pendula’ led to pruning to ground level in every year excluding those listed above. Frost damage of once blooming roses limited their flowering; however, the many-year data-sets showed a trend for decreased frost damage and improved abundance of flowering, and these results can be interpreted as a response to the increase of average air temperature. The timing of bud breaking and leaf development in all climber roses was strictly correlated with average air temperature in the dormancy period. The reactions of climber roses to weather conditions confirmed the influence of climatic changes on ornamental crop plants in Central Europe, introducing the potential possibility for the wider application of climber roses, but without certainty of flowering every year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0501.v3
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Timoshenko beam; rotary inertia; moment shear force circular frequency curvature relationship; spring mass system; closed-form solutions; first-order dynamic stiffness matrix; second-order vibration analysis
Online: 7 October 2022 (10:34:31 CEST)
This study presents an exact solution to the free vibration analysis of a uniform Timoshenko beam, with a harmonic vibration being assumed. The Timoshenko beam theory covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation and rotary inertia considerations. In this paper, a moment-shear force-circular frequency-curvature relationship was presented. The complete study was based on this relationship and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations were derived. The free vibration response of single-span systems and spring-mass systems was analyzed; closed-form formulations of matrices expressing the boundary conditions were presented and the natural frequencies were determined by solving the eigenvalue problem. Systems with intermediate mass, spring, or spring-mass system were also analyzed. Furthermore, first-order dynamic stiffness matrices in local coordinates were derived. Finally, a second-order analysis of beams resting on an elastic Winkler foundation was conducted. The results obtained in this paper were in good agreement with those of other studies.