ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0117.v1
Online: 9 June 2020 (05:00:26 CEST)
Speckle noise is one of the most difficult noises to remove especially in medical applications. It is a nuisance in ultrasound imaging systems which is used in about half of all medical screening systems. Thus, noise removal is an important step in these systems, thereby creating reliable, automated, and potentially low cost systems. Herein, a generalized approach MFNR (Multi-Frame Noise Removal) is used, which is a complete Noise Removal system using KDE (Kernal Density Estimation). Any given type of noise can be removed if its probability density function (PDF) is known. Herein, we extracted the PDF parameters using KDE. Noise removal and detail preservation are not contrary to each other as the case in single-frame noise removal methods. Our results showed practically complete noise removal using MFNR algorithm compared to standard noise removal tools. The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) performance was used as a comparison metric. This paper is an extension to our previous paper where MFNR Algorithm was showed as a general purpose complete noise removal tool for all types of noises
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Gaussian noise; Speckle Noise; Mean square error(MSE); DE noising filters; Maximum difference value (MD); Peak signal to noise ratio(PSNR)
Online: 4 June 2020 (05:52:55 CEST)
Noise reduction in medical images is a perplexing undertaking for the researchers in digital image processing. Noise generates maximum critical disturbances as well as touches the medical images quality, ultrasound images in the field of biomedical imaging. The image is normally considered as gathering of data and existence of noises degradation the image quality. It ought to be vital to reestablish the original image noises for accomplishing maximum data from images. Medical images are debased through noise through its transmission and procurement. Image with noise reduce the image contrast and resolution, thereby decreasing the diagnostic values of the medical image. This paper mainly focuses on Gaussian noise, Pepper noise, Uniform noise, Salt and Speckle noise. Different filtering techniques can be adapted for noise declining to improve the visual quality as well as reorganization of images. Here four types of noises have been undertaken and applied on medical images. Besides numerous filtering methods like Gaussian, median, mean and Weiner applied for noise reduction as well as estimate the performance of filter through the parameters like mean square error (MSE), peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), Average difference value (AD) and Maximum difference value (MD) to diminish the noises without corrupting the medical image data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0107.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: dynamic speckle; activity; temporal history speckle pattern; Varnish; Cyclododecane
Online: 16 November 2017 (07:14:44 CET)
Dynamic laser speckle is applied as a reliable sensor of activity in all sort of material. Traditional applications are based on a time rate that is usually higher than 10 frames-per-second (FPS). Even in drying processes, where there is a high activity in the first moments after the painting and a slow activity after some minutes or hours, the process is based on the acquisition of images in a time rate that is the same in both moments of high and low activity. In this work, we present an alternative approach to follow the drying of paint and the other processes related to restauration of paintings that takes long-term to reduce the activity. We illuminated, using three different wavelength lasers, an accelerator (Cyclododecane) and a varnish used in restauration of paintings and monitor them at long-term drying using an alternative fps, comparing the results to the traditional method. The work also presents a way to do the monitoring using a portable equipment. The results present the feasibility to use the portable device and show the improvement in the sensitivity of the dynamic laser speckle to sense long-term process regarding the drying of Cyclododecane and Varnish used in restauration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: speckle photography; in-process measurement; deep rolling process
Online: 7 May 2021 (08:55:13 CEST)
In the concept of the process signature, the relationship between a material load and the modification remaining in the workpiece is used to better understand and optimize manufacturing processes. The basic prerequisite for this is to be able to measure the loads occurring during the machining process in the form of mechanical deformations. Speckle photography is suitable for this in-process measurement task and is already used in a variety of ways for in-plane deformation measurements. The shortcoming of this fast and robust measurement technique based on image correlation techniques is that out-of-plane deformations in the direction of the measurement system cannot be detected and increases the measurement error of in-plane deformations. In this paper, we investigate a method that infers local out-of-plane motions of the workpiece surface from the decorrelation of speckle patterns and is thus able to reconstruct three-dimensional deformation fields. The implementation of the evaluation method enables a fast reconstruction of 3D deformation fields, so that the in-process capability remains given. First measurements in a deep rolling process show that dynamic deformations underneath the die can be captured and demonstrate the suitability of the speckle method for manufacturing process analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0237.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Independent Component Analysis; PolSAR; speckle filtering; statistical classification
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:49:37 CEST)
The Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been recently introduced as a reliable alternative to identify canonical scattering mechanisms within Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images. This manuscript addresses two important aspects when applying such methods on real data, namely speckle filtering and statistical classification with ICA. A novel PolSAR data processing framework is introduced by adjusting the Lee's sigma filter to the particular nature of the Touzi's polarimetric decomposition. In its current form, it allows the use of the ICA mixing matrix in the derived speckle filter. An extension of the Fromont at al. iterative segmentation is introduced, equally. This proposed framework is tested using P band airborne PolSAR data acquired for the ESA campaign TropiSAR campaign.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0294.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: speckle; coherence; interference; differential absorption lidar; radiometry; space mission
Online: 26 July 2019 (00:47:56 CEST)
In the context of the French-German space lidar mission MERLIN dedicated to the determination of the atmospheric methane content, an end-to-end mission simulator is being developed. In order to check whether the instrument design meets the performance requirements, simulations have to count all the sources of noise on the measurements like the optical energy variability induced by speckle. Speckle is due to interference as the lidar beam are quasi monochromatic. Speckle contribution to the error budget has to be estimated but also simulated. In this paper, the speckle theory is revisited and applied to MERLIN double pulsed IPDA lidar and also to the DLR demonstrator CHARM-F. Results show: on the signal path, speckle noise depends mainly on the size of the illuminating area on ground; on the solar flux, speckle is fully negligible both because the pixel size and the optical filter spectral width; on energy monitoring path a decorrelation mechanism is needed to reduce speckle noise on averaged data. Speckle noises for MERLIN and CHARM-F can be simulated by Gaussian noises with only one random draw by shot separately for energy monitoring and signal paths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: echocardiography; speckle-tracking; frame rate; global longitudinal strain; left ventricle
Online: 15 April 2021 (09:39:24 CEST)
Background: global longitudinal strain (GLS) measures myocardial deformation and is a sensitive modality for detecting subclinical myocardial dysfunction and predicting cardiac outcomes. The accuracy of speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is dependent on temporal resolution. A novel software enables relatively high frame rate (Hi-FR) (~200 fps) echocardiographic images acquisition which empowers us to investigate the impact of Hi-FR imaging on GLS analysis. The goal of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of Hi-FR for STE. Methods: In this prospective study, we acquired echocardiographic images using clinical scanners on patients with normal left ventricular systolic function using Hi-FR and conventional frame rate (Reg-FR) (~50 FPS). GLS values were evaluated on apical 4-, 2- and 3-chamber images acquired in both Hi-FR and Reg-FR. Inter-observer and intra-observer variabilities were assessed in Hi-FR and Reg-FR. Results: There were 143 resting echocardiograms with normal LVEF included in this study. The frame rate of Hi-FR was 190 ± 25 and Reg-FR was 50 ± 3, and the heart rate was 71 ± 13. Strain values measured in Hi-FR were significantly higher than those measured in Reg-FR (all p < 0.001). Inter-observer and intra-observer correlations were strong in both Hi-FR and Reg-FR. Conclusions: We demonstrated that strain values were significantly higher using Hi-FR when compared with Reg-FR in patients with normal LVEF. It is plausible that higher temporal resolution enabled the measurement of myocardial strain at desired time point. The result of this study may inform clinical adoption of the novel technology. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the value of Hi-FR to assess myocardial strain in stress echocardiography in the setting of tachycardia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0383.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: SAR speckle; rough surface scattering; exponential correlation; very high resolution
Online: 20 July 2018 (12:52:02 CEST)
The aim of this study is to investigate, by means of experimental measurements and full-wave simulations, the dominant factors for the very high-resolution (VHR) radar image speckles from exponential correlated rough surfaces. A Ka-band radar system was used to collect the return signal from such a surface sample fabricated by 3D printing, and that signal was further processed into images at different resolution scales, where the image samples were obtained by horizontally turning around the surface sample. To cross-validate the results and to further discuss the VHR speckle properties, full wave simulations by full 3D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method were conducted with 1600 realizations for the speckle analysis. At the considered very high resolution, speckle statistics show divergence from the fully developed Rayleigh distribution. The factors that impact on the high-resolution speckle properties from exponential correlated rough surface, are analyzed in views of the equivalent number of scatterers theory and scattering scales, respectively. From the data results and extended discussions, it is evident that both of the above factors matter for VHR speckle of backscattering, from the exponential correlated rough surface as a good representative for the ground surface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0009.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Holography; diffractive optics; incoherent optics; Fresnel incoherent correlation holography; Imaging; speckle
Online: 1 December 2020 (09:55:45 CET)
Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) is a well-established incoherent imaging technique. In FINCH, three self-interference holograms are recorded with calculated phase differences between the two interfering, differently modulated object waves and projected into a complex hologram. The object is reconstructed without the twin image and bias terms by a numerical Fresnel back propagation of the complex hologram. A modified approach to implement FINCH by a single camera shot by pre-calibrating the system involving recording of the point spread function library and reconstruction by a non-linear cross-correlation has been introduced recently. The expression of the imaging characteristics from the modulation functions in original FINCH and the modified approach by pre-calibration in spatial and polarization multiplexing schemes are reviewed. The study reveals that a reconstructing function completely independent of the function of the phase mask is required for the faithful expression of the characteristics of the modulating function in the image reconstruction. In polarization multiplexing method by cross-correlation, a partial expression was observed, while in spatial multiplexing method by cross-correlation, the imaging characteristics converged towards a uniform behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0038.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SAR offset and speckle tracking; glacier velocity; Radarsat-2 Wide Fine; Svalbard
Online: 10 September 2016 (05:03:14 CEST)
Glacier dynamics play an important role in the mass balance of many glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. In this study we exploit Radarsat-2 (RS-2) Wide Fine (WF) data to determine the surface speed of Svalbard glaciers in the winters of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 using Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) offset and speckle tracking. The RS-2 WF mode combines the advantages of the large spatial coverage of the Wide mode (150 x 150 km) and the high pixel resolution (9m) of the Fine mode and thus has a major potential for glacier velocity monitoring from space through offset and speckle tracking. Faster flowing glaciers (1.95 m d-1 - 2.55 m d-1) which are studied in detail are Nathorstbreen, Kronebreen, Kongsbreen and Monacobreen. Using our Radarsat-2 WF dataset, we compare the performance of two SAR tracking algorithms, namely the GAMMA Remote Sensing Software and a custom written MATLAB script (GRAY method) that has primarily been used in the Canadian Arctic. Both algorithms provide comparable results, especially for the faster flowing glaciers and the termini of slower tidewater glaciers. A comparison of the WF data to RS-2 Ultrafine and Wide mode data reveals the superiority of RS-2 WF data over the Wide mode data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ultrasound image; speckle noise; wiener filter; average filter; wavelet filter; adaptive filter; fractional filter
Online: 15 March 2018 (06:47:19 CET)
Speckle noise corrupt the major part of ultrasound image, because of which the quality deteriorate and loss of valuable information leads to false diagnosis. A large community of images like synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image, Synthetic image, and simulated ultrasound image, require despeckling at pre-processing stage for better processing. Cleaning the speckle from image and preserving the edge details is a vital task. Nowadays not only despeckling is considered as an important process but also preserving information at boundary and edges of image is also important. As most of the algorithms able to remove speckle noise but fails to preserve the details of edges. This paper covers several recent methods for removal of speckle noise along with various metrics opted for comparisons. The distinctive part of this paper is, a mathematical and parametric review has been done. Also a table is also included which summarizes the entire paper.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; heart failure; myocarditis; pericarditis; speckle tracking echocardiography; transthoracic echocardiography; immunosuppressants; glucocorticoids; therapy; biomarkers
Online: 25 January 2023 (09:45:32 CET)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) myocarditis is presumed to be rare but associated with ad-verse outcomes. If SLE diagnosis has not previously been established, its clinical presentation is often unspecific and difficult to recognize. Furthermore, there is a lack of data in the scientific literature regarding myocarditis and its treatment in systemic immune-mediated diseases, leading to its late recognition and undertreatment. We present the case of a young woman whose first lupus manifestations included acute perimyocarditis, among other symptoms and signs that provided clues to the diagnosis of SLE. Transthoracic and speckle tracking echocardiography were helpful in detecting early abnormalities in myocardial wall thickness and contractility while waiting for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Since the patient presented with acute decompensated heart failure (HF), HF treatment was promptly started in parallel with immunosuppressive therapy, with a good response. In the treatment of myocarditis with heart failure, we were guided by the echocardiographic findings, biomarkers for myocardial injury N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and hs-troponin I, biomarkers for systemic inflammation erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and biomarkers for SLE disease activity (Complement C)3, C4, and anti-dsDNA levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0181.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: ultrasound image analysis; speckle noise; synthetic ultrasound images; texture features; local binary patterns; image quality assessment
Online: 30 October 2017 (09:37:59 CET)
Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modelling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. An important aspect of simulated synthetic ultrasound images is the requirement for extensive quality assessment for ensuring that they have the texture characteristics and gray-tone features of real images. This paper presents texture feature analysis of synthetic ultrasound images using local binary patterns (LBP) and demonstrates the usefulness of a set of LBP features for image quality assessment. Experimental results presented in the paper clearly show how these features could provide an accurate quality metric that correlates very well with subjective evaluations performed by clinical experts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: residual stress; VT6 (Ti-6Al-4V); shot peening; X-ray diffraction; speckle interferometry; Ga-ion FIB-DIC
Online: 4 March 2022 (13:34:03 CET)
Shot peening has become a well-established technique for the introduction of beneficial compressive Residual Stresses (RS) into the near-surface layers of metallic materials for the purpose of preventing or suppressing fatigue crack nucleation and growth. Ti-alloys are widely used to fabricate compressor blades of aeroengines. Titanium blades that may be susceptible to different modes of damage under cyclic loading (high cycle fatigue, fretting fatigue) are often subjected to shot peening to extend their safe operating time. The control and monitoring of residual stresses in titanium blades is of great importance to assure the safety of aeroengines. The techniques for residual stress evaluation include mechanical methods (material removal) as well as physical methods such as X-ray diffraction. Perhaps the most common and practically accessible form of the latter is the method. Conventional laboratory X-ray diffractometers typically probe samples to the depths up to ~20 µm that correspond to 1x...5x the average grain size for typical metals and alloys. The limitations of the method have been identified and reviewed in the literature, motivating the use of other semi-destructive approaches to evaluate the residual stresses in deeper layers and at more sharply defined locations. In the present report we present a case study of the comparison between non-destructive and semi-destructive evaluation techniques, namely the X-ray diffraction method against the mechanical and FIB-DIC ring-core drilling applied to the samples of VT6 (Russian designation of Ti-6Al-4V) titanium alloy after shot peening with 1 mm steel balls. Mechanical drilling of circular holes of ~2 mm diameter with laser speckle interferometry monitoring of strains gives a rough spatial resolution of a few millimeters, while the Korsunsky FIB-DIC method of Ga-ion beam micro-ring core milling within FIB-SEM with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) deformation analysis delivers spatial resolution down to a few micrometers. Good agreement has been found between the X-ray and FIB-DIC estimates of RS variation profiles as a function of depth in shot peened titanium alloy samples. Some advances in the FIB-DIC method are presented and discussed in terms of the acceleration of data acquisition and interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0065.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: SLM; Al-Si-Mg alloy; residual stress; contour measurements; laser speckle-pattern interferometry; Xe pFIB-DIC; FEniCS
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:06:21 CET)
SLM Additive Manufacturing has demonstrated great potential for aerospace applications when structural elements of individual design and/or complex shape need to be promptly supplied. 3D-printable AlSi10Mg (RS-300) alloy is widely used for the fabrication of different structures in aerospace industry. The importance of the evaluation of residual stresses that arise as a result of complex 3D-printing process thermal history is widely discussed in literature, but systematic assessment remains lacking for their magnitude, spatial distribution, and comparative analysis of different evaluation techniques. In this study we report the results of a systematic study of residual stresses in a 3D-printed double tower shaped samples using several approaches: the contour method, blind hole drilling laser speckle interferometry, X-ray diffraction, and Xe pFIB-DIC micro-ring-core milling analysis. We show that a high level of tensile and compressive residual stresses is inherited from SLM 3D-printing and retained for longer than 6 months. The stresses vary over a significant proportion of the material yield stress. All residual stress evaluation techniques considered returned comparable values of residual stresses even regardless of dramatically different dimensional scales from millimeters for the Contour Method down, laser speckle interferometry and XRD and down to small fractions of a mm (70 μm) for Xe pFIB-DIC ring-core drilling. The use of residual stress evaluation is discussed in the context of optimizing the printing strategy to enhance the mechanical performance and long-term durability.