ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Social Anxiety Disorder; Social Phobia, Online Survey; Adult, Oman; Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale
Online: 8 August 2020 (09:39:49 CEST)
Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is among the most common anxiety disorders worldwide with data largely emerging from the Euro-American and Pacific Rim populations. In contrast, there is a dearth of studies among the populations of Arabian Gulf countries including Oman. This study has two interrelated aims: (i) to explore the prevalence of SAD among Omani adults, and (ii) to tease out the links between sociodemographic factors and SAD in Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional study via an online survey was conducted among 1019 adult Omani nationals residing in Oman. The presence of SAD was assessed using the Arabic version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Result: Nearly half the participants (45.9%, n=468) endorsed themselves as having features of SAD as defined by LSAS. In the multivariate logistic analysis, participants below 40 years of age were 1.6 times (OR=1.568, p=0.026) more likely to have SAD than those who were 40 and older. Women were 1.3 times (OR=1.348, p=0.038) more likely to endorse SAD than men. Participants who had secondary or undergraduate education were respectively 1.5 times (OR=1.45, p=0.014) and 2.5 times (OR=2.509, p<.001) to have SAD than who were postgraduates. Conclusion: The present data suggest that 45.9% of the participants reached the cut-off for case-ness in LSAS, which is high compared to reports from other populations. As online survey respondents tend to belong to similar demographics, the current results need not be representative of the Omani adult population, which calls for studies that adopt more inclusive survey methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0646.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: WHO-5 Well-being; COVID-19; social distancing; preventive measures; Vietnam
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:35:46 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures implemented may considerably affect people’s lives. This study aimed to assess the well-being of Vietnamese people after COVID-19 lockdown measures were lifted and life gradually returned to normal. An online survey was organized from 21st to 25th April 2020 among Vietnamese residents aged 18 and over. Besides collecting socio-demographic and COVID-19-related data, the WHO-5 Well-Being Index (scored 0–25) was used to score participants’ well-being. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of well-being. A total of 1922 responses were analyzed (mean age: 31 years; 30.5% male). Mean well-being score was 17.35±4.97. Determinants of high well-being score (≥13) included older age, eating healthy food, practising physical exercise, working from home, and adhering to the COVID-19 preventive measures. Female participants, persons worried about their relatives’ health, and smokers were more likely to have a low well-being score. In conclusion, after the lockdown measures were lifted, the Vietnamese people continued to follow COVID-19 preventive measures and most of them scored high on the well-being scale. Waiting to achieve large scale COVID-19 vaccine coverage, promoting preventive COVID-19 measures remains important, together with strategies to guarantee the well-being of the Vietnamese people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Online Safety; Online Risk; Online Behaviors; Gender Disparities; High School Students; Social Media
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:15:59 CET)
In the last decade, readily available electronic devices have created unprecedented opportunities for teens to access a wide variety of information and media – both positive and negative – on the internet. Despite the increasing number of initiatives taking place worldwide intended to assess and mitigate the online risks encountered by children and adolescents, there is still a need for a better understanding of how adolescents use the internet and what consequences they may face. We conducted a cross sectional online survey of a convenience sample of 733 8th and 9th grade students in Utah. The survey contained eight questions regarding students’ exposure to three types of online risk scenarios: content risk, contact risk, and commercial risk. Independent variables included students’ online behaviors, use of social media and private messaging apps, and adult supervision of online activities. Logistic and negative binomial regression models indicated that female gender, social media use, and chatting with strangers were associated with exposure to multiple unsafe online scenarios. Our results provide critical information to practitioners involved in the development of educational initiatives by building a profile of potentially risky online behaviors and allow them to tailor their initiatives to meet the needs of more vulnerable populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0633.v1
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:29:12 CEST)
Delay-tolerant networks (DTN) is an approach to deal with scarce network connectivity found in sparse mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) which makes the problem of routing messages a challenging task. DTNs have find their usefulness in many challenging environments such as tactical networks, underwater sensor networks, wildlife monitoring, disaster recovery etc. Pocket Switched Networks (PSNs) have emerged as a new application of the delay tolerant networks where network nodes are computing devices carried by humans. Hence, the study of how humans interact in their day-to-day life, the places they visit frequently, the people they meet frequently, the social groups in which they participate on regular basis etc. can help improve routing process in PSNs. This type of routing inspired from the way humans interact with each other is referred to as social based routing and had been a recent topic of research in the field of DTNs. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the various social-based algorithms that have been designed for Delay Tolerant Networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0502.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Online exam, cheating prevention, discrete optimization, social distancing
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:20:46 CEST)
Cheating prevention in online exams is often hard and costly to tackle with proctoring, and it even sometimes involves privacy issues, especially in social distancing due to the pandemic of COVID-19. Here we propose a low-cost and privacy-preserving anti-cheating scheme by programmatically minimizing the cheating gain. A novel anti-cheating scheme we developed theoretically ensures that the cheating gain of all students can be controlled below a desired level aided by the prior knowledge of students’ abilities and a proper assignment of question sequences. Furthermore, a heuristic greedy algorithm we developed can refine an assignment of questions from a cyclic pool of question sequences to efficiently reduce the cheating gain. Compared to the integer linear programming and min-max matching methods in a small-scale simulation, our heuristic algorithm provides results close to the optimal solutions offered by the two standard discrete optimization methods. Hence, our anti-cheating approach could potentially be a cost-effective solution to the well-known cheating problem even without proctoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0646.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: social media; hate speech; text classification
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:12:07 CET)
The exponential increase in the use of the Internet and social media over the last two decades has changed human interaction. This has led to many positive outcomes, but at the same time it has brought risks and harms. While the volume of harmful content online, such as hate speech, is not manageable by humans, interest in the academic community to investigate automated means for hate speech detection has increased. In this study, we analyse six publicly available datasets by combining them into a single homogeneous dataset and classify them into three classes, abusive, hateful or neither. We create a baseline model and we improve model performance scores using various optimisation techniques. After attaining a competitive performance score, we create a tool which identifies and scores a page with effective metric in near-real time and uses the same as feedback to re-train our model. We prove the competitive performance of our multilingual model on two langauges, English and Hindi, leading to comparable or superior performance to most monolingual models.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0327.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online exam; social distancing; statistical analysis; game theory
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:55:34 CEST)
In the current pandemic of COVID-19, students and faculty are subject to social distancing and online learning. How to test students in this unprecedented environment is a new educational challenge with immediate and global impacts. The main contribution of this paper is to establish the feasibility that by a clever design we can control the average gain (which is referred to as the g-factor) from cheating behaviors to a degree as small as pre-specified so that accurate and reliable online exams can be administered. It is underlined that even after the pandemic the methods and systems in the spirit of our proposal are still valuable for cost-effective exams to promote open courses and internet-based education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0494.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Radicalisation; Social Media; Public Mental Health; Online Radicalisation
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:36:22 CEST)
This systematic review seeks to position online radicalisation within whole system frameworks incorporating individual, family, community and wider structural influences, whilst reporting evidence of public mental health approaches for individuals engaging in radical online content. Methods: Authors searched Medline (via Ovid), PsycInfo (via Ebscohost) and Web of Science (Core Collection), with the use of Boolean operators across ‘extremism’, ‘online content’, and ‘intervention’. Results: Following assessment of full text, all retrieved papers had to be excluded. Results from six excluded articles which did not fit inclusion criteria but identified theoretical relationships between all three elements of online extremism, psychological outcomes, and intervention strategy, were discussed. Authors found no articles outlining public mental health approaches to specifically online radicalisation. Conclusions: There is an immediate need for further research in this field given the increase in different factions of radicalised beliefs resulting from online, particularly social media, usage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: opinion formation models; information cascades; ranking algorithms; social media
Online: 5 April 2023 (12:56:21 CEST)
Information cascades (tree-like structures formed by posts, comments, likes, replies, etc.) constitute the spine of the public online information environment, reflecting its various trends, evolving with it and, importantly, affecting its development. While users participate in online discussions, they display their views and thus contribute to the growth of cascades. At the same time, users’ opinions are influenced by cascades’ elements. The current paper aims to advance our knowledge regarding this social phenomenon by developing an agent-based model in which agents participate in a discussion around a post on the Internet. Agents display their opinions by writing comments on the post and liking them (i.e., leaving positive assessments). The result of these processes is dual: on the one hand, agents develop an information cascade; on the other hand, they update their views. Our purpose is to understand how agents’ activity, openness to influence, and cognitive constraints (that condition the amount of information individuals are able to proceed with) affect opinion dynamics. We also control for social contagions (when people’ perception of a message may depend not only on the message’s opinion, but also on how other individuals perceive this object, with more positive evaluations increasing the probability of adoption) and ranking algorithms that steer the order in which agents learn new messages. Among other things, we demonstrated that replies to disagreeable opinions are extremely effective for promoting your own position. In contrast, likes have a tiny effect on this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0258.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: hate speech; artificial intelligence; social media platforms; content moderation; freedom of expression; non-discrimination
Online: 17 March 2022 (15:26:41 CET)
Artificial Intelligence is increasingly being used by social media platforms to tackle online hate speech. The sheer quantity of content, the speed at which is it developed and the enhanced pressure companies are facing by States to remove hate speech quickly from their platforms have led to a tricky situation. This commentary argues that automated mechanisms, which may have biased datasets and be unable to pick up on the nuances of language, should not be left unattended with hate speech as this can lead to issues of violating freedom of expression and the right to non-discrimination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social support; emotional maturity; anxiety; online learning
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:27 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia makes a significant impact both physically and psychologically. One month after the President of the Republic of Indonesia announced about the COVID-19 patient cases, the Indonesian Child Protection Commission data during April 2020, depicted that 76.7% of children were not happy to participate in distance learning because 81.8% were only given assignments by the teacher and 73.2% felt they had a heavy task and had a short period of time to complete. This reaction is an indicator of the children’s anxiety about distance learning. The anxiety that occurs in these students is assumed to depend on their social support and emotional maturity. When students get optimal family support and are able to control their emotions in the face of a pandemic, they can reduce anxiety in facing online learning. The subjects of this study were 202 junior high and high school students. The results showed that social support and emotional maturity simultaneously affect anxiety in online learning (Freg = 45.066, p = 0.00 <0.01). These results can be used as a basis for providing psycho-education to increase family support and emotional maturity to reduce anxiety in online learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0251.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: social robots; behavioural models; assistive robotics; cognitive architectures; empathy; human-robot interaction
Online: 20 May 2019 (12:31:23 CEST)
The cooperation between humans and robots is becoming increasingly important in our society. Consequently, there is a growing interest in the development of models that can enhance the interaction between humans and robots. A key challenge in the Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) field is to provide robots with cognitive and affective capabilities, developing architectures that let them establish empathetic relationships with users. Several models have been proposed in recent years to solve this open-challenge. This work provides a survey of the most relevant attempts/works. In details, it offers an overview of the architectures present in literature focusing on three specific aspects of HRI: the development of adaptive behavioural models, the design of cognitive architectures, and the ability to establish empathy with the user. The research was conducted within two databases: Scopus and Web of Science. Accurate exclusion criteria were applied to screen the 1007 articles found (at the end 30 articles were selected). For each work, an evaluation of the model is made. Pros and cons of each work are detailed by analysing the aspects that can be improved so that an enjoyable interaction between robots and users can be established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Online content; Social media; Legal frameworks; TCRA; Tanzania; Online anonymity
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:41:53 CEST)
This paper examines the challenges to justice in Tanzania posed by the proliferation of anonymous social media accounts and the dissemination of offensive and harassing content. The study analyzes the legal frameworks governing online content in Tanzania, including the Electronic and Postal Communications Act and the Electronic and Postal Communications (Online Content) Regulation of 2018, and highlights their shortcomings in identifying the publishers of such content. The paper also discusses the Legal and Human Rights Center's challenge to the EPOCA regulation and the authorities and responsible organs identified to deter, adjudicate, and open court processes in dealing with alleged offenses arising from online published content. Ultimately, the paper argues that a better understanding of the hindrances to justice in Tanzania must consider the paucity of legal frameworks governing published and online social media content. The findings of this study have significant implications for policymakers, legal practitioners, and civil society organizations seeking to promote accountability and protect human rights in Tanzania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0141.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: twitter spam detection; adversarial machine learning; online social networks; survey
Online: 13 May 2019 (01:49:41 CEST)
Online Social Networks (OSNs), such as Facebook and Twitter, have become a very important part of many people’s daily lives. Unfortunately, the high popularity of these platforms makes them very attractive to spammers. Machine-learning (ML) techniques have been widely used as a tool to address many cybersecurity application problems (such as spam and malware detection). However, most of the proposed approaches do not consider the presence of adversaries that target the defense mechanism itself. Adversaries can launch sophisticated attacks to undermine deployed spam detectors either during training or the prediction (test) phase. Not considering these adversarial activities at the design stage makes OSNs’ spam detectors prone to a range of adversarial attacks. This paper thus surveys the attacks against Twitter spam detectors in an adversarial environment. In addition, a general taxonomy of potential adversarial attacks is proposed by applying common frameworks from the literature. Examples of adversarial activities on Twitter were provided after observing Arabic trending hashtags. A new type of spam tweet (Adversarial spam tweet), which can be used to undermine deployed classifier, were found. In addition, possible countermeasures that could increase the robustness of Twitter spam detectors against such attacks are investigated.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Online Social Media prediction, Covid-19 prediction, Twitter, Google Trends
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:37:56 CEST)
As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to rage worldwide, the United States has become the most affected country with more than 34.1 million total confirmed cases up to June 1, 2021. In this work, we investigate correlations between online social media and Internet search for the COVID-19 pandemic among 50 U.S. states. By collecting the state-level daily trends through both Twitter and Google Trends, we observe a high but state-different lag correlation with the number of daily confirmed cases. We further find that the predictive accuracy measured by the correlation coefficient is positively correlated to a state’s demographic, air traffic volume and GDP development. Most importantly, we show that a state’s early infection rate is negatively correlated with the lag to the previous peak in Internet search and tweeting about COVID-19, indicating that earlier collective awareness on Twitter/Google correlates with lower infection rate. Lastly, we demonstrate that correlations between online social media and search trends are sensitive to time, mainly due to the attention shifting of the public.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0170.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: cycling computer; fitness and health statistics; bike computer; mobile sensing; social fitness network; bike mobile applications; wheeled vehicles; MTB datasets
Online: 27 November 2017 (05:38:58 CET)
This article analyzes some available bike mobile applications for smartphones as an alternative to bike computers (Cycle Computers or speedometer or speed sensors). We have records of a large number of MTB (Mountain Bike) datasets, 219 datasets were recorded on 4 different routes. These applications create maps and profiles from geographic data. Inputs can be in GPS data (tracks and waypoints), driving routes, street addresses, or simple coordinates. Most applications estimate fields such as speed, heading, slope, distance, VMG (velocity made good) and pace (cadence). However, it is necessary to calculate the relationship between cadence and power in pedaling so that cyclists know the appropriate moment to apply power to their legs to improve the torque. This paper shows tables, comparative graphs, and performance evaluation of biking routes in four different cycling mobile applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: behavior change; fertilizer application; theory; systems science; sugarcane; social norms; extension services; agronomy; management practices.
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:06:35 CET)
Research focused on understanding wider systemic factors driving behavioral change is limited with a dominant focus on the role of individual farmer and psychosocial factors for farming practice change, including reducing fertilizer application in agriculture. Adopting a wider systems perspective, the current study examines change and the role that supporting services have on fertilizer application rate change. A total of 238 sugarcane growers completed surveys reporting on changes in fertilizer application along with factors that may explain behavior change. Logistic regressions and negative binomial count-data regressions were used to examine whether farmers had changed fertilizer application rates and if they had, how long ago they made the change, and to explore the impact of individual and system factors in influencing change. Approximately one in three sugarcane growers surveyed (37%) had changed the method they used to calculate fertilizer application rates for the cane land they owned/managed at some point. Logistic regression results indicated growers were less likely to change the basis for their fertilizer calculation if they regarded maintaining good relationships with other local growers as being extremely important, they had another source of off-farm income, and if they had not attended a government-funded fertilizer management workshop in the five years preceding the survey. Similar drivers promoted early adoption of fertilizer practice change; namely, regarding family traditions and heritage as being unimportant, having sole decision-making authority on farming activities and having attended up to 5 workshops in the five years prior to completing the survey. Results demonstrated the influence of government-funded services to support practice change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Text mining; Cultured meat; Artificial meat; media framing; attitude; social acceptability; Consumer acceptance; consumer behavior
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:45:46 CEST)
Wide-scale commercialization of cultured meat, produced from in vitro-grown animal stem cells, is still a long way off because of technical, regulatory and, above all, social acceptability constraints. As a result, despite the advancement of knowledge, it is difficult to predict whether this innovation will be commonly accepted. The concept of media framing is key to better understanding individuals’ decision-making and mental interpretative patterns in relation to cultured meat adoption. This research therefore analyzes the role of media framing (namely the social media platform Twitter) on the components of consumer attitudes (cognitive, affective, and conative) in relation to cultured meat. A total of 23 020 publications and 38 531 comments were analyzed qualitatively (content analysis) and quantitatively (MANOVA). This study showed that media-framed posts influenced consumer attitudes more than did non-media-framed posts. Although the results indicate that the different types of media framing (ethical, intrinsic, informational, and belief) do not exert the same influence on each attitude component, they suggest that posts combining the ethical, intrinsic, and informational media frames have a greater impact on the acceptability of cultured meat and that the belief frame is equally important, particularly for the behavioral component. Relevant implications can be drawn for authorities and businesses on the use of differentiated education and marketing strategies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0265.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: chatbot; conversational agents; human-computer dialogue system; social chatbots; ChatScript; conversational modelling; conversation systems; conversational system; conversational entities; embodied conversational agents
Online: 16 December 2021 (10:35:06 CET)
Chatbots are intelligent conversational computer systems designed to mimic human conversation to enable automated online guidance and support. The increased benefits of chatbots led to their wide adoption by many industries in order to provide virtual assistance to customers. Chatbots utilise methods and algorithms from two Artificial Intelligence domains: Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. However, there are many challenges and limitations in their application. In this survey we review recent advances on chatbots, where Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language processing are used. We highlight the main challenges and limitations of current work and make recommendations for future research investigation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: older adult; happiness; family type; socio-physical environment; social activities
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:33:26 CET)
This study used secondary data from the 2017 Korean Community Health Survey to compare the associations of socio-physical environment, social support networks, and social activities with happiness among older adults with three different family types. As per the results, there was a significant difference in happiness index between the three groups (F = 86.688, p < .001). Older adults living alone (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57–0.99) and those living with family (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65–0.99) showed greater happiness as the frequency of contact with family increased. Older adults living with only their spouse showed an increase in happiness when their contact with friends was higher (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.56–0.84). It was confirmed that there were differences in factors influencing happiness according to the family type of the older adults in this study. Therefore, the happiness of older adults needs to be adequately ensured, while considering their various circumstances, including family type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1146.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Depression; engineering undergraduates; romantic relationship; self-esteem; interpersonal difficulty; social skill; neuroticism
Online: 25 July 2023 (13:24:00 CEST)
Background: Depression is a common mental health problem that can affect everyone at different stages of development. Though the prevalence rate of depression among university students is rising, exploration among engineering students is limited. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors of among engineering students in Thailand. Methods: 346students participated in this study. All completed the outcome inventory-depression subscale (OI-D) to evaluate the level and prevalence of depression. Other variables assessed included social skill, learning styles, relationship satisfaction, interpersonal difficulty, alcohol use, internet addiction, and neuroticism. Correlation and regression analysis were applied to test the association between sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and depression. Results. Of 346 students with the mean age was 20.25 (SD, 1.33), 52.31% was male. Based on the OI-D, 35.3% of participants exhibited symptoms indicative of major depression. Multiple regression showed that only neuroticism, interpersonal difficulties, social skills, and self-esteem appeared to be the significant predictors of depression. Conclusion: the prevalence of depression among engineering students is unexpectedly high. Intra and interpersonal factors were found to be associated with depression. Further study on identifying these risk factors should be encouraged.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0495.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19); analysis; modeling; recommendations; surveillance; social media analytics; meteorological effects; image processing; business and economy
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:54:47 CEST)
COVID-19 has created anxiety not only in individuals but also in health organizations, and countries worldwide. Not a single industry is left un-influenced and loss is being estimated in billions of dollars. The widespread of this pandemic disease has challenged researchers all over the world. Some of the researchers are working to invent its cure while, others are applying computing technologies to stop its spread, by analyzing and identifying patterns for prediction and forecasting. This is by no doubt the hottest area of research for the last 100 years. This survey has targeted the research published in computing sub-domains to combat the pandemic. The survey has clustered the scientific efforts into logical groups: surveillance, metrological effects, social media analytics, image processing and business and economy, analysis and modeling. It will serve as a leading source for the followings: researchers who want to identify what has been achieved in different computing sub-domains, those who need fresh authenticated datasets openly accessible for different research contexts and what are future directions in this area of research. The findings of analysis and modeling can be also useful for government agencies who want to set priorities and formulate policies.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0146.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: COVID-19; COVID; Omicron; online learning; remote learning; online education; Twitter; dataset; Tweets; social media; Big Data
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:05:19 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social support; older persons; smokers; NHMS 2018; community survey
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:17:11 CEST)
Background Globally the average age of the worlds’ population of older persons continues to upsurge and social support becomes increasingly relevant. Overall, in Malaysia, social support and networking prevalence was found to be lower among older persons at 30.76%. In view of the scarce data on social support and its association with smoking status and its associated factors among the older Malaysian population this study was conducted. Methods Data from the National Health and Morbidity (NHMS) 2018 survey on health of older Malaysian adults was analyzed. This was a cross sectional population-based study using a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Elderly population aged 60 years and above was selected. Data were collected were sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, and social support. A validated Malay language, interviewer-administered questionnaire of 11-item Duke Social Support Index was applied for assessing social support among the elderly. A complex sampling design analysis was used for the descriptive statistics. The associated risk factors for social support were identified using Multiple Logistic Regression analysis. Results A total of 3923 elderly respondents participated in the study. The prevalence of good social support was significantly higher among the 60-69 years old respondents compared to the > 80 years old (73.1%, 95% CI :69.3% -76.5% vs 50.1 %, 95% CI:41.7 %- 58.6%).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of poor social support were 1.7 times (aOR: 1.72 % ,95%CI: 1.19 -2.48) higher for the respondents aged > 80 years old, than those aged 60-69 years. Respondents with no formal education were 1.93 higher odds of poor social support than the respondents with tertiary education (aOR: 1.93%, 95%CI: 1.13,3.30). Respondents with income < RM 1000 were 1.94 times more likely to have poor social support compared to respondents with income > RM 3000 (aOR: 1.94, 95% CI : 1.21 -3.13). Former smokers have good social support compared to current smokers (73.6% ,95% CI: 67.7-78.7 vs 65.1 %, 95%CI:58.4 -71.2). For current smokers, the odds of poor social support were 42.0% higher than for non-smokers (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05 -1.91. Conclusion There is poor social support among the older persons who are current smokers, advancing age, no formal education and low income However, further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exact effects of the studied variables. These findings could assist the policymakers to develop strategies at the national level to enhance social support among the older smokers to ensure cessation of smoking.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; Public AwareneSs; Public Practice; Social Distancing and Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:27:01 CEST)
Objectives: Social distancing measures are currently implemented to control COVID-19 pandemic in many countries, including Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the awareness and adherence of the Saudi population to these measures. Methods: A web-based questionnaire was designed with 16 questions (8 questions related to demographics, 3 in relation to awareness about social distancing and 5 related to overall practice of social distancing). Results: 5105 participants completed the survey [58.4% female, 66.3% young individuals (aged 18-37 years), 55.8% bachelor degree holders, and 51.0% from the western region]. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) was the main source of information about COVID-19 for most participants (78.2%). High awareness (81.3%) regarding social distancing was observed, associated mainly with female participants, those from the middle region and those with high education and income. Overall implementation of social distancing was satisfactory (score 3.13/5), with 37.8% never leaving home during the home-stay period. Better adherence to social distancing was observed for female participants, higher degree holders and those aged over 38 years. Conclusions: Organised plans by the Saudi MOH have been effective in raising awareness and improving practice of social distancing among public. However, the observed lower practice of social distancing by individuals with lower education and income indicates the need for targeted interventions to achieve better outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Human Papillomavirus, vaccine, social inequality, NIS-Teen, false negative, SES.
Online: 30 December 2021 (00:14:38 CET)
Background: Relatively little is known and inconclusive about social inequality in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teenagers in the United States. This study aims to investigate whether there is a social disparity in HPV vaccination among teenagers and if so, whether it can differ by the source of teen vaccination information (parental reports and provider records). Methods: We used the data from the 2019 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen; 42,668 teenagers, aged 13-17) including parental reported vaccination status. Among them, 18,877 teenagers had adequate provider reported vaccination records. Two socioeconomic status (SES) measures were used: mother’s education and annual family income. Multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Results: False negatives of parental reports against provider records were more than two times higher (p < 0.001) in low SES teens than in high SES teens. In both SES measures, the proportion of HPV unvaccinated teenagers were lowest in the highest SES level in analyses with parental reports. However, it was the opposite in analyses with provider records. Interestingly, regardless of vaccination information source, the HPV unvaccinated rate was highest in the middle SES teens (>12 years, non-college graduates; and above poverty level, but not > $75K). Conclusion: A significant social inequality in HPV vaccination among teenagers exists in the United States. The pattern of social inequality in HPV vaccination can be distorted when only parent reported vaccination information is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0253.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: social media, Covid-19, cross-sectional, trans-national, mental health, loneliness, pandemic
Online: 31 May 2021 (23:10:36 CEST)
Background Due to the Covid-19 pandemic and the strict national policies regarding social distancing behavior in Europe, America and Australia, people became reliant on social media as a means for gathering information and a tool for staying connected to family, friends and work. This is the first trans-national study exploring the qualitative experiences and challenges of using social media while in lockdown or shelter in place during the current pandemic. Methods This study was part of a wider cross-sectional online survey conducted in Norway, UK, USA and Australia during April/May 2020. The manuscript reports on the qualitative free text component of the study asking about the challenges of social media users during the Covid-19 pandemic in UK, USA and Australia. 1991 responses were included in the analysis. Thematic analysis was conducted independently by two researchers. Results Three overarching themes identified were: Emotional/Mental Health, Information and Being Connected. Participants experienced that using social media during the pandemic amplified anxiety, depression, fear, panic, anger, frustration and loneliness. They felt that there was information overload and social media was full of misleading or polarized opinions from which was difficult to switch off. Nonetheless, participants also thought that there was an urge for connection and learning which was positive and stressful and the same time. Conclusion Using social media while in shelter in place or lockdown could have a negative impact on the emotional and mental health of some of the population. To support policy and practice in strengthening mental health care in the community, social media could be used to deliver practical advice on coping and stress management. Communication with the public should be strengthened by unambiguous and clear messages and clear communication pathways. We should be looking at alternative ways of staying connected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0595.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: pathological gambling; social ecological model; adolescents; emerging adults; internet; online communities
Online: 28 January 2021 (16:16:00 CET)
Problem gambling among young people is an emerging trend globally. The online environment in particular offers various possibilities for gambling engagement. This is the first cross-national survey study using the social ecological model to analyze problem gambling, especially in the online context. The aim was to analyze how different social ecological spheres explain problem gambling. Participants were young people aged 15–25 in the United States (n = 1,212), South Korea (n = 1,192), Spain (n = 1,212), and Finland (n = 1,200). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) instrument was used as a measure for problem gambling. Regression models predicted problem gambling with measures of intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and societal spheres. Spanish participants had the highest SOGS score for problem gambling. Out of the spheres, organizational-sphere measures best explained the variation in problem gambling in all countries (26%) when compared to the societal (3%), interpersonal (5%) and intrapersonal (11%) spheres. In the full model, organizational-sphere measures had strong associations with problem gambling. These included consumer debt, online gambling community participation, online casino participation, and exposure to online pop-up advertisements. Other robust predictors of problem gambling included conformity to group norms in the interpersonal sphere and male gender and impulsivity in the intrapersonal sphere. Cross-national results were similar in different countries. The online context plays a major role in problem gambling behavior. The social ecological model is a useful tool by which to tackle problem gambling and develop preventative measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0717.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: opinion formation models; influence networks; online social networks; the effects of non-opinion characteristics; assimilative influence; bounded confidence
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:58:32 CEST)
The opinion dynamics literature argues that the way people perceive social influence depends not only on the opinions of interacting individuals, but also on the individuals’ non-opinion characteristics, such as age, education, gender, or place of residence. The current paper advances this line of research by studying longitudinal data that describe the opinion dynamics of a large sample (~30,000) of online social network users, all citizens of one city. Using these data, we systematically investigate the effects of users’ demographic (age, gender) and structural (degree centrality, the number of common friends) properties on opinion formation processes. We revealed that females are less easily influenced than males. Next, we found that individuals that are characterized by similar ages have more chances to reach a consensus. Besides, we report that individuals who have many common peers find an agreement more often. We also demonstrated that the impacts of these effects are virtually the same, and despite being statistically significant, are far less strong than that of opinion-related features: knowing the current opinion of an individual and, what is even more important, the distance in opinions between this individual and the person that attempts to influence the individual is much more valuable. Next, after conducting a series of simulations with an agent-based model, we revealed that accounting for non-opinion characteristics may lead to not very sound but statistically significant changes in the macroscopic predictions of the populations of opinion camps, primarily among the agents with radical opinions (≈ 3% of all votes). In turn, predictions for the populations of neutral individuals are virtually the same. Besides, we demonstrated that the accumulative effect of non-opinion features on opinion dynamics is seriously moderated by whether the underlying social network correlates with the agents’ characteristics. After applying the procedure of random shuffling (in which the agents and their characteristics were randomly scattered over the network), the macroscopic predictions have changed by ≈ 9% of all votes. What is interesting, the population of neutral agents was again not affected by this intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: BRFSS; Bereavement; Grief; Mental Health; Physical Health; Population Surveillance; Social de-terminants of health; Multiple Imputation; Screening
Online: 4 January 2023 (01:54:29 CET)
The BRFSS is an annual survey conducted by each state and designed to identify trends in a representative sample of the resident population. In its 2019 field survey, the U.S. state of Georgia tested a new 3 – item module to measure the numbers of bereaved, resident adults. Bereavement means that participants answered, ‘Yes’ to the item ‘Have you experi-enced the death of a family member or close friend in the years 2018 or 2019?’. This analysis addresses two questions. Can estimates for bereavement prevalence be derived without large sampling errors, low precision, and small subsamples? Can multiple imputation techniques be applied to overcome non-response and missing data to support multivari-ate modeling? Analyses in this study were conducted under two scenarios. Scenario 1 ap-plies the complex sample weights created by the Centers for Disease Control and imputes values for missing responses. Scenario 2 treats the data as a panel – no weighting com-bined with removal of persons with missing data. Scenario 1 reflects the use of BRFSS data for public health and policy, while Scenario 2 reflects data as it is commonly used in so-cial science research. The bereavement item has a response rate (RR) of 70.8% (5206 of 7534 persons). Subgroups have RR of 55% or more. Under Scenario 1, the prevalence of bereavement is 45.38%, meaning that 3,739,120 adults reported bereaved in 2018 or 2019. The prevalence is 46.02% with Scenario 2 which removes persons with any missing data (4,289 persons). Scenario 2 overestimates the bereavement prevalence by 1.39%. An il-lustrative logistic model is included to show the performance of exposure to bereavement under each scenario. Recent bereavement can be ascertained in a surveillance survey without biases in response. This survey is limited to one US state in a single year and ex-cludes persons aged 17 years and younger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Care home; Long-term care; Social care; Preparedness; Contingency plan; Safety culture; Workforce; Survey
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:52:34 CEST)
(1) Background: Nursing homes’ preparedness in managing a public health crisis has been fragile, with effects on safety culture. The objective of this study was to assess nursing homes’ COVID-19 preparedness in Southern Portugal, including personnel’s work experiences during the pandemic. (2) Methods: We used a COVID-19 preparedness checklist to be completed by management teams, followed by follow-up calls to nursing homes. Thereafter, a survey to personnel was applied. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and thematic analysis of open-end questions. (3) Results: In total, 71% (138/195) of eligible nursing homes returned the preparedness checklist. We conducted 83 follow-up calls and received 720 replies to the personnel survey. On average, 25% of nursing homes did not have an adequate decision-making structure to respond to the pandemic. Outbreak capacity and training were fragile areas among nursing homes’ contingency plans. We identified compliance with procedures and nonpunitive response to mistakes as fragile areas of safety culture, and teamwork as a strong safety area. (4) Conclusions: To strengthen how nursing homes cope with upcoming phases of the COVID-19 pandemic or future public health emergencies, nursing homes’ preparedness and safety culture should be fostered and closely monitored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0589.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sleep; Social Jetlag; Diet Food and Nutrition; Nutrition Surveys; Cross-sectional; Epidemiology; Adults; Public Health
Online: 30 July 2018 (14:41:06 CEST)
Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration at weekdays and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19-64 years old, participating in the 2008-2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration at weekdays was categorised into tertiles to reflect short, normal and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration at weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/ social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed regressing diet on sleep whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average 0.45 (95% CI -0.78, -0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score compared to middle tertile (p =0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and a healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep at weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1h 45min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p =0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration at weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0091.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Frailty; Social Isolation; Social Networks; Social Support; Social Participation; Aging
Online: 2 February 2021 (14:32:33 CET)
This research investigated the effects of social isolation on frailty and health outcomes and tested whether these associations varied across different levels of frailty. We performed a multivariate analysis of data from the first wave of the FRéLE study among 1,643 Canadian older adults aged 65 years and over. We assessed social isolation using social participation, social networks, and support from various social ties, namely, friends, children, extended family, and partner. Frailty predicted disability, comorbidity, depression, and cognitive decline. Less social participation was associated with IADLs, depression, and cognitive decline. The absence of friends was associated with depression and cognitive impairment. Less social support from children and partner was related to comorbidity, depression, and cognitive decline. Overall, social isolation is linked to mental health, rather than physical health. The associations of having no siblings, receiving less support from friends, and participating less in social activities with ADL limitations, depression, and cognitive decline were higher among frail than pre-frail and robust older adults. This study corroborates the pivotal role of social connectedness, particularly the quality of relationships, on the mental health of older adults. Public health policies on social relationships are paramount to ameliorate the health status of frail older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: child maltreatment; child abuse, social costs of child abuse; residential care for children with disabilities; Japan
Online: 24 November 2022 (07:32:25 CET)
We sought to calculate the extra social costs resulting from child abuse in residential care facilities (RCFs) for children with disabilities (CWD) in Japan. We distributed a survey to 260 residential facilities for CWD in 2020 and obtained responses from 91 facilities. Among the children admitted to these facilities, 23–67% were affected by child abuse. We estimated the extra costs to be an average of USD 647.7 million. This study is meaningful in that there are no existing official statistics or research findings on the extra costs of residential care due to child abuse in Japan.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0332.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Decision Making Process; Social Networks; Social Commerce; Social Support
Online: 21 January 2022 (14:53:08 CET)
The introduction of social commerce ushered in a new era in business-consumer interaction. As a result, more power has passed from the vendor to the buyer, primarily fueling e-commerce acceptance. As a result, understanding consumer behaviour in the context of social commerce adoption has become essential for businesses looking to persuade customers by using the power of social ties and support.Furthermore, such social ties will facilitate trust as the most promising benefit while reducing perceived risk, which has always been a critical problem with online commerce. This study proposes a paradigm for understanding the impact of social commerce on the stages of the consumer decision-making process: need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour, with a focus on social support. In this respect, relevant literature in the subject of social commerce either (1) lacks an adequate explanatory model, (2) has a solid theoretical base, or (3) contains practically complex theories with insufficient empirical data. The research model applies the Social Commerce Constructs (SCC): recommendations and referrals, forums and communities, and ratings and reviews to study the respective influence on the consumer decision-making process phases. This paper aims to understand the influence of social commerce on an integrative model that incorporates all customer choice phases while expecting new knowledge. Furthermore, it is advised that this conceptual model be empirically verified to evaluate the practical consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: allegiance norm; social desirability; social utility
Online: 3 December 2016 (10:07:44 CET)
In this study we were interested in the behaviors of individuals who preserve the social and organizational environment by ensuring sustainability. More specifically we are interested in allegiants behaviors. Numerous studies have highlighted the normative character of allegiance. To confer an object the status of social norm means to assign value (in terms of desirability and utility) to that object. Therefore we questioned the value attributed to allegiance. 170 employees were questioned on the desirability and utility they attribute to a future work colleague (future peer or future subordinate) starting from the answers the latter was supposed to have given to a questionnaire on allegiance. It was observed that desirability and utility make reference to two independent dimensions, utility being often more important. It was also noted there is greater severity assigned to endo-group targets (future peers) than to exo-group targets (future subordinates). Finally, it was noted there was not so much a valuation of allegiant targets, but rather a rejection of rebel targets, which raises the question of the bi-dimensionality of the valuation-devaluation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0971.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Business model; scaling social impact; social entrepreneurship; social impact; scale; society
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:36:48 CEST)
This paper examines the Business Model (BM) from a socioeconomic system perspective to discern key factors, and understand its interactions resulting in the Scaling of Social Impact (SSI) in Social Entrepreneurship (SE). Previously, studies have explained the importance of BM in relation to SE. However, there is a lack of empirical studies on how BM’s transitions through participation of various actors result in SSI. This research applies qualitative analysis on a single case study of a Japanese social startup, “mymizu”, the first water refill application platform in Japan. The findings show that collaboration amongst different stakeholders on the initial phase of the BM could increase awareness of responsible consumption, convert into actual users for sustainability, and change their behavior. Secondly, members of the society could take on dual roles, both as users and collaborators in the BM, which results in an exponential scaling effect of the social impact. This paper contributes towards adding a participatory stakeholder (PS) to the ecosystem of SSI and building a “regenerative” BM that is relevant in SE towards sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0362.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social identity; social group behaviour; social structure; pro-environmental behaviour; sustainability transitions
Online: 6 November 2023 (14:54:22 CET)
In recent years, change in behaviour towards the environment has gained prominence as a policy tool to influence positive environmental value. Simultaneously, the role played by social identity in promoting pro-environmental action is gaining recognition. Within this work, the intersection between collective group identity and environmental behaviour has received very little attention. Group norms are considered a strong predictor of pro-environmental behaviour, yet the influence of social identity and collective action on environmental action has not been adequately investigated in a multi-ethnic setting. Within this context, this study examines the affective component of social identity influence on pro-environmental action. More succinctly, this study demonstrates how outgroups and in-groups’ relations and broader socio-cultural structures, values, interest, and norms impact environmental and sustainability transitions behaviours. Through interviews with participants across the four dominant social groups in South Africa, this study provides compelling evidence that country wide expressions of social identity and in-group dynamics shapes the individual behaviour regarding environmental and sustainability concerns and further strengthen the individual’s perspective for social environmental transformation. This study advances the need for a social-identity centred approach to foster pro-environmental and sustainability outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0367.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Social Economy; Social Solidarity Institutions; Sustainable Development; Corporate Social Responsibility; Environmental Responsibility.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:48:06 CET)
Social Economy institutions seek to provide answers to social problems, given that they naturally have a socially responsible mission. This study aims to answer the research question: how sustainable practices, namely environmental behaviour, have been adopted by Portuguese Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS) with the purpose of contributing to Sustainable Development? To achieve this objective, qualitative research was carried out in 31 IPSS, which was framed within the scope of the TFA project (Theoretical framework for promotion of accountability in the social economy sector: the IPSS case). Semi-structured interviews were conducted, with a script based on the literature review, from May to July 2019, with those responsible for the management of these entities. A content analysis was conducted, using the NVivo12 Version 12.6.0 software, which enables data to be coded and categorised, reducing any researcher bias. The results indicate that most entities carry out activities of an environmental nature, related to the reuse of materials, the recycling of waste, the sale of materials for recycling, and user awareness. Several entities expressed financial limitations to the implementation of Environmental Management Systems and their accomplishment. However, the objections presented are not impossible to overcome, according to studies presented in other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Child sexual abuse; Social Networking; Social Support.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:24:03 CEST)
This research mapped significant social networks of victims of childhood sexual abuse, identifying relationships between childhood trauma and social bonds in adult life. Ten adult women, aged between 20 and 40 years, in psychiatric care for the consequences of trauma suffered in childhood participated in the research. For data collection, the map of significant social networks was used and analyzed through the structure, functions and attributes of the bonds. The network is composed of people from the Friendship, Family, Community, Work/Study and Health Teams group. The networks of friendships, family, co-workers or studies play a predominant role of emotional support, while the Health Teams also offer emotional support, but primarily provide clinical support in overcoming trauma and its consequences. The network of relationships has specific functions that maintain psychosocial integrity and help women to overcome the abuse suffered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; adolescents; social networks; social desirability
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:43:26 CEST)
Social networks have become an ubiquitous aspect of adolescents' life, providing new ways to connect and communicate with peers. However, little is known about the impact of social net-works on adolescents' emotional intelligence (EI), a crucial skill for social and identity development. The aim of the present study is to explore the time spent and reasons for using social net-works and their relationship with emotional intelligence in adolescents and young adults (15-19 years). After signing informed consent, participants completed a battery of questionnaires offered via secure online form. The results showed that teenagers spend more than 3 h/day on Whatsapp, more than 2 h/day on Instagram and less on Facebook (26m per day); girls prefer to use Whatsapp and Instagram, boys opt for Facebook. Most participants use social media when bored and/or to communicate with friends. Moreover, time spent on social media has a relationship with stress management with some aspects of EI (assertiveness, self-actualization, optimism, etc.). EI and social desirability have a significant relationship, especially in the sphere of adaptability. Based on the results obtained, future perspectives and training are suggested with the aim of adapting to the constant changes in the new technological reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disability; poverty; health; social exclusion; social inequality
Online: 29 September 2018 (06:05:36 CEST)
In this paper, we analyze data from the 2012 Encuesta de Integración Social y Salud (Social Integration and Health Survey) of the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spanish National Institute of Statistics) to obtain profiles created by combining disability, poverty and social exclusion. We hypothesize that the probability that people will experience social exclusion increases if they have a disability, chronic illness or limitation in conducting everyday activities, and that this probability is greater for women than for men. To conduct our analysis, we constructed a social exclusion model based on a series of social determinants that acts as a dependent variable. In this context, social exclusion is understood to go beyond the concept of financial poverty. We performed bivariate analyses, in which we calculated the Odds Ratios (OR) for certain variables considered to be predictors of social exclusion. We also performed a means comparison test and an ANOVA test to observe differences between individuals with recognized disability and those without. Finally, we conducted logistic regression analysis to determine which vulnerability profiles are most likely to experience a situation of social exclusion. We also discuss the limitations of our study, and suggest areas in, which the relationships between health, social exclusion and disability can be further investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0307.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social cognition; social information processing; mother-child relationships; parenting style; kindergarten; social functioning
Online: 26 November 2019 (04:11:54 CET)
Children's ability to adjust to the social rules and expectations in the educational environment is of major concern to researchers and practitioners alike. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to examine predictors of children's social functioning in kindergarten with a specific focus on (a) maternal factors; and, (b) children's social cognition. Using a multi-method (self-reports and direct assessments), multi-informant (child, mother, teacher) design, we collected data from 306 kindergarten children and their mothers tapping the mother's social cognitions (general and child-related) and parenting style, and children's social cognition (social information processing) and functioning in kindergarten. We found direct associations between the mother and child's social cognitions, between the mother's authoritarian parenting style and her child's less competent social cognition and behavior, and between the child's social cognition and social functioning. Finally, as hypothesized, we found a number of interesting mediated effects. Most notably, we found that the association between the mother's social cognition (her tendency to attribute hostile intent to unknown others) and the child's social cognition (his/her tendency to generate less competent responses) is fully mediated by the mother's higher levels of authoritarian parenting style. The important theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0999.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: paramedic; community paramedicine; social needs; social isolation; equity
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:17:52 CEST)
Introduction: Health and social needs exist along a dynamic continuum. Recognizing that health status is inextricably impacted by social determinants of health, there exists opportunities and a professional responsibility to better understand how community paramedicine can address social needs in effort to reduce healthcare inequities.Aim: The primary objective of this scoping review is to systematically investigate published peer reviewed and grey literature to explore how community paramedicine supports social needs along a health and social continuum.Methods: A scoping review of English language literature was conducted using the JBI Scoping Review methodology. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE and grey literature searches in Google Scholar and organisational websites. We used search terms related to community paramedicine and social needs. Results: A total of 30 peer-reviewed and 13 grey literature articles met inclusion criteria. The main findings of this scoping review describe the evolving ways community paramedicine models are addressing health and social needs. A key recommendation across the literature was the need to meaningfully engage communities early in program development to understand how best to implement and co-design an integrated service model that addresses the needs specific to each community, though there was a lack of evidence to guide this approach. There is a notable lack of evidence pertaining to how best to optimize technologies in program design and implementation. The results highlight opportunities to determine best practices for conducting holistic community needs assessments that include equitable stakeholder engagement and enhance education to prepare paramedics for expanded roles.Conclusion: Community paramedicine provides opportunities to better meet the needs of structurally marginalised communities. However, there is a social responsibility and opportunity to engage in community needs assessments to co-design service delivery, advance paramedic education, and enhance interprofessional collaboration to better support social needs and generate upstream solutions for individuals and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Social commerce; Social media; Personified communication; E-commerce
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:01:47 CEST)
The development of mobile internet technology has enabled companies to use social media for E-commerce. Some companies use personified images and languages to communicate with consumers in this context. How does personified communication affect consumer behavior in social commerce? Are consumers willing to accept this new form of communication under social commerce? To answer these questions, this paper explores consumers' willingness to take per-sonified communication in the context of social commerce. It investigates the role of cognitive needs in regulating the internal mechanism and proposes some suggestions for enterprises to improve social media communication. Specifically, this paper presents an improved model based on the TAM model. In our model, perceived interaction is introduced as a new independent variable, and cognitive need is added as a regulatory variable, which is more suitable for social commerce. We conduct a questionnaire survey on the Internet and analyze data using AMOS and SPSS. The results show that perceived usefulness and perceived interaction positively im-pact attitude, which influences consumers' willingness to purchase. Furthermore, the cognitive need as the regulatory variable significantly affects the influencing path from perceived use-fulness to attitude and purchase intention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: omnichannel CRM; social CRM; social media marketing; retail
Online: 2 June 2022 (05:09:15 CEST)
Customers make purchases through a multi-stage, omnichannel process, which now extends to social media. A loyalty loop can be achieved when an existing customer bypasses the initial stages –consider and evaluate– to make a direct purchase. However, to build that loyalty loop, a retailer must embrace techniques and software across social media marketing, social CRM, and omnichannel CRM. Reviewing literature from academic researchers and industry practitioners, this paper identifies emerging industry trends and discusses an illustrative case study of a UK digital retailer. The importance of social media for omnichannel retailing and building loyalty is highlighted and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: opinion game; opinion dynamics; social Interaction; social network
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:48:20 CET)
We introduce a new, and quite general variational model for opinion dynamics based on pairwise interaction potentials and a range of opinion evolution protocols ranging from random interactions to global synchronous flows in the opinion state space. The model supports the concept of topic “coupling”, allowing opinions held by individuals to be changed via indirect interaction with others on different subjects. Interaction topology is governed by a graph that determines interactions. Our model, which is really a family of variational models, has, as special cases, many of the previously established models for the opinion dynamics. After introducing the model, we study the dynamics of the special case in which the potential is either a tent function or a constructed bell-like curve. We find that even in these relatively simple potential function examples there emerges interesting behavior. We also present results of preliminary numerical explorations of the behavior of the model to motivate questions that can be explored analytically
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Twitter; Stakeholder Management; Social Media Communication; Social Media; CSR; Communication Strategy
Online: 23 November 2022 (01:14:53 CET)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important for companies in recent years. On the one hand, regulatory frameworks require the disclosure of measures for sustainable management. On the other hand, for long-term corporate success, stakeholders must be strategically engaged in the dialog on sustainability aspects. Social media, and Twitter in particular, offer the potential to foster a meaningful stakeholder dialogue on CSR topics. Due to Elon Musk's acquisition in the fall of 2022, this strategic disruption provides an opportunity to systematically capture the platform's past activities and strategies to synthesize practical information that can guide Twitter usage decision making and be used for research to serve as the basis for future comparative longitudinal studies of changes in usage. We conducted a literature review including 42 papers to contribute to the body of evidence on CSR communication strategies on Twitter across industries and countries by deriving interdisciplinary suggestions for strategic CSR-related stakeholder management. Results cover relevant CSR topics, prioritized stakeholder groups for CSR communication on Twitter and successful communication strategies for companies to obtain beneficial results, such as generating social media capital. The results contribute to the strategic planning and implementation of CSR stakeholder management on Twitter and offer starting points for future studies on social media mining and CSR communication strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: adaptive co-marketing; social marketing; community-based social marketing; social license to operate; community engagement; corporate social responsibility; marketing strategy
Online: 30 November 2016 (05:13:35 CET)
The concept of a Social License to Operate (SLO) has become increasingly important in the sustainability literature in recent years. Having its origins in the business discourse of the mining industry with respect to limiting opposition to mining projects, the notion of a social contract above and beyond legal requirements has since become applied across a number of different industries. Despite the concepts adoption confusion exists over the practices and outcomes of SLO, and particularly the nature of engagement. Given this situation it is surprising that not more attention to the role of marketing, and social marketing in particular, in operationalizing the concept. The paper discusses the potential of social marketing to contribute to SLO. Economic, political and social relations are complex in SLO and exchange is intricate in such relational environments. A community-based social marketing orientation is proposed as a means to improve exchange relations and enhance engagement. Seven models of SLO related social marketing models are discussed with community-based social marketing and adaptive co-marketing models being regarded as the most positive for the achievement of an SLO. Potential barriers to adoption of these approaches are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0363.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: social media; social media metrics; digital marketing; social media marketing strategy; customer sentiment; customer engagement
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:38:24 CEST)
The role of Social Media Marketing (SMM) in marketing strategies is rapidly growing. Because the use of social media is growing, the industry of SMM will grow bigger in the coming years; the pace of this growth is faster than ever. To survive in the modern competitive world, effective use of SMM for a firm is a must; for that, every SMM channel needs to be used to its full potential. For a marketing campaign to be effective, there is a need for some metrics to measure the success of the SMM campaign. These metrics measure if the campaign is successfully implemented or not. This would help firms understand the market, gain a competitive advantage, and ultimately get a positive impact on the overall business. This study categorizes SMM strategy into 4 dimensions and associates 10 broad categories of SMM metrics to these dimensions. The proposed model of this study suggests the application of Social Media Analytics (SMA) ineffective use of metrics to measure SMM campaigns. There are so many SMA Tools available for free and time-efficient data analysis that can lead to faster and better results than manual analysis. Following this model, the importance of SMA tools in devising an effective SMM strategy is highlighted. The implication of this research is towards a better understanding of the application of SMA for any firm to have a solid SMM Strategy, especially small and medium-sized enterprises that have limited resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1025.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate social responsibility; motives; definition; social responsibility managers; Uruguay
Online: 14 August 2023 (15:16:24 CEST)
Knowledge of the motivations of managers to practice Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a critical issue for those who promote its adoption. The understanding of these reasons is complicated by the fact that there are different ways of defining this responsibility, raising the question of whether there is any relationship between reasons for adopting it and how to define it. To address this issue, a classification of these reasons was constructed and related to a classification of the different ways of defining CSR. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to a non-probability sample of Social Responsibility managers, which included indicators for both classifications. It was found that these managers present all types of motives, with proactive outweighing reactive motives and that there is a significant degree of correlation between the ways of defining CSR and the reasons for doing so. This suggests that managers present coherence in their objectives (motives) and means (practices of Social Responsibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0405.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: models of using internet; bonding social capital; social identity
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:58:40 CEST)
In this research, we are attempting to review the relationship between users' models of using internet and bonding social capitals in Iran. The theoretical framework of the research are based on theoretical approaches of Dearnly and Feder, Velleman, Katz in the field of internet and models of using it and views of Putnam, Woolcock regarding social capital. The method used in this research is a qualitative – quantitative mixed method and the sampling method which has been used in the qualitative method is the purposive sampling method (theoretical sampling) and in the quantitative method, a combination of clustering, systematic and stratified sampling method in proportion with age and gender has been used. The statistical population of all persons who are 15 years old and more in Kerman city has been estimated to be 515114 persons in 2019 and the research sample has been estimated to be about 400 persons. Research results indicate that the rate of citizens' usage of internet in Kerman city is very low (less than 5 hours per week). Other results of the research indicate that regarding the model based on information associated with news, mostly filtered and unpermitted news sites such as VOA, BBC and other networks have been used. Research data regarding social identity is indicative of formation of identity evolutions in the contemporary society of Iran. The results of the path model test of the research indicate that news and economic information based models have about (0.11) direct and positive impact and ethnic identity has a direct and positive impact (0.189) and group identity has about (-0.131) impact and entertainment based model has about (0.130) impact on social capital. The results of variables' indirect impacts have also been expressed in the research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0331.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social media ethics; Social media; data misuse; data integrity
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:05:09 CET)
The present high-tech landscape has allowed institutes to undergo digital transformation in addition to the storing of exceptional bulks of information from several resources, such as mobile phones, debit cards, GPS, transactions, online logs, and e-records. With the growth of technology, big data has grown to be a huge resource for several corporations that helped in encouraging enhanced strategies and innovative enterprise prospects. This advancement has also offered the expansion of linkable data resources. One of the famous data sources is social media platforms. Ideas and different types of content are being posted by thousands of people via social networking sites. These sites have provided a modern method for operating companies efficiently. However, some studies showed that social media platforms can be a source for misinformation at which some users tend to misuse social media data. In this work, the ethical concerns and conduct in online communities has been reviewed in order to see how social media data from different platforms has been misused, and to highlight some of the ways to avoid the misuse of social media data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: social capital; food security; hunger; knowledge sharing; social networks
Online: 29 October 2020 (13:24:11 CET)
Social capital creates a synergy that brings many benefits to members of a community. Thus, the main objective of this article was to examine whether social capital can improve a society's food security. If yes, how? To answer these questions, a systematic literature review was conducted using the Prisma approach. The output of this method led to finding 39 related articles. Precise studying these articles illustrated that social capital improves food security through two mechanisms of knowledge sharing and product sharing (i.e., sharing food products). It revealed that social capital through improving the food security pillars (i.e., food availability, food accessibility, food utilization, and food system stability) affects food security. In other words, the interaction among the members of the community results in sharing food products and information among community members, and this facilitates food availability and access to food. There are many shreds of evidence in the literature that sharing food and food product among the community member decreases household food security and provides the healthy nutrition to the vulnerable families and improve the food utilization pillar of food security. In addition, it is disclosed that belonging to the social networks increases the resilience of the community members and decreases the vulnerability of the community that subsequently strengthens the stability of a food system. This study contributes to the common literature on food security and social capital by providing a conceptual model based on the literature. In addition to researchers, policymakers can use the finding of this study to provide solutions to address food insecurity problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Loneliness; Social-Emotional; Social Acceptance; Attention Focused
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:28:29 CEST)
The aim of the present research to identify the differences between the social acceptance, attention, and emotional and social loneliness feeling in women suffering from Alzheimer's and normal. The sample was analyzed in this study included 39 women age 51 to 69 years with the scope of that 19 of them with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 people had normal cognitive function and healthy in the city of Gorgan in the winter 1395 in the study. Identification of Alzheimer's sufferers and healthy based on the diagnosis of the physician and cognitive status questionnaire (SPMSQ) and they were asked to answer the social acceptance of the scale questionnaire Marlow and Craven, affective and social adults alone feel scale (SELSA-S), Spotlight questionnaire (FAQ). The data using analysis of variance, multivariate factor test method (MANOVA) were studied. The results of this test indicate that it is totally focused attention between petty scale, the Spotlight focused on the notion of social acceptance of social interaction and social-emotional feeling lonely scale in women suffering from Alzheimer's and normal according to the analysis of the one-way variance of a significant difference in the context of manova level (P < 0.001). But in the other scale retail spotlight focused on his research, a significant difference was not observed. According to the results of the research in general can be found stating that to provide family-centered care and the implementation of the health-welfare interventions by relevant organs with different educational, supportive, emotional and consultation approaches, can be effective on health promotion of public health and the actual need in the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: detour task; equids; social cognition; social learning; spatial cognition
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:08:10 CEST)
Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adapt to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on spatial problem-solving abilities in horses using a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and horses (n = 16) received a human demonstration or no demonstration. Horses were allocated to two test groups of 8 horses each, which experienced the two treatments in a counterbalanced order. We found that horses did not solve the detour task faster with human demonstration. However, both test groups improved rapidly over trials. Our results suggest that horses prefer to use individual rather than social information when being confronted with a spatial problem-solving task.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0121.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: social criteria; building assessment tools; sustainable development; social sustainability
Online: 15 January 2018 (07:55:41 CET)
The social criteria of sustainable development have remained underexplored. Moreover, a large number of green building assessment tool and social sustainability documentations have been developed which, has had a direct impact on social criteria issues, but there seems to be a substantial gap in the study of social criteria in green building assessment tools. In examining the problem facing social sustainability, taking into consideration social sustainability in sustainable development reviews and green building assessment tool towards social aspects. This paper through analysis identified a centripetal conceptual framework composed of seven key components equity, education, participation & control, social cohesion, health & safety, accessibility & satisfaction, and cultural values. The interpretation of the social sustainability in green building assessment tool would impact building practitioners towards implementing social criteria in GBAT. The aim was to identify social categories as well as consider a starting point for the development of an effective social criteria assessment tool for green building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0196.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Twitter; Social Media; Social Networking; Social Network Analytic; DistilBERT; Text Similarity; Natural Language Processing; Character Computing
Online: 17 February 2022 (13:15:23 CET)
Social media platforms have been entirely an undeniable part of the lifestyle for the past decade. Analyzing the information being shared is a crucial step to understanding human behavior. Social media analysis aims to guarantee a better experience for the user and risen user satisfaction. For deriving any further conclusion, first, it is necessary to know how to compare users. In this paper, a hybrid model has been proposed to measure Twitter profiles’ similarity and quantifies the likeness degree of profiles by calculating features considering users’ behavioral habits. For this, first, the timeline of each profile has been extracted using the official TwitterAPI. Then, in parallel, three aspects of a profile are deliberated. Behavioral ratios are time-series-related information showing the consistency and habits of the user. Dynamic time warping has been utilized to compare the behavioral ratios of two profiles. Next, the audience network is extracted for each user, and for estimating the similarity of two sets, Jaccard similarity is used. Finally, for the Content similarity measurement, the tweets are preprocessed respecting the feature extraction method; TF-IDF and DistilBERT for feature extraction are employed and then compared using the cosine similarity method. Results have shown that TF-IDF has slightly better performance; therefore, the more straightforward solution is selected for the model. Similarity level of different profiles. As in the case study, a Random Forest classification model was trained on almost 20000 users revealed a 97.24% accuracy. This comparison enables us to find duplicate profiles with nearly the same behavior and content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0494.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: faith-informed advocacy; Christian social work; ethics; values; social justice
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:53:53 CEST)
This article presents the development of a Faith-Informed Advocacy Model that integrates faith-based principles and values into advocacy efforts within Christian social work. Drawing from the intersection of Christian ethics and social work principles, this model provides a framework for Christian social workers to engage in advocacy work that is grounded in their faith and guided by ethical principles. The article includes case studies that illustrate the application of the model in real-world scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: instagram; social networking sites (SNS); social comparison orientation; well-being
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:29:23 CEST)
Social networks are experiencing great popularity, with Instagram currently being the most intensively used network. On these platforms, users are continuously exposed to self-relevant information that fosters social comparisons. A distinction is made between ability-based and opinion-based comparison dimensions. To experimentally investigate the influence of these comparison dimensions on users' subjective well-being, an online exposition experiment (N = 409) was conducted. In a preliminary study (N = 107), adequate exposition stimulus material was selected in advance. The results of the main study indicated that exposition of ability-related social comparisons in the context of social media elicited lower well-being than exposition of opinion-related social comparisons. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for future work were outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social engagement; social rehabilitation; community-based; financial analysis; Momentum Center
Online: 2 May 2023 (05:28:57 CEST)
Cost-effective community engagement is needed to address causes of mental illness related to social issues (i.e. isolation, stigma and lack of purpose) that are typically outside the scope of healthcare. This pilot study evaluated the relationship between clinical healthcare resources and a community-based social engagement organization in a medium-sized community in the midwestern US. Analyses were based on a retrospective longitudinal comparison of clinical visit frequency from two cohorts that joined the Momentum Center for Social Engagement (MC) and either frequently participated (Engaged; n = 9) or had extenuating circumstances limiting participation (Non-engaged; n = 3). The frequency of >1800 visits to the member’s primary mental healthcare provider were compared during the period from November 2016 - May 2021. Engaged MC members reduced frequency of regular visits to their primary mental healthcare provider by 50%, while Non-engaged MC members maintained clinical visit frequency. The financial value of reduced healthcare visits and associated wellbeing improvements was estimated to be $1.0 million, 95% CI: [$0.6-1.4 million], or roughly four times the budget received by the MC from the healthcare provider. Thus, the MC appears to be a valuable approach to improving mental health in conjunction with existing community healthcare services. Clinical implications include considering the unique MC-style community-based support as a component of practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social modernisation; social sustainability; factor analysis; structural equation modelling; Lithuania
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:36:13 CET)
The present paper investigates the 'soft' determinants of social environmental sustainability of the country. A three-dimensional research approach, covering the education system and educational culture; socio-economic integration; and the legal system and the importance of public administration and citizenship, was utilized. A cross-sectional survey of 1,021 respondents and a structural equation modelling were selected as main research tools. Lithuania served as an empirical basis for the research. It was revealed that the most important factors in shaping the modernisation of the country through the lens of social environmental sustainability are the participation of citizens in social communities and social activities. Factors that need improvement are public participation and tolerance for the disabled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional loneliness; social loneliness; nursing homes; older adults; social isolation
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:25:59 CET)
(1) Background: Loneliness, little studied in Nursing Homes (NHs), can affect physical and mental health. We aimed to verify the prevalence of loneliness in 5 NHs and its associated factors. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study. Older adults aged 65 or over with preserved cognitive status were included. The De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was used to assess overall, social, and emotional loneliness; sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. The chi-square (or Fisher’s) test and logistic regression were used for bivariate and multivariate analysis respectively. (3) Results: The final sample consisted of 65 participants (81.5% female) with a mean age of 84±7.13. Prevalence of overall loneliness was 70.7% (95%CI:58.2-81.4), social loneliness 44.6% (95% CI: 33.1-56.6) and emotional loneliness 46.2% (95% CI: 34.5–58.1). Overall loneliness was associated with lower perceived quality of life (Odds Ratio-OR= 5.52, 95% CI:1.25-24.38) and NH with state subsidized places (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.74); social loneliness with having 0-1 children (OR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.77), and emotional loneliness with depression (OR=4.54, 95% CI: 1.28-16.08) and urinary incontinence (UI) (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.23-17.52). (4) Conclusions: Loneliness was present in almost 71% of residents and was associated with the type of NH and poorer quality of life, emotional loneliness with depression and UI and social loneliness with having less than 2 children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: concerns; coronavirus; cross-national study; pandemic; social distancing; social media
Online: 18 February 2021 (11:02:48 CET)
COVID-19 has been a global healthcare concern impacting multiple aspects of individual and community wellness. As one moves forward with different methods to reduce the infection and mortality rates, it is critical to continue to study the impact that national and local ‘social distancing’ policies have on the daily lives of individuals. The aim of this study was to examine loneliness in relation to risk assessment, measures taken against risks, concerns, and social media use, while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The cross-sectional study collected data from 3469 individuals from USA, UK, Norway, and Australia. Loneliness was measured with the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Multiple linear regression was used in the analysis of associations between variables. The results showed that concerns about finances were more strongly associated with social loneliness, while concerns about the future was more strongly associated with emotional loneliness. Longer daily time spent on social media was associated with higher emotional loneliness. In conclusion, pandemic-related concerns seem to affect their perceptions of loneliness. While social media can be used productively to maintain relationships, and thereby prevent loneliness, excessive use may be counterproductive.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: disability; COVID-19; pandemic; social care; lockdown; social distancing; information
Online: 27 January 2021 (13:44:10 CET)
This paper reports on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 69 disabled people in England and Scotland, and with 28 key informants from infrastructure organisations in the voluntary and statutory sectors, about the impact of COVID-19, and measures taken to control it. Participants were recruited through voluntary organisations. As with everyone, the Pandemic has had a huge impact: we discuss the dislocations it has caused in everyday life; the failures of social care; the use of new technologies; and participants’ view on leadership and communication. We conclude with suggestions for urgent short term and medium term responses, so that the United Kingdom and other countries can respond better to this and other pandemics, and build a more inclusive world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0593.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social work; families with children; child welfare services; social mobility
Online: 27 August 2020 (06:05:09 CEST)
Abstract The aim of our study is to analyse the perception of the families and concerned social workers. The research was conducted in an underprivileged and disadvantaged microregion in North Hungary. The main focus was the perception on the available health, educational, child welfare and social services and supports. The starting point was to enquire the target group’s knowledge of these services. The study examines the extent to which social work is able to provide support to disadvantaged, marginalized families with children, and the way how the dysfunctional operation of the system contributes to the perpetuation of the clients’ life conditions. Analysing the quality of these services and supports is crucial to understand the social mobility chance of the children living in this microregion. The results show that without capability and talent development for the children and given the lack of welfare services, the mobility chance and opportunities of these families are extremely low in Hungary.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: opinion game; opinion dynamics; social dynamic; social interaction; consensus; polarization
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:42:50 CET)
In this age of Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, there is rapidly growing interest in understanding network-enabled opinion dynamics in large groups of autonomous agents. The phenomena of opinion polarization, the spread of propaganda and fake news, and the manipulation of sentiment is of interest to large numbers of organizations and people. Whether it is the more nefarious players such as foreign governments that are attempting to sway elections or it is more open and above board, such as researchers who want to make large groups of people aware of helpful innovations, what is at stake is often significant. In this paper, we review opinion dynamics including the extensions of many classical models as well as some new models that deepen understanding. For example, we look at models that track the evolution of an individual’s power, that include noise, and that feature sequentially dependent topics, to name a few. While the first papers studying opinion dynamics appeared over 60 years ago, there is still a great deal of room for innovation and exploration. We believe that the political climate and the extraordinary (even unprecedented) events in the sphere of politics in the last few years will inspire new interest and new ideas. It is our aim to help those interested researchers understand what has already been explored in a significant portion of the field of opinion dynamics. We believe that in doing this, it will become clear that there is still much to be done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0079.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Natural Social Contract; Co-evolutionary governance; Transformative governance; Institutional change; Policy mixes; Transformative Social-Ecological Innovation; Transformative Social Innovation; Social Innovation; Sustainability Transition; Societal Transition
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:43:04 CET)
The corona (COVID-19) pandemic offers an opportunity for dealing with persistent problems, through a transformative recovery process. It is a crisis that offers opportunities for dealing with three interrelated crises: the ecological crisis (climate change, loss of biodiversity, resource depletion, pollution and ecosystem destruction), the confidence crisis (people losing trust in government, politics, companies, regular news channels, science, each other and the future), and the inequality crisis (the widening of the gap between rich and poor). Our argument is that sustainability transitions will not succeed without a different economy and another social contract with the associated rights and duties of care (for the environment and the well-being of others, including future generations). A different social contract is not only desirable from the point of view of sustainability and fairness, justice and equality, but is also necessary to restore citizens' trust in politics, government, companies and each other. In the paper we discuss mechanisms towards a Natural Social Contract, systemic leverage points for system transformations and possibilities for co-evolutionary governance by actor coalitions interested in transformative change. The combination of those three elements helps to synchronize different agendas and reduce the chance that they will work against each other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fear of missing out (FOMO), Parental control, Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU), Social Media Addiction, Social Media Intrusion
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:23:46 CEST)
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0624.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Social Identity; Enduring Mental Health Difficulties; Social Connection; Loneliness; Group Therapy
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:05:01 CEST)
Many people with enduring mental health difficulties (EMHD) have reduced social connections and subsequent experiences of isolation and loneliness. This paper outlines the development and trial of a manualised social-identity-based group therapy intervention to increase social connection and develop social skills to build connections outside of healthcare settings. This intervention was developed in line with the quality intervention development (6SQuID) methodology. The paper describes initial data from a feasibility study (which was ceased prematurely due to COVID-19 restrictions). Semi-structured outcome interviews were conducted with the participants and analysed using thematic analysis. Uptake, retention and acceptability of participants was high. Four primary themes were identified across the dataset: Therapeutic Process, Social Identity, Generic Components of Group Therapy and Impact of COVID-19. Participants experienced positive changes in their social behaviour, mood and avoidance. Some were unsure of the concept of social identity while reporting positive changes. A theoretically coherent manualised treatment was developed and tested on a small scale. This study supports social identity-based CBT groups as a potentially effective way of increasing social connection in those with EMHD. Social identity theory supported participants to positively integrate an area of potential social threat into their self-concept and may offer a positive addition to current psychological interventions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: oil industry; corporate social responsibility; emerging market; social impact; case study
Online: 31 May 2023 (03:13:24 CEST)
This paper analyzes the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and social impact within the oil industry in an emerging market (Peru). Following the emerging literature on the social impact field, and using the case study methodology, the findings show that the expected positive relationship is diverse depending on several factors. Specifically, the results reveal that companies must focus on community and environmental responsibility, together with stakeholders' involvement to achieve social impact. However, when companies are weak in any of the previous factors, then the social impact is only partially accepted or even withdrawn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0383.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Accountability; Management; Non-Profit Organisations; Social Economy; Social Solidarity Institutions; Transparency.
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:32:17 CET)
The Social Economy (SE) emerges as an interesting alternative to deal with social problems that often cannot be met by the services provided by the State. However, one of the concerns relates to the ability of these institutions to meet the demands of stakeholders concerning accountability. In this sense, the present work aimed to determine if the IPSS are prepared to meet the management requirements by increasing their accountability. For that purpose, we conducted qualitative research, with an exploratory focus, with 31 Portuguese Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS). The interviews took place between June and July 2019, with those responsible for managing the entities. The interviews were guided on a semi-structured script based on the literature review. After Content Analysis, it was found that, in most of the institutions interviewed, the board does not use management tools, such as performance analysis, social impact assessment, strategic planning and quality management systems, even recognising the importance of using them. The fact is due to the lack of access or knowledge about its use. In addition, the majority of the IPSS interviewed showed concern about the transparency and ethics of managers. Current strategic management practices are remarkably targeted at companies in the for-profit sector and can compromise the principle of investments in human and social issues. Thus, the introduction of new activities can further reinforce the pressure felt by these institutions in carrying out operational activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0697.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: history education; social studies; scholar research; relevant social problems; global citizenship.
Online: 29 March 2021 (14:40:47 CEST)
In Secondary Education, the focus of History teaching must be on the development of global citizenship. The present research was a study contextualized in the Fiesta de la Historia Youth Congress in Seville (Spain). A documentary analysis with a descriptive and interpretive design was made of 63 projects of inquiry that pupils carried out. The main objectives were to assess the incidence of the proposal in terms of participation, and to determine whether the pupils' projects followed a logic of inquiry about socially relevant problems which favours the construction of global citizenship. The results point to a low incidence of schools participating in this initiative. The projects of inquiry analysed present for the most part themes related to the historical and social heritage of the locality. The proposals are approached as problems of a specific discipline, and are worked on through a method based on a pseudoscientific research process. The findings indicate the need to continue implementing initiatives based on school inquiry that allow the teaching of History to be articulated around relevant social problems, with the objective being to develop citizenship skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0491.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: FoMO; Social Cognitive Theory; Social Influence; Self-efficacy; Positive Outcome Expectancy
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:57:49 CEST)
Objectives: This study proposes a model that integrates three determinants of social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain the impact of FoMO on SNS usage. Design: A cross-sectional study is conducted using data for 259 participants recruited from a website. Main Outcome Measures: The analysis focuses on FoMO, social influence, positive outcome expectancy, refusal self-efficacy, and SNS-related behavior cloud-based sites. Data are examined using descriptive analysis and structural equation modeling. Results: The proposed model reported proper goodness of fit. FoMO does not directly or indirectly impact SNS usage through the determinants of SCT. However, social influence and refusal self-efficacy have a direct effect. Conclusions: The roles of the three determinants of SCT vary by stage of SNS usage. FoMO and refusal self-efficacy are more strongly related with SNS addiction. Further research, particularly longitudinal and intervention studies, is needed to examine the effects of specific factors on SNS addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: pro-environmental behavior, social-ecological systems, conservation, social networks, landscape structure
Online: 15 May 2019 (12:24:16 CEST)
Conservation of natural habitats in human-dominated landscapes is critical for halting biodiversity loss. Maintaining habitat quantity and connectivity requires landscape-level collective action, which results from environmental decisions made by individual land owners. We investigate how individual decision making in a rural collective translates into quantitative differences in landscape-level environmental outcomes. Behavioral science has become a critical domain of knowledge in conservation, but little attention has been paid to how multiple behavioral drivers determine the success of collective environmental action. We developed a social-ecological model for landscape-level conservation using a detailed data set of 600 land owners in New Zealand. With the model, we tested whether the effect of social influence networks on collective conservation action was altered by their interplay with land owners’ personal characteristics, connections to cross-scale actors and local environmental contexts. Interactions between multiple behavioral drivers determined the environmental outcomes of collective action in unexpected ways by modifying, muting or amplifying the effects of single drivers. Importantly, we detected a social-ecological mechanism for rapid change in the extent of protected habitats, which can explain highly successful or failed environmental outcomes of collective conservation. Further, when environmentally desirable and undesirable behaviors spread simultaneously through the social network, homophily and network cohesion hinder desirable environmental outcomes. This effect can be modified by other drivers such as social responses to local environmental change. Thus, understanding how the antagonistic and synergistic effects of behavioral drivers can be best utilized in conservation will benefit biodiversity and ensure benefits that humans obtain from biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0279.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: brain plasticity; cichlids; cleanerfish; social plasticity; social decision making network; zebrafish
Online: 17 January 2019 (03:48:04 CET)
Social plasticity, defined as the ability to adaptively change the expression of social behavior according to previous experience and to social context, is a key ecological performance trait that should be viewed as crucial for Darwinian fitness. The neural mechanisms for social plasticity are poorly understood, in part due to skewed reliance on rodent models. Fish model organisms are relevant in the field of social plasticity for at least two reasons: first, the diversity of social organization among fish species is staggering, increasing the breadth of evolutionary relevant questions that can be asked. Second, that diversity also suggests translational relevance, since it is more likely that “core” mechanisms of social plasticity are discovered by analyzing a wider variety of social arrangements than relying on a single species. We analyze examples of social plasticity across fish species with different social organizations, concluding that a “core” mechanism is the initiation of behavioral shifts through the modulation of a conserved “social decision-making network”, along with other relevant brain regions, by monoamines, neuropeptides, and steroid hormones. The consolidation of these shifts may be mediated via neurogenomic adjustments and regulation of the expression of plasticity-related molecules (transcription factors, cell cycle regulators, and plasticity products).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0343.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social laser; social energy; social atom; indistinguishability; quantum statistics; quantum information theory; COVID19 protests; pro-war; pro-peace beaming
Online: 24 October 2022 (02:58:50 CEST)
This is a review on social laser theory completed with its new developments and applications. An important methodological step towards similarity with quantum physics is the invention and consistent operation with infons. These are excitations of the quantum social-information field carrying social energy and coarse grained content of communications (their color and quasi-color). We study in more detail interactions of infons with social atoms, the processes of absorption and emission (spontaneous and stimulated). We also analyze the dynamics of iterations of the cascades of infons in the social resonators. The latter are based on social networks coupled to laser's gain medium composed of social atoms. Consideration of the pro-war and pro-peace beams leads to the general discussion on the competing beams of social radiation and the conditions for their creation and coexistence. The role of social networks in lasing is illustrated by the protests during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is highlighted that a human gain medium can approach the state of population inversion with supply of infons of one sort (quasi-color), but the stimulated emission can be induced by injection into the gain medium of infons of a different quasi-color. We call this behavior of social atoms memorylessness. This theoretical property is illustrated with the examples from the modern social-political life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0470.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: social support; depression; stroke
Online: 7 November 2023 (13:25:24 CET)
Research has shown a protective association between social support and depression, depression among stroke patients, and health impacts of depression. Yet not much is known on the effect of social support on depression among stroke patients. This review aims to summarize the current research examining the association between social support and depression among stroke patients. A literature search was performed in PubMed to find original peer-reviewed journal articles from 2016 to Mar. 12, 2023 that examined the association between social support and depression among stroke patients. The search terms were depression and "social support" and stroke, which lead to 172 articles. After abstract review, seven observational studies that studied the target association among stroke patients were selected. One additional study was found using PsycINFO as a complementary source with the same search strategy and criteria. Overall, a negative association was found between social support and depression among stroke patients in seven studies, with more social support leading to lower rates of depression post-stroke. One study found that social support was positively related with depression, but the result was nonsignificant. Overall, the results of recent studies suggest that social support is negatively associated with depression among stroke patients. In most studies, this association was statistically significant. The findings suggest the importance of improving social support perceived by stroke patients in the prevention of depression after the occurrence of stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0603.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: assessment; social; determinants; health
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:44:03 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health are conditions in the environments that significantly influence the health of individuals and communities. Various factors like income, socio-economic status, stress, customs, culture, healthcare services largely affect the health status of individuals and communities. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to identify the factors responsible for the social determinants of health among residents of Buari Ishola Isibo in Ede North Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross – sectional study was utilized, and multi-stage random sampling method was employed in selecting 60 households of Buari Ishola Isibo in Ede North Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection and data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The respondents’ ages were between 15 – 60 years and above. 29 (48.3%) were between 31 – 60 years old, 31 (52.0%) were males, 40 (66.7%) were married, 57 (95.0%) were Islam and Yoruba. 29 (48.3%) earned 10,000 – 30,000 monthly, 23 (38.3%) had secondary school education, 39 (65.0%) were traders and 27 (45.0%) have 6 – 10 households respectively. Of the 60 respondents, 34 (56.7%) visit government health facility when they are sick, 21 (35.0%) make use of hand dug well in their compound as the source of their water supply, 27 (45.0%) uses flush water closet toilet as the means of disposing off their excreta, 36 (60.0%) lives in concrete with zinc roof house, 27 (45.0%) have between 6 – 10 rooms in their house, 55 (91.7%) sleep in a room and 21 (35.0%) make use of charcoal as source of fuel for their cooking. CONCLUSION: Poverty or lower income affects the health of individuals through a person’s health throughout their life span. Issues that affect social determinants of health of individuals and community in a negative way should be accosted with all seriousness.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Self-versus-other perception; Social cognition; Development of Neural activit; Social processing
Online: 20 October 2023 (13:44:36 CEST)
Although adults and children differ in self-versus-other perception, the developmental perspective on this discriminative ability is missing. We compared neural activation of self-vs-others in 39 participants of 4 different age groups (4 yo. to adulthood). Two brain regions, the MCC and right postcentral gyrus, exhibited respectively non-linear and gradual gains in discriminative abilities for self-vs-others stimuli. These regions play critical roles in self-referential processing, empathy, and social cognition. Nine brain regions showed linear increase for others-vs-self stimuli. These regions are associated with multisensory processing, somatosensory skills, complex visual stimuli, self-awareness, empathy, theory of mind, and social recognition. Understanding the neural basis of self-vs-others discrimination during development can inform when and how social contexts support learning processes during childhood and adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0233.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social media; social robots; negative mood; self-disclosure; intervention design; anthropomorphic design
Online: 16 June 2022 (06:11:48 CEST)
COVID-19 may not be a ‘youth disease’ but nevertheless impacts the life of young people dramatically, loneliness and negative mood being an unexpected additional pandemic. Many young people rely on social media for their feeling of connectedness with others. However, social media are suggested to have many negative effects on people’s anxiety. Instead of self-disclosing to others, design may develop alternatives to employ social robots for self-disclosure. In a follow-up on Duan et al. (2021), we report on a lab experiment of self-disclosing negative emotions to a social-media group as compared to writing a conventional diary journal or to talk to an AI-driven social robot after negative mood induction (i.e. viewing shocking earthquake footage). Participants benefitted the most from talking to a robot rather than from writing a journal page or sharing their feelings on social media. Self-disclosure on social media or writing a journal page did not differ significantly. In the design of interventions for mental well-being, human helpers thus far took center stage. Based on our results, we propose design alternatives for an empathic smart-home, featuring social robots and chatbots for alleviating stress and anxiety: a social-media interference chatbot, smart watch plus speaker, and a mirror for self-reflection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0400.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human capital; educational signal; education; labour market; social mobility; social reproduction; China
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:37:08 CEST)
Exisitng studies argue life chances are, in part, vertically reproduced. Such a statement is applicable to the Chinese contexts as, but not limited to, parental hukou status, to some extent, determines the life chances their children receive. In this essay, the author would like to introduce human capital theory (HCT) and educational signalling theory (EST), and assess how the applications of each of these two models can enrich the understanding of vertical reproduction of individuals’ social mobility opportunities. The author would also present the limitations of each of these two models when addressing relevant Chinese contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0615.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Latvia; social classes; “resource portfolio”; social capital; degree of the resource capitalization.
Online: 25 June 2021 (10:51:58 CEST)
The aim of this study is to investigate “resource portfolios” and total capital, as well as the degree of those resources capitalization, which representatives of different social classes in the modern Latvia have at their disposal. The amount and structure of “resource portfolio” and total capital of different social classes studied using the resource-asset-capital approach. The article presents results of the sociological survey of social stratification in modern Latvia on the example of its one region – Latgale (2019, n = 798, representative sample of the adult population), identifying social classes based on two objective (income and education) and one subjective (self-identification of respondents) criteria. Based on the example of the lower working class and the middle class, the authors proved that representatives of these polar social classes have a total capital of different amount, which is determined by two main reasons: 1) the lower working class has statistically significantly smaller “resource portfolio” than the middle class; 2) the lower working class is not so successful as the middle class in activating the resources at their disposal, turning them into their capital. These statistically significant two-level differences have to be considered when pursuing social policies on reducing differences between social classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0635.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: benefit corporation; b corp; institutional logic; hybrid entrepreneurship; social entrepreneurship; social enterprise
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:37:58 CEST)
This paper contributes to the current debate about Benefit Corporations, presenting the development of this organisational model in Italy, the first country to introduce this hybrid form after the US. Grounded on an institutional logic perspective, it provides a picture of the institutional dynamics that have characterised the rise of this new entrepreneurial form outside the US. The analysis provides an in-depth foundational study of the Italian case and highlights the relevant influence of different institutional pressures in explaining the rise of and constraints in the diffusion of Benefit Corporations. Empirically, it combines secondary data, available from different public sources, and primary data collected through interviews with a series of knowledgeable informants. Based upon the analysis, two aspects appear peculiar for the development of Benefit Corporations in Italy: the interplay between the Benefit Corporation legal form and the certified B Corp model, and the rise of tensions between social entrepreneurship and the third sector ecosystem. This paper concludes that the peculiar institutional pressures leading to the birth of Benefit Corporations in Italy may be source of permanent tensions and of concern for the diffusion of the model.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Computational Social Choice; Election Control; Multi-winner Election; Social Influence; Influence Maximization
Online: 7 September 2020 (04:11:59 CEST)
Nowadays, many political campaigns are using social influence (SI) in order to convince voters to support/oppose a specific candidate/party. In election control via SI problem, an attacker tries to find a set of limited influencers to start disseminating a political message in a social network of voters. A voter will change his opinion when he receives and accepts the message. In constructive case, the goal is to maximize the number of votes/winners of a target candidate/party, while in destructive case, the attacker tries to minimize them. Recent works considered the problem in different models and presented some hardness and approximation results. In this work, we consider multi-winner election control through SI on different graph structures and diffusion models, and our goal is to maximize/minimize the number of winners in our target party. We show that the problem is hard to approximate when voters' connections form a graph, and the diffusion model is the linear threshold model. We also prove the same result considering an arborescence under independent cascade model. Moreover, we present a dynamic programming algorithm for the cases that the voting system is a variation of straight-party voting, and voters form a tree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0560.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big Data; Natural Language Processing; Social media; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Social Computing
Online: 26 August 2020 (04:33:35 CEST)
Social media gives researchers an invaluable opportunity to gain insight into different facets of human life.Researchers put a great emphasis on categorizing the socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals to help predict various findings of interest. Forum uses, hashtags and so on are common tools of conversations grouping. On the other hand, crowdsourcing is a concept that involves gathering intelligence to group online user community based on common interest. This paper provides a mechanism to look at writings on social media and group them based on their academic background. We build upon earlier work where we analyzed online forum posts from various geographical regions in the USA and Canada and characterized the readability scores of such users. Specifically, we collected 1000 tweets from the members of the US Senate and computed the Flesch-Kincaid readability score for the Senators. Comparing the Senators’ tweets to the ones from average citizens, we note the following. 1) US Senators’ readability based on their tweets rate is much higher affirming the gap between the academic performance of US Senators and their average citizen, and 2) the immense difference among average citizen’s score compared to those of US Senators is attributed to the wide spectrum of academic attainment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0541.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Social Internet of Things; Social Internet of Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Infrastructure; Vehicle Ad-hoc Network; Social Networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:27:27 CEST)
The number of people owning vehicles has been steadily growing, resulting in increased numbers of vehicles on the roads, making roads more congested, and increasing the risk of accidents. In addition, heavy rain, snow, and fog have increased due to abnormal weather caused by global warming. These bad weather conditions can also affect the safety of vehicles and drivers. The need to disseminate safety messages on the social internet of vehicles due to these problems has been steadily increasing. In this paper, we propose an efficient safety message dissemination scheme that focuses on urban environments with high vehicle density and mobility to address these problems. The proposed scheme reduces packet loss by considering frequent cluster departures and subscriptions through an efficient cluster management technique. In a vehicle-to-vehicle environment, the dissemination of safety messages is divided into an intra-cluster and an inter-cluster emergency as well as general safety message dissemination technique. In a vehicle to infrastructure environment, the proposed scheme reduces the number of processing requests and duplicate messages made to roadside units (RSUs) through a request operation process for each vehicle and an RSU scheduling technique. We conducted several performance evaluations of message packet loss and the number of RSU processing requests to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: information field; social energy; social atom; spontaneous and stimulated emission; information excitation; social lasing; Echo Chambers; boson fields; coherence; information tsunami
Online: 17 April 2020 (09:15:09 CEST)
During the last years our society was permanently disturbed by the coherent information waves of high amplitudes. These are waves of huge social energy. Often they are of the destructive character, a kind of information tsunami. But, they can carry as well positive improvements in the human society, as waves of decision making matching rational recommendations of societal institutes. The main distinguishing features of these waves are their high amplitude, coherence (homogeneous character of social actions generated by them), and short time needed for their generation and relaxation. We show that such social phenomenon can be modeled on the basis of the recently developed social laser theory. This theory can be used to model stimulated amplification of coherent social actions. ``Actions'' are treated very generally, from mass protests to votes and other collective decisions, as, e.g., acceptance (often unconscious) of some societal recommendations. We point to the main distinguishing features of the modern society simplifying social lasing: a) transformation of humans into social atoms - lost of individuality; b) generation by mass-media of powerful information fields leading to information overload of social atoms; c) creation of powerful social resonators based on internet Echo Chambers. In this paper, we analyze in very detail their functioning leading to increasing of the power fo the quantum information field as well as its coherence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1739.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: cost benefit analysis; evaluation; land use transport planning; monetization; social exclusion; social goal
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:15:52 CET)
The meaning of a good social outcome in land use transport policy/planning has been relatively underdeveloped, compared to economic and environmental sustainability goals, but this is now changing. Cities are increasingly prioritizing reducing social exclusion, with the allied intent of providing all residents with equitable access to the benefits of their city. However, in jurisdictions that use cost-benefit analysis to guide government decision-making, this poses a challenge: monetization of the benefits of reducing social exclusion is poorly developed. An evaluation gap thus confronts benefit-cost based assessment of initiatives intended to reduce social exclusion, compared to initiatives directed towards societal economic and environmental goals. This is a particular problem for public transport services that primarily enable people at risk of mobility-related social exclusion to access more opportunities in their society (social transit). The benefits of reducing social exclusion associated with these services have not been monetized, so social transit initiatives are poorly placed to argue their merits against competing initiatives where benefit monetization is more advanced (e.g., mass public transport and roads). The paper summarizes Australian research that has developed monetized measures for the value of increased trip making, bridging/bonding social capital, sense of community and several conceptions of wellbeing, and of reducing neighbourhood disadvantage, as these contribute to reducing social exclusion. New Singaporean research on the value of trip making to support reduced exclusion is also presented, affirming the Australian trip values. Trip values are then used in case study examples to show they can make a material difference to the societal worth of initiatives intended to reduce exclusion. Using these trip values, and other pathway values linked to reducing social exclusion, closes or at least substantially reduces the evaluation gap confronting social goal achievement in land use transport policy and planning, strengthening the case for reducing exclusion. These values will assist jurisdictions that are seeking to provide their residents with more equitable access to the benefits of their city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Social networking; adolescents; communication; motives of use; social desirability; gender differences; age differences
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:24:06 CET)
The evolution of digital media in adolescents has changed the patterns and motives of use and the impact on their communication choices in their social and family networks. The objectives of this study are to understand how peers communicate adopting a social network (SN) or by voice and their social desirability. After the informant consent signature, the adolescents completed a series of self-report questionnaires on the use of SN, on communication preferences, and on social desirability through online. Most of the adolescents belonged to the 17-19 age group (83.6%) and were female (68.9%). Adolescents spent more than 3 hours/day on Whatsapp and more than 2 hours/day on Instagram, while the use of Facebook was on average only 35 minutes/day. Females used digital media for longer than males. Adolescents aged 17-19 years choose more Facebook and voice modes compared to adolescents aged 14 and 16 years. The alternative modes of Whatsapp and voice were chosen more than the social networks in their communication strategies, especially for negative topics. Motives for use were, in addition to boredom, related to maintaining one's social sphere with peers. Some educative considerations were made based on these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0536.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big Data; Natural Language Processing; Social Media; Female Workplace Bullying, Crowdsourcing; Social Computing
Online: 25 August 2020 (04:13:59 CEST)
Motivated by the #Metoo movement, we explore in this paper people’s perception of female bullying at workplace. We looked at #workplacebullying and found that 1) people were split between identifying the prevalence of workplace bullying against female and the view that such bullying simply does not exist and is a nuisance, 2) The tweets also showed the existence of psychological effects of cyberbullying, and 3) the tweets showed many intervention techniques that can minimize the effects of such bullying. We further explored the top three recurring hashtags mentioned under the #workplacebullying and found that the three top hashtags were #sexism, #feminism and #equality. Our results showed that the above hashtags represent the positive and negative approach to workplace bullying i.e. #feminism hashtag was mostly used by people who denied that workplace bullying against females exist while # sexism was mentioned as the prime cause by people who agree that such bullying exist. #equality overwhelmingly comprises of techniques to minimize workplace bullying against females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0057.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: COVID-19; social distancing model; sentiment analysis; physical distancing; social media; measuring attitudes
Online: 6 April 2020 (12:50:00 CEST)
The COVID-19 outbreak has focused attention on the use of social distancing as the primary defence against community infection, yet forcing social animals to maintain that physical distance has presented significant challenges for health authorities and law enforcement. Anecdotal media reports suggest widespread dissatisfaction with social distancing as a policy, yet there is little prior work aimed at measuring community acceptance of social distancing. In this paper, we propose a new approach to measuring attitudes towards social distancing by using social media and sentiment analysis. Over a 4 month period, we found 82.5% of tweets were in favour of social distancing. The results indicate a widespread acceptance of social distancing in the community. We conclude by examining options for estimating the optimal (minimal) social distance required at scale, and the implications for securing widespread community support and acceptance of public health messaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0247.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: security; social sentiment sensor; hackers; social media; statistics; L1 regression; twitter; cyber attacks
Online: 29 March 2018 (07:47:48 CEST)
In recent years, online social media information has been subject of study in several data science fields due to its impact on users as a communication and expression channel. Data~gathered from online platforms such as Twitter has the potential to facilitate research over social phenomena based on sentiment analysis, which usually employs Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning techniques to interpret sentimental tendencies related to users opinions and make predictions about real events. Cyber attacks are not isolated from opinion subjectivity on online social networks. Various security attacks are performed by hacker activists motivated by reactions from polemic social events. In this paper, a methodology for tracking social data that can trigger cyber attacks is developed. Our main contribution lies in the monthly prediction of tweets with content related to security attacks and the incidents detected based on ℓ1 regularization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0058.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smartphone sensing; mobile-social integration; automatic recognition; social data; long-term health monitoring
Online: 10 March 2017 (17:32:31 CET)
Over the past decades, overweight and obesity has become a global epidemic and the leading threat for death. To prevent the serious risk, an overweight or obese individual must apply a long-term weight-management strategy to control food intake and physical activities, which is however, not easy. Recently, with the advances of information technology, more and more people can use wearable devices and smartphones to obtain physical activity information, while they can also access various health-related information from Internet online social networks (OSNs). Nevertheless, there is a lack of an integrated approach that can combine these two methods in an efficient way. In this paper, we address this issue and propose a novel mobile-social framework for health recognition and recommendation, namely, H-Rec2. The main ideas of H-Rec2 include (1) to recognize the individual's health status using smartphone as a general platform, and (2) to recommend physical activity and food intake based on personal health information, life science principles, and health-related information obtained from OSNs. To demonstrate the potentials of the H-Rec2 framework, we develop a prototype that consists of four important components: (1) an activity recognition module that senses physical activity using accelerometer, (2) a health status modeling module that applies a novel algorithm to generate personalized health status index, (3) a restaurant information collection module that collects relevant information from OSN, and (4) a restaurant recommendation module that provides personalized and context-aware recommendation. To evaluate the prototype, we conduct both objective and subjective experiments, which confirm the performance and effectiveness of the proposed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social Responsibility; Concept Analysis; praxis
Online: 13 July 2023 (02:45:51 CEST)
Purpose: Social responsibility has been accepted as a core value of nursing profession, particularly in the area of health disparity, but it seems to be difficult to understand for what is meant by social responsibility. The purpose of this study was to explore ways to define the concept of social responsibility of nursing in order to understand the meaning of social responsibility in the field of nursing profession. Methods: The concept analysis process by Walker and Avant was used to clarify the meaning of social responsibility of nursing. Results: Defining attributes of social responsibility of nursing included praxis, as approach to strategizing for social and structural change of inequity, care for an oppressed group which is under social suffering caused by the privilege and power, and action for health policy change in social and political unequal contexts. The antecedents of social responsibility of nursing included reflectivities in identifying personal characteristics, taking seriously the perspective of other vulnerable population, recognizing social environmental status quo (‘fair or unfair’), developing competences in ethical and moral reasoning with social issues. Consequences of social responsibility of nursing were achieving social justice, as equal access to basic human health need in societal level, equal access to effective nursing practice delivery system and development of health promotion policy for world health administrative practices (“health for all”) in nursing. Conclusion: This study provides a guidance to direct future studies through the procedure of identifying conceptual attributes in the context of social responsibility of nursing. Future studies are suggested to develop instruments for social responsibility as well as development of educational programs to promote social responsibility competences in nursing students and nurses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0275.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Corporate social responsibility
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:59:16 CEST)
At a basic level, entrepreneurship refers to an individual or a small group of partners that intend to create a new business. Entrepreneurship is at forefront of any competitive economy due to the creation of new products and services that comes from new ideas. In other words, entrepreneurship is associated with economic wealth, growth and innovation. The usage of resources in the creation of new businesses needs to be rational because investors normally are risk averse, and nowadays, the purpose of a new business needs to be for a long-term period, and the usage of resources has to take into mind the possible damage to the planet. In other words, entrepreneurs and the sustainability of the planet are interconnected. Beyond this, entrepreneurs need to take care of the corporate social responsibility of each new business, considering the interests of itself, its stakeholders, and the public. Nevertheless, existing research has not shown in full all the research streams, how they interact with each other and their potential knowledge development. Thus, a literature review on social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility in the last decade are opportune. This paper aims to identify research trends in the field through a Systematic Bibliometric Literature Review of social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility research. The review includes 69 articles published in the Scopus® database, presenting up-to-date knowledge on the topic.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0164.v1
Online: 9 November 2022 (02:05:25 CET)
In the age of social media your personal branding is critical to find a job. Information is highly available and handy for everyone looking for a job as well as for people trying to recruit employees at all levels. Currently, there is a first e-impression that encompasses employee education, qualifications, and relationships. This e-impression is given by your social media, specifically those websites that were built to facilitate interactions between employee and employer during the job-hunting process. There are different websites that enable you to establish a social network. For example, meet, Xing, Bark, Opportunity, Lunchmeet, and LinkedIn among others. This article is written by a group of young undergraduate and graduate researchers, who have noticed the importance of social networks to apply for graduate school and industry jobs. This manuscript offers ten simple rules that include resources to facilitate the journey on LinkedIn-like social networks, hoping that you have a successful career description in the most popular professional social networking site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0234.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Disinformation; social networks; bots; model
Online: 18 February 2022 (11:37:09 CET)
Social networks have become the scenario with the greatest potential for the circulation of disinformation, hence there is a growing interest in understanding how this type of information is spread, especially in relation to the mechanisms used by disinformation agents such as bots, trolls, among others. In this scenario, the potential of bots to facilitate the spread of disinformation is recognised, however, the analysis of how they do this is still in its initial stages. Taking into consideration what was previously stated, this paper aimed to model and simulate scenarios of disinformation propagation in social networks caused by bots based on the dynamics of this mechanism documented in the literature. For achieving the purpose, System dynamics was used as the main modelling technique. The results present a mathematical model, as far as disinformation by this mechanism is concerned, and the simulations carried out against the increase in the rate of activation and deactivation of bots. Thus, the preponderant role of social networks in controlling disinformation through this mechanism, and the potential of bots to affect citizens, is recognised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1350.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: echo chamber; filter bubble; digital social networks; social network analysis; polarization; diversity; community discovery
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:51:16 CEST)
Social media platforms are not serving only as tools of communication rather they are acting like intricate systems managing our interactions. A major setback to our interactions occur when the flow of information in these networks gets distorted through polarization. It resembles a society where every debate turns into divide. Our research focuses exclusively on quantifying polarization as well as solving this issue head-on. In order to accurately gauge polarization, we’ve developed a new method that takes into consideration majority of its influencing factors. This helps us in correctly quantifying the polarization value of a given network and then by proposing it as an optimization problem we are attempting to maximally decrease polarization while staying within the set budget. We test our method on synthetic and real-world data sets, and find out that polarization is declining, and diversity is increasing. This proves that our recommendation engine has a penchant for finding the ideal connections between the nodes to start a dialogue. Our research presents a successful tactic to quantifying and reducing polarization in social media networks. The results indicate that our novel metric and intervention technique are effective in dismantling echo chambers, thereby promoting diversity in these networks.