ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city; smart citizen; participation; smartmentality; open data; metaphor
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:19:03 CET)
The goal of the paper is to investigate the expected participation and mentality of smart citizens in smart cities. The key question is the role of the human factor in smart environments globally studied through a research corpus of the mainstream summaries, trend reports, white papers and visions of business – governmental – university research co- operations. Foremost, a short review of the changing scholarly trends is presented as a theoretical framework. Concerning its key ideas, the corpus based findings are recapped and analysed by content networks and the most referred city strategies. Besides, a critical approach reveal further required factors and risks to investigate. The ultimate goal is to understand how the smart city landscape is shaped by citizen-based strategies, open data, empowerment and responsibility. Accordingly, the paper closes with theoretical, practical and metaphor-based recommendations to support the business and political decision making, and also, the emerging scholarly trends in the context of upcoming technological-structural changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart city; smart campus; open data
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:39:24 CEST)
Universities, like cities, have embraced novel technologies and data-based solutions to improve their campuses with ‘smart’ becoming a welcomed concept. Campuses in many ways are small-scale cities. They increasingly seek to address similar challenges and to deliver improved experiences to their users. How can data be used in making this vision a reality? What can we learn from smart campuses that can be scale up to smart cities? A short research study was conducted over a three-month period at a public university in the United Kingdom employing stakeholder interviews and user surveys, aiming at gaining insight into these questions. Based on the study, the authors suggest that making data publicly available could bring many benefits to different groups of stakeholders and campus users. These benefits come with risks and challenges such as data privacy and protection and infrastructure hurdles. However, if these challenges can be overcome, open data could contribute significantly to improving campuses and user experiences, and potentially set an example for smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart environment; smart sensors; distributed architectures; object detection; information integration
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:45:21 CET)
Objects recognition is a necessary task in smart city environments. This recognition can be used in processes such as the reconstruction of the environment map or the intelligent navigation of vehicles. This paper proposes an architecture that integrates heterogeneous distributed information to recognize objects in intelligent environments. The architecture is based on the IoT / Industry 4.0 model to interconnect the devices, called Smart Resources. Smart Resources can process local sensor data and send information to other devices. These other devices can be located in the same operating range, the Edge, in the same intranet, the Fog, or on the Internet, the Cloud. Smart Resources must have an intelligent layer in order to be able to process the information. A system with two Smart Resources equipped with different image sensors has been implemented to validate the architecture. Experiments show that the integration of information increases the certainty in the recognition of objects between 2\% and 4\%. Consequently, in the field of intelligent environments, it seems appropriate to provide the devices with intelligence, but also capabilities to collaborate closely with other devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0227.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: smart cities; smart citizen; public governance; digital platforms; citizen participation
Online: 13 December 2022 (06:15:41 CET)
This research seeks to understand the impact of digital platforms on the governance of smart cities. It uses the Scaffold of Popular Participation to classify digital platforms and better understand participatory governance in cities, its benefits and complications, correlating them with the SDGs of the 2030 Agenda. It was also possible to list points of attention for the development of digitization in the public sector, including in Brazil. It concluded that the digitization of public services is in progress, pressured by the civil body for greater transparency and participation. In addition, the platforms must be guided by civil inclusion in the discussion of public policies, by the training of intelligent citizens and by sustainable guidelines that guide the themes addressed. In contrast, platforms can also facilitate deception and popular manipulation, which represents a high risk if used for this purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1586.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: smart cities; TAM; decision making; fuzzy logic; smart tourism; customer journey
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:52:09 CEST)
Due to the irruption of new technologies in cities such as mobile applications, geographic infor-mation systems, Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT) or Artificial Intelligence (AI), new approaches to citizen management are being developed with the aim of adapting citizen services to this new en-vironment. These new services can enable city governments and businesses to offer their citizens a truly immersive experience that facilitates their day-to-day lives and ultimately improves their quality of life. In this sense, it is important to emphasize that all investments in infrastructure and technological developments in smart cities will be wasted if the citizens for whom they have been created eventually do not use them for whatever reason. To avoid these kinds of problems, the citizen's level of adaptation to the technologies should be evaluated. However, although much has been studied about new technological developments, studies to validate the actual impact and user acceptance of these technological models are much more limited. This paper tries to fill this gap presenting a new model of recommender system based in the most cited and used model in the scientific and academic literature: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and using the most cited and agreed upon criteria in the existing literature. To accomplish the objective, this study in-troduces a novel recommender system that utilizes a fuzzy 2-tuple linguistic model in conjunction with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to prioritize and personalize the relationship between tourists and smart cities. The methodology proposed in this paper was tested and validated in a case of study through different clusters to derive global recommendations tailored to each specific cluster. The main findings reveal that the use of technology is closely linked to the ability to enjoy personalized experiences in the realm of Smart Cities and Smart Tourism. As future works, authors recommend extending the recommender system model to any cluster of tourists using the proposed methodology and evaluate also other kind of disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) in supporting the citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0637.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Traditional To Smart cities; Smart Transportation; Mashhad City
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:57:47 CEST)
Background: Smart transport plays a crucial role in urban planning and the transition from traditional to smart cities in developing countries with sustainability requirements.Traditional cities in developing countries often suffer from traffic congestion,air pollution, and inadequate public transportation systems,which can impede economic growth and negatively impact the quality of life for residents. Smart transport solutions can address these challenges by providing more efficient, sustainable.Here is a possible business model for an ITS system in a high-potential city in Iran,Based on IoT analysis, Mashhad city in Iran selected as a high-potential city to be changed to a smart city in the transportation sector.In the localization business model,the Uber smart transportation business model as a successful world experience is considered the base model. Methods: Based on the literature review,various criteria and sub-criteria were identified and determined in designing a new localized transportation business model.A questionnaire was prepared and filled with the help of 11 experts,method IAHP technique; Results:The present study showed the possibility of monthly payments for customers,software development, and the addition of luxury cars are among the most important sub-criteria with high weights;Conclusions: Working with transport companies,schools and universities as key partners solves reaching a strong and sustainable smart transportation system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0127.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Case study; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Smart city; Sustainability
Online: 6 October 2020 (12:55:13 CEST)
Despite the increasing interest in ‘smart city’ initiatives worldwide, current literature still lacks the approaches and models that address challenges in organization and collaboration, which boost sustainability and ‘smartness’ in modern cities. This paper provides an overview of ‘smart city’ ecosystems as a mechanism to promote the expected outcomes of their sustainable development, and highlights the importance of conceptualizing cities from organizational and managerial perspectives. Representative exploratory models of ‘city organization’, which emphasize on the role of ‘governance’ and synergies, are presented to ‘decode’ complex city mechanisms and to determine key components that lead to ‘smart’ initiatives. Interesting case studies and applications are then analysed to examine the practical dimension of these approaches. As a review paper, this article lays out a general framework on the importance of ‘collaboration’, ‘governance’, ‘management’, and ‘ecosystem’. However, 'planning smartly’ and achieving ‘sustainability’ at the level of city ‘organization’ remain as challenges in this pioneering study of smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0158.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart urban planning; sustainable urban development; mental maps; smart cities; quantitative analysis; environmental psychology; landmark; sustainable society
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:12:15 CEST)
Considering citizens' perceptions of their living environment is very helpful in making the right decisions for city planners who intend to build a sustainable society. Mental map analyses are widely used in understanding the level of perception of individuals regarding the surrounding environment. The present study introduces Aram Mental Map Analyzer (AMMA), an open-source program, which allows researchers to use special features and new analytical methods to receive outputs in numerical data and analytical maps with greater accuracy and speed. AMMA performance is contingent upon two principles of accuracy and complexity, the accuracy of the program is measured by Accuracy Placed Landmarks (APL) and General Orientation (GO), which respectively analyses the landmark placement accuracy and the main route mapping accuracy. Also, the complexity section is examined through two analyses Cell Percentage (CP) and General Structure (GS), which calculates the complexity of citizens’ perception of space based on the criteria derived from previous studies. AMMA examines all the dimensions and features of the graphic maps, and its outputs have a wide range of valid and differentiated information, which is tailored to the research and information subject matter that is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0547.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Developing countries; Environmental Impact Assessment; Rapid urbanization; Smart strategies
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:01:36 CEST)
One of the main drivers behind the urbanization process is attributed to economic fundamentals of urban growth, which boost migration from rural to urban context. This migration can be studied geographically, with increasing rates of population as the main component in developing countries, over Asia and Africa, specifically. Research has been focusing in creating models and adaptative schemes to manage and plan cities to promote sustainable development for housing large quantities of population and preserve a long-term living environment. The approach from a smart city perspective, adjusted to the rapid urbanization condition can be helpful to deal urban issues by convergence and interaction between urban agents and information technology. At academia, few works have addressed the role of Smart Cities to face the challenge of rapid urbanization. The aim of this study is to research and analyze if strategies with smart city vision can lessen environmental impacts at cases with rapid urbanization, and how can we leverage technology to promote environmental sustainability at rapid urbanization phenomena occurring at developing countries using RIAM environmental assessment method in the case of Beijing, China'.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1280.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: information security; smart city; technical collaborations networks; applications; bibliometric analysis
Online: 20 October 2023 (06:30:51 CEST)
This paper aims to analyze the intellectual structure and research fronts in application information security in smart cities to identify research boundaries, trends, and new opportunities in the area. It applies bibliometric analyses to identify the main authors and their influences on the information security and smart city area. Moreover, this analysis focuses on journals indexed in Scopus databases. The results indicate that there is an opportunity for further advances in the adoption of information security policies in government institutions. Moreover, the production indicators presented herein are useful for the planning and implementation of information security policies, and the knowledge of the scientific community about smart cities. The bibliometric analysis provides support for the visualization of the leading research technical collaboration networks among authors, co-authors, countries, and research areas. The methodology offers a broader view of the application information security in smarty city areas and makes it possible to assist new research that may contribute to further advances. The smart city topic has been receiving much attention in recent years, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on reporting new possibilities for advances. Therefore, this article may contribute to an emerging body of literature that explores the nature of application information security and smart city research productivity to assist researchers in better understanding the current emerging of the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0005.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sustainable cities; evaluation framework; indicator; smart city; energy efficiency; renewable solutions, electromobility
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:32:29 CET)
Sustainability is pivotal in the urban transformation strategy in order to reach more resource-efficient, resilient and smarter cities. The goal of being a sustainable city should drive the decisions for city interventions. Nonetheless, impacts need to be quantified, lacking of standard and/or common methodologies that could be replicable across multiple cities. There exist many initiatives aiming at defining indicators and assessment procedures, but without convergence in the definition of terms and application methodologies, making complex its real implementation. Within mySMARTLife project (GA#731297), a KPI-driven evaluation framework is defined with the aim of covering the multiple pillars of a city (i.e. energy, mobility, citizens, economy) in a holistic way. This methodology also defines the concepts and terms to guide urban planners and/or experts at time of implementing the framework in a specific city. The evaluation framework has been deployed in the three cities of Nantes, Hamburg and Helsinki and some lessons learnt have been extracted, such as the necessity of providing a definition of measurement boundary to avoid interpretations. Thanks to a co-creation strategy, the main difficulties and issues from the cities have been taken into consideration for increasing the replicability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0064.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Smart City, Urban ICT, Open Urban Platforms, Sustainable Cities, Resiliency, Quality Assurance
Online: 2 December 2020 (14:08:40 CET)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the heart of the Smart City approach, which constitutes the next level of cities’ and communities’ development across the globe. Thereby, ICT serves as the gluing component enabling different domains to interact with each other and facilitating the management and processing of vast amounts of data and information towards intelligently steering the cities infrastructure and processes, engaging the citizens and facilitating new services and applications on various aspects of urban life - e.g. supply chains, mobility, transportation, energy, citizens’ participation, public safety, interactions between citizens and the public administration, water management, parking and many other use cases and domains. Hence, given the fundamental role of ICT in cities in the near future, it is of paramount importance to lay the ground for a sustainable and reliable ICT infrastructure, which can enable a city/community to respond in a resilient way to upcoming challenges whilst increasing the quality of life for its citizens. This paper constitutes a continuation of a series of research documents and standardization activities, which relate to the concept of Open Urban Platforms (OUP) and the way they serve as a blueprint for each city/community towards the establishment of an ICT backbone. Thereby, the current paper emphasizes on the aspects of sustainability and resilient ICT, whilst reporting on our latest activities and related developments in the research area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Enablers of IoT; Interpretive Structural Modeling; Smart Cities; Sustainable Development
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:47:40 CEST)
Smart cities will undoubtedly be the distinguishing characteristic of human geography in the twenty-first century. Throughout 1.3 million people move to cities every week around the world, and it is estimated that by 2040, cities will house 65 percent of the world's population. While the world's largest cities now contribute for 60% of global GDP, this percentage will continue to climb as cities get larger and smarter. According to experts, cities will account for up to 80% of future economic development in developing regions. Smart cities are no longer the wave of the future; they have here and are rapidly expanding as the Internet of Things (IoT) grows. With dozens of towns throughout the world, the smart city sector is expected to grow into a massive business as time goes on. Cities have been an increasingly crucial engine of the global economy and wealth over time. As a result, it is critical to guarantee that they are optimized to maximize efficiency and sustainability while also ensuring that each citizen's quality of life is improved. We can describe the need for smart cities through this project, and it also shows us how IoT technology and smart city enablers may be deployed in urban settings to help cities perform better for their residents and achieve overall sustainable growth. This initiative will educate urban planners, researchers, ICT professionals, and other city officials about the facilitators of IoT for smart cities and their long-term growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0008.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Multiscale modeling; Multiscale Systems; Megacities; Smart Cities; Multiscale Modeling Applications;
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:39:59 CEST)
Megacities are complex systems facing the challenges of overpopulation, poor urban design and planning, poor mobility and public transport, poor governance, climate change issues, poor sewerage and water infrastructure, waste and health issues, and unemployment. Smart cities have emerged to address these challenges by making the best use of space and resources for the benefit of citizens. A smart city model views the city as a complex adaptive system consisting of services, resources, and citizens that learn through interaction and change in both the spatial and temporal domains. The characteristics of dynamic development and complexity are key issues for city planners that require a new systematic and modeling approach. Multiscale modeling (MM) is an approach that can be used to better understand complex adaptive systems. The MM aims to solve complex problems at different scales, i.e., micro, meso, and macro, to improve system efficiency and mitigate computational complexity and cost. In this paper, we present an overview of MM in smart cities. First, this study discusses megacities, their current challenges, and their emergence to smart cities. Then, we discuss the need of MM in smart cities and its emerging applications. Finally, the study highlights current challenges and future directions related to MM in smart cities, which provide a roadmap for the optimized operation of smart city systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0605.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Smart cities; Meta-heuristics; Travelling Salesman Problem; TLBO; Parallelism; GPU
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:34:23 CET)
The development of the smart city concept and the inhabitants’ need to reduce travel time, as well as society’s awareness of the reduction of fuel consumption and respect for the environment, lead to a new approach to the classic problem of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) applied to urban environments. This problem can be formulated as “Given a list of geographic points and the distances between each pair of points, what is the shortest possible route that visits each point and returns to the departure point?” Nowadays, with the development of IoT devices and the high sensoring capabilities, a large amount of data and measurements are available, allowing researchers to model accurately the routes to choose. In this work, the purpose is to give solution to the TSP in smart city environments using a modified version of the metaheuristic optimization algorithm TLBO (Teacher Learner Based Optimization). In addition, to improve performance, the solution is implemented using a parallel GPU architecture, specifically a CUDA implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; ecosystem; city planning; urban project; city smartness; innovation
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:12:25 CEST)
Intelligent cities or smart cities evolve bottom-up along with the digitisation and the creation of digital entities linked to human activities, physical space, and institutional settings of cities; but also, they progress top-down through smart city strategies and projects designed and implemented by public authorities. Yet, thirty-five years since the first use of the term “smart city” or “intelligent city” in the second half of the 1980s, and more than ten years of intense publications in this field, since 2009, there is still a great deal of fuzziness about the projects that make cities intelligent or smart. There is low awareness about the big differences between large, complex urban projects, such as ‘Zero Energy Districts’ or “Mobility-as-a-Service” and projects for automation of city infrastructures, such as smart city lighting, smart metering or finding a parking place. There is a widespread misconception that city intelligence or smartness, the core attribute of smart cities, can be achieved through automation of the city infrastructure. This paper focuses on projects that make cities intelligent or smart. Our intention is to show the complexity and effort needed to achieve this objective. It is an inquiry on projects and data from a large number of smart cities around the world. We analyse core properties of smart city projects, such as (a) interventions on the physical, social, and digital space of cities, (b) the relation to city sectors and ecosystems, (c) engagement of users and stakeholders in decision-making, and (c) impact through optimisation and innovation of city processes and routines. We discuss also projects we have designed and implemented in the framework of URENIO Research and ITI-CERTH. Our conclusions are two-fold. First, we propose a typology of smart city projects along 3 axes and 9 properties. Second, we argue that success and failure to achieve city smartness are mainly institutional. Most barriers to implementation are organisational, legal, and institutional. This can be explained by the social and institutional inertia of the urban system against new solutions, especially when innovation and radical change of existing routines take place. Change management should be a permanent companion of smart city projects implementation, and the modification of routines should be clearly defined and considered already at the design phase of projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0172.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Citizen Security; Smart Cities; Crime Prediction; Artificial Intelligence; Safe City
Online: 8 February 2021 (07:44:57 CET)
Smart city infrastructure has a significant impact on improving the quality of humans life. However, a substantial increase in the urban population from the last few years is posing challenges related to resource management, safety, and security. In order to ensure safe mobility and security in the smart city environment, this paper proposes a novel Artificial Intelligence (AI) based approach empowering the authorities to better visualize the threats and to help them identify the highly-reported crime zones yielding greater predictability of crime hot-spots in a smart city. To this end, it first investigates the Hierarchical Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (HDBSCAN) to detect the hot-spots that have a higher risk of crimes to be committed. Second, for crime prediction, Seasonal Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) exploited in each dense crime region to predict the number of crimes in the future with spatial and temporal information. The proposed HDBSCAN and SARIMA based crime prediction model is evaluated on ten years of crime data (2008-2017) for New York City (NYC). The accuracy of the model is measured by considering different time period scenarios i.e. (a) year-wise, i.e., for each year and (b) for the whole period of ten years, using an 80:20 ratio where 80\% data was used for training and 20\% data was used for testing. The proposed approach outperforms with an average Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 11.47.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvesting; power management, Connected Vehicles; wind energy harvester; Smart Cities; electric Vehicle; IoT; Tesla; autonomous sensors
Online: 9 July 2021 (10:20:07 CEST)
The recent advancements in the field of communication have led data sharing to become an integral part of today's smart cities with the evolution of concepts such as the internet of vehicles (IoV) paradigm. As a part of IoV, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have recently gained momentum as authorities have started expanding their Low Emission Zones (LEZ) in an effort to build green cities with low carbon footprints. Energy is one of the key requirements of EVs not only to support the smooth and sustainable operation of EV itself but to also ensure connectivity between the vehicles and infrastructure with controlling devices like sensors and actuators installed within an EV. In this context, renewable energy sources (such as wind energy) dramatically play their parts in the automobile sector towards designing the energy harvesting electric vehicles (EH-EV) to pare the energy reliance on the national grid. In this article, a novel approach is presented to achieve electric generation due to vehicle mobility to support the communication primitives in electric vehicles which enables plenty of IoV use cases in the presence of surplus energy at hand. A small-scale wind turbine is designed to harness wind power for converting it into mechanical power. This power is then fed to the onboard DC generator to produce electrical energy. Furthermore, the acquired power is processed through a regulation circuitry to consequently achieve the desired power supply for the end load, i.e. the batteries installed. The suitable orientation for efficient power generation is proposed on ANSYS-based aerodynamics analysis. The voltages induced by DC generator at No-Load condition are 35V while at Full-Load 25V are generated at rated current of 6.9A, along with the generation of power at around 100W (at constant voltage) at the rated speed of 90 mph for nominal battery charging. Moreover, the acquired data can be monitored via an android application interface by using a Bluetooth module.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0415.v3
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: urban public transport system; smart city; natural computing; collective computation; ant colony optimization
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:34:47 CET)
The management and proper use of the Urban Public Transport Systems (UPTS) constitutes a critical field that has not been investigated in accordance to its relevance and urgent idiosyncrasy within smart cities realm. Swarm Intelligence is a very promising paradigm to deal with such complex and dynamic systems. It presents robust, scalable and self-organized behaviour to deal with dynamic and fast changing systems. The intelligence of cities can be modelled as a swarm of digital telecommunication networks (the nerves), ubiquitously embedded intelligence, sensors and tags, and software. In this paper, a new approach based on the use of the Natural Computing paradigm and Collective Computation is shown, more concretely taking advantage of an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm variation and Fireworks algorithms in order to build a system that makes the complete control of the UPTS a tangible reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: photo-voltaic; monocrystalline; energy efficiency; hot-arid climate; smart cities; MATLAB simulations
Online: 7 September 2019 (00:40:23 CEST)
Due to an increase of the monocrystalline PV systems installations, for a drive towards the sustainable smart cities in the hot arid developing country such as Pakistan, pose challenges of the performance and degradation issues. Monocrystalline PV module efficiencies are declining and damaging under the continuous exposure to higher surface day-time temperatures in the different parts of the country. A MATLAB simulations were performed based on the validated mathematical approach. This paper investigates the hot arid surface temperature impacts on the performance of PV modules during the summer and winter seasons in Pakistan. The investigations are performed examining the power generating efficiency of the PV system. This paper also investigates the influence of installations of PV-system in the North, South, East and West regions of Pakistan. It was examined that the northern areas of Pakistan are more suitable for maintaining the long-term durability of the PV system. Investigations are performed for the peak summer and peak winter days. During summer months, cooling strategies have to be implemented to overcome the heating effects whilst reducing degradation effect on installed PV-system.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0614.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: smart cities; artificial intelligence; internet of things; air pollution
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:18:12 CEST)
Air pollution contributes to a critical environmental problem in various towns and cities. With the emergence of the smart cities concept, appropriate methods to curb associated with exposure to pollutants must have been a portion of appropriate urban development policy. This study presents a technologically driven air quality solution in smart cities to advertise energy-efficient and cleaner sequestration in these areas. It aims to address the issue of how to integrate the data-based strategies and artificial intelligence into efficient public sector pollution management in smart cities as a core part of the smart city definition. Exploratory research has been used in 152 smart cities, and environmental experts contributed to this study. It further addresses the technical criteria for implementing such a framework that the public administration uses to prepare the renovation of public buildings, minimize energy use and costs, and link these smart police stations to monitor air pollution as a part of integrated cities. Such a digital transition in resource management will increase public governance's energy performance, a higher standard of operation, and a healthier environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0518.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: smart cities; health crisis; COVID-19; pandemics; intelligent ecosystems; connected intelligence; environmental sustainability; climate change
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:18:15 CET)
Fundamental principles of modern cities and urban planning are challenged during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the advantages of large city size, high density, mass transport, free use of public space, unrestricted individual mobility in cities. These principles shaped the development of cities and metropolitan areas for more than a century, but currently, there are signs that they have turned from advantage to liability. Cities Public authorities and private organisations responded to the COVID-19 crisis with a variety of policies and business practices. These countermeasures codify a valuable experience and can offer lessons about how cities can tackle another grand challenge, this of climate change. Do the measures taken during the COVID-19 crisis represent a temporal adjustment to the current health crisis? Or do they open new ways towards a new type of urban development more effective in times of environmental and health crises? We address these questions through literature review and three case studies that review policies and practices for the transformation of city ecosystems mostly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (a) the central business district, (b) the transport ecosystem, and (c) the tourism-hospitality ecosystem. We assess whether the measures implemented in these ecosystems shape new policy and planning models for higher readiness of cities towards grand challenges. And how, based on this experience, cities should be organized to tackle the grand challenge of environmental sustainability and climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0172.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: spatial data infrastructure; sensor web; geographical information system; smart cities; knowledge based system; expert system; spatial technologies
Online: 27 November 2017 (07:49:48 CET)
Spatio-temporal aspects of data lead to critical information. Sensors capture data at all scales continually so it is imperative that useful information be extracted ubiquitously and regularly. Location plays a vital part by helping understand relations between datasets. It is crucial to link developmental works with spatial attributes and current challenge is to create an open platform that manages real-time sensor data and provides critical spatial analytics atop expert domain knowledge provided in the system. That is a two-faced problem where the solution tackles not only data from multiple sources but also runs data management platform, a spatial data infrastructure(SDI) as backbone framework able to harness sensor web(SW). The paper proposes development of such a globally shared open spatial expert system(ES), SmaCiSENS, a first of a kind geo-enabled knowledge based(KB) ES for multiple fields, smarter cities to climate modeling. SmaCiSENS is integration of SW and SDI with domain KB on data and problems, ready to infer solutions. The paper describes an architecture for semantic enablement for SW, SDI; connect interfaces, functions of SDI and SW, and sensor data application program interfaces (APIs) to better manage climate modeling, geohazard, global changes, and other vital areas of attention and action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: disruptive technologies; emerging technologies; smart city; urban (city) resilience
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:57:50 CEST)
Smart Cities leverage technology to address various urban challenges and creating disaster resilience is one of them. Technology is a vast and ever-evolving field, and hence the research on technology for improving disaster resilience is scattered. A major drawback of prevailing studies is that they continue to overlook the bottlenecks to effectively harness the benefits of technological innovations and that includes the need for a holistic and multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, this research intends to address that need by methodising the scattered research to provide meaningful insights towards the linkages between society and technological innovations through an urban scholar’s perspective. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to explore emerging and disruptive technologies for improving disaster resilience in Smart Cities. The review findings identified the emerging and disruptive technologies for improving disaster resilience in Smart Cities which were then classified. The findings suggested 4 key criteria to classify technologies including their impact the society, adoption speed, technology maturity and capabilities offered to the community. A Smart City which plans the technologies/ tools for disaster resilience may conduct the assessments under the aforementioned criteria, together with their context-specific feasibility assessments to make informed decisions and ultimately prioritise the most suitable for them.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0044.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart cities; data science; machine learning; Internet of Things; data-driven decision making; intelligent services; cybersecurity
Online: 6 April 2022 (11:35:15 CEST)
Cities are undergoing huge shifts in technology and operations in recent days, and `data science' is driving the change in the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR). Extracting insights or actionable knowledge from city data and building a corresponding data-driven model is the key to making a city system automated and intelligent. Data science is typically the study and analysis of actual happenings with historical data using a variety of scientific methodology, machine learning techniques, processes, and systems. In this paper, we concentrate on and explore ``Smart City Data Science", where city data collected from various sources like sensors and Internet-connected devices, is being mined for insights and hidden correlations to enhance decision-making processes and deliver better and more intelligent services to citizens. To achieve this goal, various machine learning analytical modeling can be employed to provide deeper knowledge about city data, which makes the computing process more actionable and intelligent in various real-world services of today's cities. Finally, we identify and highlight ten open research issues for future development and research in the context of data-driven smart cities. Overall, we aim to provide an insight into smart city data science conceptualization on a broad scale, which can be used as a reference guide for the researchers, professionals, as well as policy-makers of a country, particularly, from the technological point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: local participatory democracy; economic freedom; sustainable development; political culture; education; priority areas in smart cities
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:43:55 CEST)
This paper aims to stress the nexus between sustainable development, economic freedom and local participatory democracy in 21 European smart cities. The development of smart cities is strongly correlated with technological advancements and improved access to pub-lic services for all residents. Furthermore, smart cities are characterized by efficient man-agement of social, economic and environmental resources and a strong partnership be-tween the public and private sectors. The paper aims to map the dynamics of local partic-ipatory democracy in European smart cities and to identify several relevant predictors of local participatory democracy. The sample is represented by 21 European capitals (20 EU countries plus UK), which are included in the Smart City Index (SCI). Using the quantita-tive design based on both statistical regressions and structural equations modelling (SEM), the paper shows positive statistical correlation between economic factors, sustainable de-velopment, political culture, education and the level of local participatory democracy. Be-sides the exogenous variables, the study emphasized the main priority areas, which might be seen as urgent issues for local governments. The conclusion of the paper underlines the fact that economic freedom, sustainable development, upper secondary education, afford-able housing and an increased level of citizens’ engagement could predict further evolu-tions of the local participatory democracy in 21 European capitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT; Smart Cities; Internet-of-Medical-Things; Sensors; Security
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:27:23 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) technology and devices constitute an exciting field in computer science that is rapidly emerging worldwide. IoT devices function by connecting real-world objects to the internet, resulting in a higher number of interconnected devices than ever witnessed in history. Through internet connectivity, these devices can be utilized in various ways, such as monitoring and tracking. Their prevalence is increasing exponentially, coinciding with advancements in wireless networking technologies. The internet’s enhanced connectivity has played a vital role in fostering the proliferation of IoT devices. Presently, almost any everyday object can be network-connected. The demand for automation and efficiency has also been a contributing factor to the advancements in this technology. This paper aims to review the emergence of IoT devices, analyze their common applications, and explore the future prospects in this promising field of computer science. The examined applications encompass healthcare, agriculture, and smart cities. Although IoT technology exhibits similar deployment trends, this paper will explore different fields to discern the subtle nuances that exist among them. IoT technology can be applied to nearly any domain, and each use case has unique requirements. To comprehend the future of IoT, it is essential to comprehend the driving forces behind its advancements in various industries. By gaining a better understanding of the emergence of IoT devices, readers will develop insights into the factors that have propelled their growth and the conditions that led to technological advancements. Moreover, a comprehensive understanding of the prevalent methodologies will enable readers to distinguish between current practices and future methods. Given the rapid rate at which IoT technology is advancing, this paper aims to provide researchers with an understanding of the factors that have brought us to this point and the ongoing efforts to shape the future of IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0180.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; smart cities; IoT; deep learning; big data; soft computing; sustainable urban development; building energy; energy demand and consumption; sustainable cities
Online: 17 August 2019 (04:11:44 CEST)
Building energy consumption plays an essential role in urban sustainability. The prediction of the energy demand is also of particular importance for developing smart cities and urban planning. Machine learning has recently contributed to the advancement of methods and technologies to predict demand and consumption for building energy systems. This paper presents a state of the art of machine learning models and evaluates the performance of these models. Through a systematic review and a comprehensive taxonomy, the advances of machine learning are carefully investigated and promising models are introduced.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0154.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; smart cities; urban sustainability; cities of future; internet of things (IoT); data science; big data
Online: 13 August 2019 (10:00:34 CEST)
Deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML) methods have recently contributed to the advancement of models in the various aspects of prediction, planning, and uncertainty analysis of smart cities and urban development. This paper presents the state of the art of DL and ML methods used in this realm. Through a novel taxonomy, the advances in model development and new application domains in urban sustainability and smart cities are presented. Findings reveal that five DL and ML methods have been most applied to address the different aspects of smart cities. These are artificial neural networks; support vector machines; decision trees; ensembles, Bayesians, hybrids, and neuro-fuzzy; and deep learning. It is also disclosed that energy, health, and urban transport are the main domains of smart cities that DL and ML methods contributed in to address their problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart community; smart dashboard; smart governance
Online: 4 November 2019 (02:54:13 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of knowledge and management of places at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic tools to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories, especially if the digital data are organised within a circular smart dashboard. This research focuses on the case study of the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente region (Sardinia, Italy), where the authors have recognized a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities. In fact, if the SBW represents a network - material infrastructure - which connects the main points of interest along the Walk, its digital network - intangible infrastructure - is fragmented in terms of policies and contents. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive set of data and to propose the architecture and design for a circular dashboard of the SBW, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0604.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city ecosystem; urban economy; smart city; entrepreneurship; smart economy
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:08:09 CEST)
As digital technology has become an integral part of urban’s daily operations; the urban landscape is constantly evolving with the needs of its society. This new reality allowed Municipalities to exert a higher influence in the national and local economy. Through deliberate planning and executing initiatives, they can ignite the local financial ecosystem to growth. In line with this, the paper aims to understand the possibilities available to the Greek Municipalities to exploit the smart city benefits to foster economic development. It is essential to understand the role of different factors including the strategy during the planning and implementing phases of initiatives concerning economy and innovation in a smart city. To achieve this, a tailor-made questionnaire and advanced statistical techniques are applied. The main findings highlight the importance to plan initiatives aligned with the needs of the municipality and the business environment. The existence of a smart city strategy has a catalytic effect on the final impact of the implemented initiatives on the urban environment. A systematic analysis of the smart cities’ dynamics and the new state of the urban environment can help the local actors focus on the value creation and public service provision, fostering innovation and profitability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0130.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Intelligent Computation; Machine Learning; Smart City; Smart Building; Smart Solutions
Online: 7 February 2023 (11:12:19 CET)
The complexity and interconnection of smart cities provide huge political, technical, and socioeconomic challenges for the designers, integrators, and organisations who are responsible for the administration of these new entities. A growing number of studies are concentrating their attention on the safety, privacy, and potential dangers that exist within smart cities. These studies are drawing attention to the dangers that are associated with information security as well as the challenges that smart city infrastructure faces in the management and processing of personal data. This state of the art review of the literature analyses a number of issues pertaining to smart homes, offers a helpful synthesis of the important information found in the primary research, and creates a model for the interaction between smart cities. An overview of smart home research incorporating machine learning, including everything from definition to current research state. The state of art begins with a smart home definition, followed by descriptions of smart home elements, typical research projects, smart home network research status, smart home appliances, and difficulties. The term "smart home" refers to a subcategory of "everyday computing" that includes "smart technology" in order to improve a person's level of convenience, health, safety, and security while also reducing their When controlled by artificial intelligence, the applications for the smart home provide users with context-aware settings, services, and remote control, which significantly increases the level of user satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart villages; smart development; sustainability; digitalization; ICT
Online: 6 July 2018 (09:55:57 CEST)
Over the recent decades people’s (rural and urban) communities are facing numerous social and economic changes and challenges. Some of those challenges have been increasingly addressed through the lenses of technological developments and digitalization. In this paper we have made a review of already existing practices while focusing on the existing implementations of the smart village concept and the importance of digital transformation for rural areas. We give special attention to EU policies which we are using as an already existing framework for understanding our own forthcoming examples. We have shown the parallels between the findings and insights from different regions and made an evaluation of presented practices. Our main argument stems from our own previous experiences and experiences of other research approaches, and is grounded on the argument that rural areas are not uniform, and that smart rural development has to be applied in combination with place-based approach. We present the cases of Slovenian pilot practices and support our argument by proposing the FabVillage concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0050.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Smart City; smart technology; internet of things; cloud technologies; mobile applications; innovation system; smart city concept; smart ecosystem
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:36:29 CEST)
The article describes the application of the Smart City concept and the economic opportunities it creates, infrastructure and services, and opportunities to improve governance. The main features of the Smart City concept, development directions and evolution, standards and solutions, factors and obstacles to its implementation have been analyzed by the author. The experience of different countries in the application of digital technologies is discussed. The article provides the scope and structure of the "smart" market, application stages and scenarios. International experience in this field was widely analyzed and examples were given, comparisons were made and suggestions were made. The article talks about smart cities, the construction of which has already begun in Azerbaijan. The application of the smart city concept in Azerbaijan has been studied. It is stressed that the spread of digital technologies for the construction of a smart city in Azerbaijan is a prerequisite. The Network Readiness Index (NRI) identifies the indicators that are holding back Azerbaijan in the ranking for 2021. In our study, based on the growth dynamics for 2017-2020, the forecast was calculated by analyzing the trend in the ICT development index in Azerbaijan for 2022-2025.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Climate Change; Climate-Smart; Climate-Smart Agroforestry; Agriculture
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:47:29 CET)
This study assessed stakeholders’ perception on the prospects and challenges of practising Climate–Smart Agroforestry in the Asunafo North Municipal Assembly in the Ahafo Region in Ghana. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect cross-sectional data from 250 cocoa, food and cash crop farmers drawn from four (4) communities using simple random sampling. And nine (9) in-depth interviews were also conducted to elicit key stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholders also held the view that Climate-Smart Agroforestry encourages the use of stress-tolerant crop varieties, increase income, improve soil productivity, diversify farm produce, urges the reduction of input supply and recommends the timely usage of the inputs, ensures better market system for farm produce, cost of production decreases during the practice of Agroforestry, agro-ecological functions and Climate-Smart Agroforestry can best help adapt to the threats of climate change in the agriculture sector. The challenges included insecure tree ownership right, fast-declining soil fertility and long maturity period of Agroforestry trees, land tenure issues, illegal tree logging (chainsaw operators) on farms, lack of practical understanding of the approach, inadequate knowledge and information and inadequate supportive facilities in the study area. The study recommends further studies on the existing forest policy and legislations and its implications on the practice and adoption of Climate-Smart Agroforestry in respond to climate change in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0054.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: smart transport tools; ‘smart’ and sustainable; social-sustainability
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:17:38 CEST)
In the smart city, information and communications technologies (ICTs) are proposed as solutions to urban challenges, including sustainability concerns. While sustainability commonly refers to economic and environmental dimensions, the concept also contains a social component. Our study asked how smartphone applications (apps) address social sustainability challenges in urban transport, if at all. We focused on transport disadvantages experienced due to low income, physical disability, and language barriers. A review of 60 apps showed that transport apps respond to these equity and inclusion issues in two ways: (a) by employing universal design in general-use apps; including cost-conscious features; and providing language options (b) by specifically developing smartphone apps for persons with disabilities. The article discusses the study by positioning it in the literature of smart cities as well as socially sustainable transport.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Smart building; smart energy grid; smart energy management; neighborhood building stock; sustainable development goals
Online: 14 June 2023 (15:12:33 CEST)
The construction industry has witnessed the increasing use of digital tools and smart solutions, particularly, in the realm of buildings energy automation within the concept of smart cities. While to truly realize the potential benefits of smart cities, a broader scope of smart initiatives is required to support the transition from smart buildings towards smart neighbourhoods, appreciated as the critical unit of urban development. To support this interplay of smart solutions between buildings and neighbourhoods, this article aims to collect and review all smart solutions presented in existing scientific articles, technical literature, and realized European projects. These solutions are classified under two main sections of buildings and neighbourhoods, which are investigated through five domains: buildings energy-related uses, renewable energy sources, water, waste, and open space management. Showcasing the quantitative outcomes demonstrates the potential benefits of implementing smart solutions from buildings to neighbourhoods. Moreover, this research concludes that the true enhancement of energy conservation goes beyond the buildings’ energy component and can be genuinely achieved by integrating intelligent elements of the neighbourhood, due to their strong interdependencies. Future research is recommended to focus on assessing the effectiveness of these solutions towards resource conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0699.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: smart material systems; augmented material; creative practices; fashion design; smart experience; smart aesthetics; technology
Online: 2 November 2018 (02:34:10 CET)
During the last decade, smart materials have increasingly impacted on several niches, among which that of one-off/limited edition experimental fashion. Thanks to their performativity, due to the implementation of Smart Materials Systems, they have reached indeed catwalks as well as museums and galleries. As boundaries between what-is-art and what traditionally was not supposed to be art are now turning into osmotic membranes, zooming on how smart materials are highly contributing to outline the new creative landscape can provide with interesting and compelling issues. Introducing three different areas of experimental fashion, named Multi-sensory dresses, Empathic dresses, and Bio-smart dresses and accessories, respectively covering the world of in-Lab experiments and design collaborations in relation to the application of advanced smart materials systems, the article discuss some of the implications in term of Design Thinking and Design Aesthetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0101.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; smart ecosystem; ontology; city smartness
Online: 4 August 2021 (08:38:31 CEST)
The paper is a follow-up of a previous investigation and effort to develop the ontology of the smart city (Komninos, N., Bratsas, C., Kakderi, C., and Tsarchopoulos, P. "Smart city ontologies: Improving the effectiveness of smart city applications". Journal of Smart Cities, vol. 1(1), 1-17. https://www.komninos.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/2015-Smart-City-Ontologies-Published.pdf). Since the publication of this article in 2015, research and literature on smart cities have evolved significantly, as have the technologies for digital spaces and applications that support city functions. These developments are reflected in the present form of the smart city ontology 2.0 we propose. It depicts the building blocks of the smart city ontology (technologies, structure, function, planning), and the object properties and data properties that connect structural blocks and classes. The aim of the SCO 2.0 is to provide a better understanding and description of the smart/intelligent city landscape; identify the main components and processes, the terms used to describe them, their definition and meaning; clarify key processes related to the integration of the different dimensions of the smart city, mainly the physical, social, and digital dimensions. The paper is accompanied by an owl file, developing the ontology through the editor Protégé.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0630.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart Farm; Smart Systems; Machine Learning; Multispectral Image; Clay.
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:03:37 CEST)
The present work proposed a low-cost portable device as an enabling technology for Smart Farms using multispectral imaging and Machine Learning in soil texture. Clay is an important factor for the verification and monitoring of soil use due to its fast reaction to chemical and surface changes. The system developed uses the analysis of reflectance in wavebands for clay prediction. The selection of each wavelength is performed through an LED lamp panel. A NoIR microcamera controlled by a Raspberry Pi device is employed to acquire the image and unfold it in RGB histograms. Results showed an good prediction performance with R2 of 0.96, RMSEC of 3.66% and RMSECV of 16.87%. The high portability allows the equipment to be used in a field providing strategic information related to soil sciences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1392.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Smart City; Smart City Assessment; Developing Economies; PRISMA; Assessment Tools
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:31:05 CEST)
There are limited research articles focusing on Smart City Assessment (SCA) applications since it is a relatively new field of research and practice. However, numerous studies have been conducted and published to date, particularly in developing countries, with the broad objective of building theoretical frameworks that are centered on smart city assessments. This scoping review systematically provides an examination on the available literature on SCA, with a goal of synthesizing smart city assessments in developing economies. In order to improve the quality and transparency of the reviews and meta-analysis, as well as to reduce the risk of bias, this paper adopted the PRISMA scoping review research design to analyze 25 journal articles. Results showed that conceptual modeling appears to be the most common method identified while industrial development emerged as the most common objective identified in the MFO Model. On the other hand, ISO 37122:2019 was the most prevalent framework used in the collected sample size with 6 journal articles followed by IoT-Enabled Smart City Framework with 5 journal articles while Smart Cities Index Framework obtained 3. Meanwhile, India emerged as a leader in the global Smart City movement followed by Malaysia and Africa. The Qualitative Research Design approach was the most common among the literatures while social science was the most common subject area among the 25 journals being studied. More so, sustainability and renewable energy are the two most important assessment categories in SCA tools. By collating and evaluating different criteria and metrics in existing SCA, cities can learn from their successes and failures, adjust their strategies, and share best practices with other cities. This can foster a culture of continuous improvement and innovation in urban governance, and ultimately lead to more livable, resilient, and prosperous cities for all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; Artificial Intelligence; Smart University; Microcontroller; Smart buildings
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:52:06 CET)
In this paper we designed system for smart university building based on artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IOT). Our idea can be summarized in smart security system that has different sensors to detect the surrounding environment of the class room in campus which keep everyone and everything on campus safer. By using (IOT), (AI) technologies and applications and by using microcontroller programming we can make the university building safer, secure and more energy saves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: smart library; smart city; library marketing; public library; academic library
Online: 6 July 2018 (14:13:31 CEST)
Can the smart city provide a new perspective for public and academic libraries? How does the smart city impact the libraries as cultural and scientific assets? And how can libraries contribute to the development of the smart city? An overview of recent library models, like the learning center or the green library, reveals affinities with the concept of the smart city, especially regarding the central role of information and the integration of technology, people and institution. From this observation, the paper develops the outline of a new concept of the smart library which can be described on four dimensions, i.e. smart services, smart people, smart place and smart governance. However, the smart library concept does not constitute a unique model or project but a process, a way how to get things done, less linear, less structured, more creative and innovative. Also, smartness may not be a solution for all library problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: climate change; decoupling; energy reductions; future; renewable energy; smart cities; smart grids; smart transport; sustainability; technological solutions
Online: 3 April 2023 (07:52:17 CEST)
Our planet faces several serious and urgent challenges to sustainability, not just climate change. Most researchers argue that technological solutions can solve these problems. This review paper first examines the prospects for decoupling environmental damages in general from economic growth, considered at the global level, then looks at whether the recent advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can help. It is argued that although absolute decoupling might have occurred in some countries, even after accounting for energy-intensive imports, it has not occurred at the global level, which is the relevant level for global sustainability problems. This conclusion is strengthened by the very high correlation over the past three decades found between GDP and several parameters relevant for sustainability, particularly for atmospheric CO2 ppm and ecological footprint as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). ICT innovations relevant to energy use include smart grids and smart cities, especially smart urban transport. A review of recently published papers shows no definite findings of energy or carbon reduction, although some innovations show energy/carbon reduction potential, if given strong policy support. However, the needed policies could well give marked reductions even without ICT approaches. Overall, it is concluded that Earth’s sustainability challenges will necessitate deep energy reductions, which in turn require profound sociopolitical changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: sustainability; smart cities; Internet of Things (IoT); multi-agent deep reinforcement learning; smart waste management; smart sensors
Online: 10 November 2022 (04:49:09 CET)
Ever-increasing need for improving the livability of a city and improve outcomes for its residents, over the last decade, the adoption of technology to develop urbanised societies around the world has given rise to the need for developing smart cities. The speed at which the world population is growing, the use of Internet of Things in smart cities have really advanced the quality of life. One significant area of concern within the smart city framework is waste management. If the waste within a city is not adequately managed, then it leads to issues in the health of the citizens. Additionally, the waste management has such a high impact on the environmental footprint, hence the need to have a smart way of managing waste is of critical importance. Through our research, we analyse the challenges of waste management within a city to understand the impact of the problem on to the citizens and overall city operations. We then investigate ways in which we can solve these problems using the emerging technologies, such as the Internet of Things, to collect valuable data of large volumes arriving at an astronomical rate, then apply multi-agent deep reinforcement learning algorithms to harness the power of big data to extract meaningful information and actionable insights. We ingest data generated by our Internet of Things into our algorithm for three main purposes including providing the notifications to an external system, for example, a map navigation engine out of the scope for this project but a future extension for route optimisation and waste vehicle tracking; extracting and reporting the actionable insights from the underlying data; and consuming the extracted data for predictive forecasting to draw out the unknown patterns of waste fill levels within various geographical locations and again send out triggers and notification to external systems for example a waste collection authority who can efficiently schedule the waste collection vehicles and optimise the route. To achieve the above mentioned outcomes, we propose a framework that is agnostic of the hardware that it connects to and can effectively interface with a wide variety of hardware keeping a level of abstraction in the architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Smart Assembly; Smart contract; Assembly line; Assembly 4.0; Assembly system; Block-chain; Digital twin; Industry 4.0; Smart manufacturing
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:24:09 CET)
The final assembly of appliances and automotive industries is a rigorous process, that has limited capabilities of full traceability associated with: (1) the parts installed, (2) their fabrication processes, and (3) the assembly work. This is also the case for each of its sub-assemblies The many parts and sub-assemblies that compose the final assembly, make full traceability a challenging fit, that is almost unsurmountable. Such full traceability along the entire supply-chain is not existent today and must be based on documentation of most assembled parts, assembly tasks, and inspection tasks that compose the full assembled product. In addition, security measures are needed to prevent hostile hacking and unauthorized approach to the assembly documentation throughout the entire supply chain. The related documentation and repeated verifications require considerable effort and have many chances for human errors. So, automating these processes has a great value. This article expounds a framework that harnesses block-chain and smart-contract technology to offer traceable and protected documentation of the assembly process. We expand the concept of a Bill-Of-Assembly (BOA) to incorporate data from the bill of materials (BOM), the associated assembly activities, the associated activities’ specification parameters and materials, and the associated assembly resources (machines and/or operators). The paper defines the operation of the BOA with blockchain and smart-contract technology, for attaining full traceability, safety, and security, for the entire assembled product. Future research could extend the proposed approach to facilitate the usage of the BOA data structure in constructing a digital twin of the entire simulated system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0672.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Services; Applications; Context Awareness; Data Availability; Personalization; Privacy; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 9 June 2023 (05:34:18 CEST)
Smart Living, an increasingly prominent concept, entails incorporating sophisticated technologies in homes and urban environments to elevate the quality of life for citizens. A critical success factor for Smart Living services and applications, from energy management to healthcare and transportation, is the efficacy of human action recognition (HAR). HAR, rooted in computer vision, seeks to identify human actions and activities using visual data and various sensor modalities. This paper extensively reviews the literature on HAR in Smart Living services and applications, amalgamating key contributions and challenges while providing insights into future research directions. The review delves into the essential aspects of Smart Living, the state of the art in HAR, and the potential societal implications of this technology. Moreover, the paper meticulously examines the primary application sectors in Smart Living that stand to gain from HAR, such as smart homes, smart healthcare, and smart cities. By underscoring the significance of the four dimensions of Context Awareness, Data Availability, Personalization, and Privacy in HAR, this paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners striving to advance Smart Living services and applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Multimodality; Real-time processing; Interoperability; Resource-constrained processing; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 3 May 2023 (06:54:40 CEST)
Smart living, a concept that has gained increasing attention in recent years, revolves around integrating advanced technologies in homes and cities to enhance the quality of life for citizens. Sensing and human action recognition are crucial aspects of this concept. Smart living applications span various domains, such as energy consumption, healthcare, transportation, and education, which greatly benefit from effective human action recognition. This field, originating from computer vision, seeks to recognize human actions and activities using not only visual data but also many other sensor modalities. This paper comprehensively reviews the literature on human action recognition in smart living environments, synthesizing the main contributions, challenges, and future research directions. This review selects five key domains: Sensing Technology, Multimodality, Real-time Processing, Interoperability, and Resource-Constrained Processing, as they encompass the critical aspects required for successfully deploying human action recognition in smart living. These domains highlight the essential role that sensing and human action recognition play in successfully developing and implementing smart living solutions. This paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to explore further and advance the field of human action recognition in smart living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electricity; smart grid; smart meter; power quality measurement; ESP32; low cost
Online: 5 July 2023 (03:44:37 CEST)
Developing a low-cost wireless energy meter with power quality measurement for smart grid applications represents a significant advancement in efficient and accurate electrical energy monitoring.In increasingly complex and interconnected electrical systems, this device is essential in various applications, such as smart grids, enabling real-time energy usage monitoring. In such a context, smart meters expand the possibilities for sustainable and efficient energy use and promote better utilization of energy sources, especially non-renewable ones. According to the 2020 International Energy Agency (IEA) research, non-renewable energy sources represent 65% of the global total. The smart meter developed in this work is built based on the ESP32 microcontroller and easily accessible components, using a user-friendly development platform that offers a cost-effective solution while ensuring reliable performance. The main objective of the smart meter development was to enhance the software and simplify the hardware. Unlike traditional meters that perform electrical parameter calculations using complex hardware circuits, this project performed the calculations directly on the microcontroller. This approach reduced the complexity of the hardware, simplifying the meter’s design. With the high-performance processing capability of the microcontroller, efficient and accurate calculations of electrical parameters were achieved without the need for additional circuits. This software-driven approach with simplified hardware brought benefits such as reduced production costs, lower energy consumption, and increased meter development and updates flexibility. Furthermore, the integrated wireless connectivity in the microcontroller enables the transmission of collected data to remote monitoring systems for later analysis. The developed smart meter offers cost, energy efficiency, and flexibility benefits. It represents an innovative, efficient, and versatile solution for smart grid applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: smart grid; Smart Grid Station; renewable energy sources; energy management system
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:47:19 CEST)
Climate change and global warming are becoming important problems around the globe. To prevent these environmental problems, many countries try to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and manage the consumption of energy. In Korea, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has introduced Smart Grid (SG) technologies to its branch office in 2014. This was the first demonstration of smart grid on a building called Smart Grid Station. This paper treats the achievements of the Smart Grid Station (SGS) by its early target in three aspects. The things are peak reduction, power consumption reduction and electricity fee saving. The authors analyzed the achievements by comparing the data of 2015 with the data of 2014. Through the evaluation, the authors studied the case, proved the advantages of SGS, and suggested the requirements to improve and the direction to go of the system.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; sidechain; smart grid
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:54:37 CET)
Smart Grid systems have become popular and necessary for the development of a sustainable power grid. These systems use different technologies to provide optimized services to the users of the network. Regarding computing, these systems optimize electrical services by processing a large amount of data generated. However, privacy and security are essential in this kind of system. With a large amount of data generated, it is necessary to protect the privacy of users, because this data may reveal users’ personal information. Today, blockchain technology has proven to be an efficient architecture for solving privacy and security problems in different scenarios. Over the years, different blockchain platforms have emerged, attempting to solve specific problems in different areas. However, the use of different platforms fragmented the market, which was no different in the smart grid scenario. This work proposes a blockchain architecture that uses sidechains to make the system scalable and adaptable. We used three blockchains to ensure privacy, security, and trust in the system. To universalize the proposed solution, we used the OSGP protocol and smart contracts. The results show that architecture security and privacy are guaranteed, making it feasible for implementation in real systems. Although scalability issues regarding the storage of data generated still exists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0038.v1
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:40:29 CEST)
Electricity sector is among the main carbon emissions contributors. This sector has the potential to reduce its carbon emissions through producing electric energy from zero emitting facilities and through the optimization of the consumption in a way to better accommodate low carbon emissions. Hydrogen society per se combined with smart grids, as this is analyzed in this manuscript, can present substantial contribution towards climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0180.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: mHealth; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Smart devices; Communication; Smart Devices; Emerging Technologies
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:07:26 CEST)
The mHealth is a term that is used for mobile health supported by smart devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and wearable smart devices, etc. The smart devices strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of interaction with patients, physicians, and specialists. Patients nowadays would like to be intimately involved in their diagnosis as well as to make more informed decisions concerning their care. It has begun to measure the success of the quality of treatment. This was a reason that patients trust mHealth to provide them with consistency in their communications with the physicians. Most wireless strategies do not measure up to this standard so that patient engagement ultimately ended up decreasing. The blockchain can boost mHealth through storing and sharing electronic data securely and transparently. It can enhance the accessibility of patient information in real-time. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a unique identification number to every connected device such as mobile devices, medical devices, and wearable devices. This framework uses the blockchain and IoT technologies together to provide quick help to the patients, monitor remotely, reduce the cost and unnecessarily hospitalization physically and find the real diagnosis. In order to increase patient involvement, mHealth framework with blockchain and IoT technologies has built with the key objective of providing patients with full information on their treatment and diagnosis.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: smart grid; SDGs; sustainable energy; smart meters; energy access; sustainability; utilities; development
Online: 17 January 2020 (08:02:49 CET)
Because of the significant enabling role smart meters can play in securing the transition towards sustainable energy distribution, the paper provides insights to support smart meters implementation projects. Energy utilities must propose adequate solutions to manage grid-upgrading projects and, in the meantime, increase efficiency levels. Based on empirical data analysis the paper provides insights aimed at maximize probability of success of smart meters projects. Results show common patterns of variables that may support project undertakers, policymakers and scholar when it comes to analyze projects to predict to maximize opportunities. For smart meters projects to succeed, regulatory stability is essential as long-period investments grids produce benefits for energy utilities, and for society.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0909.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric vehicle; Smart grid; Vehicle to grid; Smart charging; Renewable energy distributed generation
Online: 13 June 2023 (09:39:41 CEST)
- Power grids of the future will likely incorporate more renewable energy distributed generation (REDG), also known as alternative energy systems. REDG units are increasingly being used in electrical transmission networks because to the overall positive effects they have on power networks. REDG systems are the backbone of smart electric networks and are essential to the operation of the smart grid. These REDG systems can additionally improve system reliability by providing some customers with a backup generator in the event of power interruptions. The report offers a thorough evaluation of the existing body of information on the topic of electric vehicles' (EVs') future interactions with the smart grid. The combination of the EVs' potential deployment and the smart grid's conceptual goal presents challenges in electric grid infra-structure, communication, and control. The proposal for connecting EVs to the grid is based on research into cutting-edge smart metering and communication systems. In the context of the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) phenomenon, the possibilities, benefits, and limitations of various EV smart charging systems are also fully examined. There is a fast growing percentage of distributed energy that is wind and solar photovoltaic. Their variable power output, however, introduces fresh challenges for those responsible for organizing, operating, and controlling the power grid. While fluctuations in the electric grid are problematic, they may be mitigated by the entry of EVs into the energy market. As such, we do a comprehensive literature search to learn more about the exciting research gap that needs to be filled and the most recent possible answer that involves EVs. Additionally, we take a close look at the practicality of the sophisticated V2G technology. The smart grid is a developing concept for the world's energy infrastructure, and this study analyzes in depth how EVs interact with it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0184.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: urban planning; COVID-19; urban mobility; sustainability; smart cities; smart growth; pandemic; resilience
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:31:01 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that was greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought on this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of the smart growth agenda and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from 86 cities around the world and analyse them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate and the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth. As a result the pandemic becomes an opportunity for shifting towards more sustainable urban planning and mobility practices. However, most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as in monitoring, alerting and operations management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart dashboard; smart governance; slow tourism; Santa Barbara Walk; Sulcis - Iglesiente; Sardinia; Italy
Online: 16 December 2019 (07:11:11 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of acquiring knowledge from a territory and managing it at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories. An important tool to implement it, can be a circular smart dashboard, a decision support system in which the digital data are organized and processed to produce an information output, to be used, after the evaluation by the decision makers, as a new input for the system. The present paper deals with a wider research the authors are involved in, related to the reconversion and valorization of a former mining area towards slow tourism, as the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente area (Sardinia, Italy) . In particular, we here focus on the design proposal of a dashboard, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion. The paper is based on a thorough recognition of the main characteristics of the Walk, both the material ones and the digital, immaterial ones. The SBW represents in fact a network connecting the main points of interest along the Walk. On the contrary, its digital network – consisting of intangible infrastructure and flows - is however fragmented in terms of policies and contents Also a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities can be observed. The goal of this paper is to present and analysis of the area, and to propose an evaluation and planning tool as the design of a circular dashboard of the SBW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain; Internet of thing; · Public key cryptography; hash function; smart home; smart health
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:32:38 CET)
Internet of things security will be a big challenge for the enterprises working behind the build-up of the internet of things, and it’s application. With IoT, another buzzword is blockchain-based cryptocurrency bitcoin. Blockchain technology has proven itself as one of the most secured existing technology. In this paper, we have discussed the signiﬁcant challenges that will come up in identity management due to the heterogeneity of devices. We have proposed a solution for privacy preservation using secure identity management and possible communication methodology by using public key-based cryptography used in the blockchain. We have taken the ecosystem of smart home management and smart health management. At last, we have concluded with the discussion of futuristic applications of blockchain in other applications of the internet of things.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0542.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart-complex; constructive alignment; creative environment; copyright environment; non-verbal environment; Smart-technology
Online: 27 September 2018 (11:24:02 CEST)
The definition of a Smart-complex of educational discipline and its technology is given. Attention is focused on the form of the Smart-complex and constructive elements: the creative educational environment, the author's environment, the non-verbal environment, the encyclopedia, the creative / self-realization environment, the monitoring / self-evaluation environment.A feature of the Smart-complex of the academic discipline is the integration into it of the structural equalization block. Constructive alignment (alignment) is based on the design of the student's own learning participation in educational projects. Alignment refers to creating an appropriate learning environment and involves selecting the most appropriate training activities and evaluating each learning outcome. If the result of the training is to develop analytical skills, then for the assessment it is necessary to build questions and scenarios for their development.Two main components of the structural alignment are considered: 1) the first component is based on cognitive psychology and constructivist theory, recognizes the importance of linking new material with the concepts and experiences of students and extrapolation to possible future scenarios in the process of mission activity - they comprehend what they are doing during training; 2) the second component is based on the declaration by the teacher of the correspondence between the planned educational activities and the results of the training of students. This makes planning of educational activities and development of self-assessment criteria for organizing feedback. It is necessary to take into account the impact of Smart-complexes of educational disciplines on three think-tank training networks: 1) effective networks (why learn) - several ways of presenting to give students different ways of obtaining information and knowledge; 2) recognition networks (learning outcomes) - several ways of expressing them to provide them with an alternative for demonstrating what they know; 3) strategic exercises (how to learn) - several ways to increase the motivation for learning to attract their attention to both their own learning project and its technical and historical decision. Smart-complexes of educational disciplines should be: 1) scientific; 2) with user-friendly interface; 3) have a connection with LMS; 4) structured; 5) with visual material; 6) working in Off-line mode; 7) used on various devices in an educational institution, as well as at home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart city; smart city construction; urban sustainability; driving factors; grounded theory; empirical research
Online: 26 August 2016 (11:18:30 CEST)
Driving factors of smart city construction are exploratively studied by grounded theory method based on text sources from journal papers in SCI and CSSCI databases. Initial scale of driving factors about smart city construction is obtained on the basis of above analyses. This paper modifies measuring items of the initial scale with a small sample pretest and reliability test, then forms final items by exploratory factor analysis. According to the above scale, questionnaires are designed to obtain empirical data, and confirmatory factor analysis is used to verify further validity and reliability of the scale. The results show that driving factors of smart city construction include three main dimensions: problem-oriented factors, business- or technology-driven factors and endogenous development requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0292.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things for development (IoT4D); sustainability; smart and futures cities; smart city components (SMART-X); Key Performance Indicators (KPI); cognitive processes
Online: 28 August 2019 (09:57:12 CEST)
A smart city is a futuristic approach that evolves with new technologies. It can start as a simple community and evolve into future cities. In most developing countries, where the population growth is faster, and where the organization and the urbanization are slower, there is a serious need for a framework for progressive change towards sustainable cities. This article discusses the level of intelligence of smart city components and proposes indicators as well as a methodology for measuring intelligence based on the objectives to be achieved as well as a certain number of technical requirements and some cognitive processes implemented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0611.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart Grid (SG); Advanced Metering Infrastructures (AMI); Smart Meters (SM); Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
Online: 8 September 2023 (15:30:19 CEST)
The smart grid system, an improvised form of the traditional grid, is considered a critical cyber-physical system. Due to its complex combination of smart and legacy technologies, this technology is characterized by a wide range of features such as full duplex communication, advanced metering infrastructure, remote monitoring, and control. However, despite this system’s substantial environmental and socio-economic impact on modern life, it poses severe security vulnerabilities due to its integration and interconnected and interdependent cyber-physical components. Based on the rapid development of cyber-physical systems (CPS), academics and industries have investigated relevant techniques to enhance and strengthen the security measures of the SG system. The intrusion detection system is a countermeasure, a powerful safeguard against various cyber-attacks and threats. The contribution of the IDSs to the SG paradigm is examined in this study. A comprehensive review has been presented in this study, highlighting different techniques, basic ideas, and analyses. Besides discussing the contemporary pertinent research studies, the shortcomings of the existing IDS for the SG system are also identified with a recommendation for future research direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1879.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city; evaluation system; smart city convergence alliance enterprises; data envelopment analysis; operational efficiency
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:13:27 CEST)
This study identified, analysed, and prioritised significant factors for standardising the Korean smart city project evaluation system. We analysed the efficiency and productivity of companies currently providing smart city services to consider both policy and practical aspects. The prioritisation of smart city planning reflects the latest trends in South Korea, where urban planning is moving towards smart city planning. Furthermore, the capacity building of public-private/private-private partnerships indicate the importance of business scalability. This indicates that smart city services are only stabilised when the private sector is involved and leads the project, rather than focusing on public development. The feasibility of building intelligent facilities indicates that smart city projects should be implemented after securing cost-benefit feasibility. The results were used as the basis for building an evaluation system, showing that in smart city convergence alliances, small- and medium-sized enterprises achieved the highest efficiency by reducing inputs to 81% and 86%, under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scales, respectively. As the operational aspect is more problematic than the technical aspect, policy alternatives are necessary for smooth business progress, including increased flexibility of laws and institutions and the activation of policies that temporarily relieve regulations to demonstrate smart city projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0020.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: conceptual framework; Information Modelling; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Facility Management; Smart Buildings; Smart Applications
Online: 1 July 2022 (16:48:35 CEST)
The paper is based on the scientific outcome of a PhD Thesis. It introduces the generic, model-based, reusable, and extensible conceptual framework to incorporate Facility Management data based within the three-dimensional model-based design and construction of an asset to enable smart applications, which are introduced. The conceptual framework is composed of empirical data from expert interviews, questionnaires, and factual analysis from 13 projects of varied sizes of public and private clients. It shows which phases need which data, who needs them, and which added value can be generated if intelligent data structuring is used at the beginning of the construction project and bridges the gap between requirement and practice. The term “smart application” is introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: adaptive security; evolutionary game; Internet of Things; Smart grid; advanced metering infrastructure; smart home
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:08:12 CET)
We applied evolutionary game theory to extend a resource constrained security game model for confidentiality attacks in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which is a component of IoT-enabled Smart Grids. The AMI is modelled as a tree structure where each node aggregates the information of its children before encrypting it and passing it on to its parent. As a part of the model, we developed a discretization scheme for solving the replicator equations. The aim of this work is to explore the space of possible behaviours of attackers and to develop a framework where the AMI nodes adaptively select the most profitable strategies. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of a population of attackers and defenders on various cases resembling the real life implementation of AMI. We discuss in depth how to enhance security in AMI using evolutionary game theory either by a priori analysis or as a tool to run dynamic and adaptive infrastructure defence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart Energy Grids; Smart Substation Automation; Process Bus; Interoperability Standards; Industrial Communication Networks; TCP/IP
Online: 21 June 2021 (12:27:47 CEST)
The upgrade of energy infrastructure to those of smart grids, necessarily goes through the provision of integrated technological solutions that ensure the interoperability of their business capabilities and reduce the risk of devaluation of the systems used. The heterogeneity of the infrastructures and the dynamics of their operating environment, requires the continuous reduction of the complexity, the faster execution of the processes and the easy addition of innovative counterparts. Also, the integrated management of the overall ecosystem demands the provision of end-to-end interconnection, quality assurance, the definition of strict security policies, collaborative integration and correlation of events. In this respect, every design detail can be critical to the success or failure of a costly and ambitious project, such as that of smart energy networks. This work presents communication operating standards specific to the smart electricity networks applications, which should be taken into account in the process of planning and implementation of new infrastructures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0207.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: smart anti-theft system; intruder detection; unsupervised activity monitoring; smart home; partially/fully covered faces
Online: 11 July 2018 (16:47:59 CEST)
The proposed research methodology aims to design a generally implementable framework for providing a house owner/member with the immediate notification of an on-going theft (unauthorized access to their premises). For this purpose, a rigorous analysis of existing systems was undertaken to identify research gaps. The problems found with existing systems were that they can only identify the intruder after the theft, or cannot distinguish between human and non-human objects. Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) combined with the use of Internet of Things (IoT), Cognitive Internet of Things, Internet of Medical Things, and Cloud Computing are expanding smart home concepts and solutions, and their applications. The primary objective of the present research work was to design and develop IoT and cloud computing based smart home solutions. In addition, we also propose a novel smart home anti-theft system that can detect an intruder, even if they have partially/fully hidden their face using clothing, leather, fiber, or plastic materials. The proposed system can also detect an intruder in the dark using a CCTV camera without night vision facility. The fundamental idea was to design a cost-effective and efficient system for an individual to be able to detect any kind of theft in real-time and provide instant notification of the theft to the house owner. The system also promises to implement home security with large video data handling in real-time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0437.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain application; permissioned blockchain; equipment maintenance; smart manufacturing
Online: 28 October 2023 (12:47:42 CEST)
In the realm of smart manufacturing, equipment plays a pivotal role, impacting the efficiency and quality of production. Ensuring equipment availability and optimal performance is crucial, necessitating effective maintenance strategies. This paper addresses the complexities of smart device maintenance, which often involves collaboration between multiple entities like device owners, manufacturers, suppliers, and external maintenance services. To enhance this cooperative maintenance, we propose a novel maintenance system based on permissioned blockchain technology, offering superior security and reliability compared to conventional cloud-based platforms. Our contributions include developing an integrated maintenance system framework for smart manufacturing, which facilitates interactions among diverse stakeholders. Additionally, we have developed a prototype of this maintenance system, serving as a practical model for real-world application. Our research primarily demonstrates the practicality and advantages of using permissioned blockchain for maintenance systems in the manufacturing sector, paving the way for more secure, efficient, and collaborative maintenance practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0695.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: respiratory health; ammonia; ventilation; smart farming
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:08:36 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the feasibility of employing audio and vision technologies as an integrated monitoring system to monitor the health and behavior of pigs under different environmental conditions and to associate these factors. A total of 81 growing pigs ((Landrace x Largewhite) x Duroc) with distinct weight categories (10.47 ± 2.57 kg and 28.81 ± 5.03 kg) were distributed into two distinct housing conditions: Control (characterized by low NH3 levels and low stocking density) and Treatment (marked by elevated NH3 levels and varying stocking densities). Each house was installed with a SoundTalks monitor for automated daily evaluation of respiratory health status (ReHS), and a camera with a microphone to facilitate manual tracking of respiratory symptoms and behavioral patterns. Results showed that the Treatment group encountered significantly high room temperature, NH3 concentration, and carbon dioxide levels, resulting in compromised growth performance—a phenomenon further exacerbated in high stocking density conditions. Pigs within the treatment exhibited increases (p < 0.05) in lateral and total lying behaviors, and incidences of ear and tail injuries, increases screaming frequency, conjunctivitis incidences, coughing frequency, elevated respiration rates, and a decrease in ReHS. The environmental conditions affect the behavior and health of the pigs. Moreover, the behavioral patterns of the pigs are associated with their health conditions. The SoundTalks system did not trigger any warnings during the experimental period. Nevertheless, trend analysis indicated a significant reduction in respiratory health in the treatment. In conclusion, this study underscores the efficacy of merging audio and visual technologies to holistically monitor pig health and behavior, enabling enhanced management strategies. Findings emphasize that monitoring the ReHS trend serves as a pivotal marker for identifying respiratory health problems, complementing the system's innate alarm functions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: smart site; research hotspots; research trend
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:55:12 CEST)
With the development of information technology and the wide application of building information modelling technology, the construction industry continues to make digital changes. Managers are trying to apply smart construction site management to promote the upgrading of production modes. We used CiteSpace software to analyze 1707 articles from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science and Scopus to understand the current research hotspots of global scholars in this field. Results show that: (1) The number of studies on smart construction sites increases rapidly by year. Researchers from China, America and the UK have the most influential studies. (2) The cooperation between researchers and institutions is not close enough. In addition, the directions of research in the field are still scattered; (3) Chinese scholars are good at building intelligent platforms and evaluating intelligent systems from multiple perspectives. International scholars are willing to pursue technological innovation, allowing the continuous development of intelligent construction technology. (4) The applications in this field have not been popularized despite relatively perfect technology and typical cases. Future scholars should gradually improve the theoretical basis and industry standards of smart construction sites, promote the development of intelligent construction technology and establish the evaluation standards of qualified smart sites. This study will provide scholars in this field with the theoretical basis and research directions for further in-depth research, help construction companies to understand the development status and trend of smart construction sites and accelerate the intelligent transformation of construction companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0451.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Smart Greenhouse; Optimization; Control; Zero energy
Online: 4 August 2023 (19:16:18 CEST)
The global agricultural sector is increasingly pressured to adopt sustainable practices and reduce its environmental impact. In this context, greenhouses play a crucial role in enabling year-round crop production, ensuring food security, and minimizing reliance on traditional open-field farming. However, the energy consumption associated with greenhouse operations poses a significant challenge to achieving sustainability goals. As a result, there is a growing emphasis on transitioning greenhouses towards near-zero energy consumption. Near-zero energy consumption in greenhouses refers to the ambitious objective of minimizing energy usage to the greatest extent possible while maintaining optimal growing conditions for crops. This goal encompasses reducing energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting, and other operational needs, as well as exploring renewable energy sources to power greenhouse operations. This review article offers a comprehensive overview of greenhouse energy consumption, with the main goal of analyzing the present situation, identifying key challenges, exploring potential opportunities, and proposing future perspectives for decreasing energy usage in greenhouse environments. As the focus on sustainable agricultural practices grows, the need to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses becomes increasingly important. The review critically examines current technological models and strategies applied in smart greenhouse applications, as well as the monitoring of microclimatic conditions inside the greenhouse, encompassing factors such as temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, soil quality, and crop cultivation. Moreover, it aims to present existing literature that investigates the advancement of greenhouses toward achieving significant reductions in energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0300.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: regulatory economics; smart grids; wind farms
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:24:23 CEST)
An economic and business history approach is used to show the rise and relative failure of the Spanish wind industry during the period between 2004-2015, when Spain became the fourth country after China, the US and Germany in installed capacity of renewable energies and, in relative terms, the second country after Denmark. This study is unique in that it provides an integrated vision of the reasons for the relative fall of Spain in the world ranking of wind energy producers. The methodology of the economic analysis of industrial policies makes it possible to explain the fall in the relative importance of Spain in the international panorama of wind farms. There were no reasons related to technological obsolescence or inability of the CECRE managing renewable energies to explain the fall.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0231.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Decentralized Finance; Oracles; Smart Contracts
Online: 9 July 2021 (15:44:33 CEST)
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) takes the promise of blockchain a step further and aims to transform traditional financial products into trustless and transparent protocols that run without involving intermediaries. Similar to how 2017 was the year of ICOs, 2020 was the year of DeFI with more than $15 billion of total investments. The decentralized platforms utilize oracles to retrieve asset data from the external world, but their choice and management criteria are often unknown to the end-users. If oracles are poorly selected or managed, the funds of a rising number of investors are inevitably in danger. The issue known as “the oracle problem,” which makes real-world applications controversial and debated due to the loss of decentralization, had recently drawn attention to DeFi given the crescent number of related hacks that caused the loss of millions of dollars held in DeFi projects. With a multivocal approach, this paper aims to shed light on the pattern that identifies the oracle problem in DeFi and outline the most promising ways to overcome the related weaknesses. This research supports the view that the oracle problem in decentralized finance bears specific characteristics which require standardization and appropriate economic incentives to be addressed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Planning; resilience; territory; Smart City; Sustainability
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:15:39 CET)
Urban planning is recognized as an interaction between the state and society, which aims to articulate public policies in the territory, facilitating their administration in favor of greater development and well-being of society. However, this interaction becomes complex because consumption demands increase, and the needs of the community exceed the capacity of the urban ecosystem to supply them, hindering its sustainable functionality. With this panorama, it becomes relevant to study urban planning from a sustainable environmental planning perspective, based on four topics: urban planning, sustainability, resilience and smart cities. The methodology used is based on a bibliometric study through a PRISMA adjustment to 87 articles, supported by VOSviewer® to construct and visualize the co-occurrence networks of important terms extracted from a body of scientific literature. The main result is to consider cities with a complex systems approach that works like a gear, that is, there is a connective element between inter- and intra-urban processes. This relationship is the key factor that allows understanding their synchronization, stating that the deepening of each of these topics is crucial to the ideal of a territorial administration through time scales, by means of adaptive cycles, allowing to provide new tools to concepts such as carrying capacity and the measurement of the environmental footprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: smart environments; notification management; machine learning
Online: 3 November 2019 (16:12:57 CET)
With the evolution of technology over the years, it has become possible to develop intelligent environments based on the concept of the Internet of Things, distributed systems, and machine learning. Such environments are incorporated with various solutions to solve user demands from services. One of these solutions is UBIPRI middleware, whose central concept is to maintain privacy in smart environments and to receive notifications as one of its services. However, this service is freely performed, disregarding the privacy that the environment employs. Another consideration is that based on the researched related works, it was possible to identify that the authors do not use statistical hypothesis tests in their solutions developed in the presented context. This work proposes an architecture for notification management in smart environments, composed by a notification manager named PRIPRO to assign it to UBIPRI and to aim to perform tests and comparisons between classification algorithms to delimit which one is most feasible to implement in the PRINM decision-making mechanism. The experiments showed that the J48 algorithm obtained the best results compared to the other algorithms tested and compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart City Services; Sustainability; Living Lab
Online: 2 September 2018 (12:15:05 CEST)
In terms of sustainability, cities become smart when they provide intelligent services to the inhabitants using information and communication technologies without threatening the future of the environment, economy or the society. However, the process of developing such sustainable smart services has certain challenges, especially in understanding the real needs of the people living in the city. Inhabitants of the city or the citizens are the key stakeholders in case of smart services in a city. Active involvement of the people throughout the process is a way to design such services. On the other hand, integrating sustainability, for example including environmental data to the smart city services has been found challenging. Therefore, this research discusses an approach on combining environmental data with regular smart city services and to engage city inhabitants in the process, the approach that is adapted from the concept of living lab methodology. Finally, an application has been developed to represent a smart city service following this method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0375.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electron insect traps; smart city; IoT
Online: 25 June 2018 (08:35:40 CEST)
We introduce a device for automatic detection and reporting of crawling insects in urban environments. It is a monitoring device for urban pests that complies with the context of smart homes, smart cities and is compatible with the emerging discipline of the Internet of Things (IoT). We believe it can find its place to every room of a hotel, hospital, military camp and residence. This box-shaped device attracts targeted insect pests, senses the entering insect and takes automatically a picture of the internal space of the box. The picture is communicated through the Wi-Fi commonly found in such establishments to an authorized person/stakeholder receiving the picture to take proper action. The e-trap includes strong attractants (pheromone and/or food) to increase capture efficiency. The insect is trapped on the sticky floor of the device. The device carries the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard all entrances of the trap. As the insect enters it interrupts the infrared light source. This triggers a detection event; a picture is taken, and a time-stamp is set before reporting the event through the Wi-Fi. The device can be integrated seamlessly in urban environments and operates unobtrusively to human activities. We report results on various insect pests and depending on the insect species, can reach a detection accuracy ranging from 96-99%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1395.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Soil Nutrients Analysis; Soil Fertility Prediction; smart soil fertility management; smart farming
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:32:32 CEST)
The problem of low soil fertility and limited research in agricultural data driven tools, may lead to low crop productivity which makes it imperative to research in applications of high throughput computational algorithms such as of machine learning (ML) for effective soil analysis and fertility status prediction in order to assist in optimal soil fertility management decision-making activities. However, difficulties in the choice of the key soil properties parameters for use in reliable soil nutrients analysis and fertility prediction. Also, individual ML algorithms setbacks and modelling expert implementation procedures subjectivity, may lead to exploitation of worst fertility level targets and soil fertility status targets classification models performance reported variations. This paper surveys state-of-affair in ML for agricultural soil nutrients analysis and fertility status prediction. Prominent soil properties and widely used classical modelling algorithms and procedures are identified. Empirically exploited fertility status target classes are scrutinized, and reported soil fertility prediction model performances are depicted. The three pass method, with mixed method of qualitative content analysis and qualitative simple descriptive statistics were used in this survey. Observably, the frequently used soil nutrients and chemical properties were organic carbon, phosphorus, potassium, and potential Hydrogen, followed by iron, manganese, copper and zinc. Predominant algorithms included Random Forest, and Naïve Bayes, followed by Support Vector Machine. Model performances varied, with highest accuracy 98.93% and 98.15% achieved by ensemble methods, and the least being 60%. Interdisciplinary ML related researchers may consider using ensemble methods to develop high performance soil fertility status prediction models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0398.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: smart sustainability; smart food; Arabic coffee; classification; color information; antioxi-dant information; chemical composition; mobile application
Online: 6 June 2023 (07:47:58 CEST)
This research assesses the classification of Arabic coffee into three primary variations (light, medium, and dark) using simulated data based on actual measurements of color information, antioxidant laboratory tests, and chemical composition tests. Two types of simulated data were generated, with the standard deviation of the measures varied. Multiple classifiers were used for classification. The findings demonstrate the use of color information in accurately distinguishing Arabic coffee types. The different CIE color values, as well as the excellent connection between color information and coffee classes, lead to flawless classification results. However, depending primarily on antioxidant information results in lower classification performance, with variability amongst classifiers due to increasing data complexity. Chemical composition information, on the other hand, possesses outstanding discriminatory strength, allowing faultless classification on its own. Certain characteristics, such as crude protein and crude fiber, show strong correlations and are critical in the classification of coffee types. Based on the findings, it is recommended to create a mobile application that uses image recognition to analyze coffee color while providing chemical composition information. End users, such as consumers, will be able to make informed judgments regarding their coffee preferences owing to this application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0138.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Smart Grid; Random Forest; Internet of Things; Power management; Machine Learning; Smart Meter; Priority Power Scheduling.
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:01:08 CET)
Presently power control and management play a vigorous role in information technology and power management. Instead of non-renewable power manufacturing, renewable power manufacturing is preferred by every organization for controlling resource consumption, price reduction and efficient power management. Smart grid efficiently satisfies these requirements with the integration of machine learning algorithms. Machine learning algorithms are used in a smart grid for power requirement prediction, power distribution, failure identification etc. The proposed Random Forest-based smart grid system classifies the power grid into different zones like high and low power utilization. The power zones are divided into number of sub-zones and map to random forest branches. The sub-zone and branch mapping process used to identify the quantity of power utilized and the non-utilized in a zone. The non-utilized power quantity and location of power availabilities are identified and distributed the required quantity of power to the requester in a minimal response time and price. The priority power scheduling algorithm collect request from consumer and send the request to producer based on priority. The producer analysed the requester existing power utilization quantity and availability of power for scheduling the power distribution to the requester based on priority. The proposed Random Forest based sustainability and price optimization technique in smart grid experimental results are compared to existing machine learning techniques like SVM, KNN and NB. The proposed random forest-based identification technique identifies the exact location of the power availability, which takes minimal processing time and quick responses to the requestor. Additionally, the smart meter based smart grid technique identifies the faults in short time duration than the conventional energy management technique is also proven in the experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0011.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart grid (SG); smart meter (SM); clustering; load pattern; self-organizing map (SOM); advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:31:00 CEST)
Life in the modern century is heavily reliant on an enormous amount of electricity consumption as technology has become the most integral part of daily life. In this context, smart grid systems play a pivotal role to maintain the uninterrupted power supply which needs to be monitored in a timely fashion to keep track of the electric consumers’ usage pattern. The smart meter is the one of smart applications of the smart grid that collects huge amounts of consumer load data on a daily basis which has become a focus for various researchers and analyzers to study load characterization. In this paper, an approach has been proposed to recognize the energy consumption patterns among diverse types of consumers ranging from residential to industrial levels. This approach is worth considering not only for load pattern recognition but also for involving customers in different events such as demand response or peak shaving. In such a way, this analytical mechanism certainly assists in reducing power wastage and saving costs. The proposed methodology is based on a two-fold clustering algorithm with the use of state-of-the-art technology, machine learning. The primary goal is to classify electric customers' data collected from smart meters. Then, analyzing the classified results with an aim to predict power consumption patterns for the customers in the future and making the right energy policy that will benefit both the grid operator and consumers as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1869.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: biotechnological filter; moss; air pollution; smart city
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
The research considers creating a network of moss-based biotechnological purification filters in the Smart City concept. The extent of absorption of heavy metals and gases by Sphagnopsida moss under different conditions was investigated. The efficiency of air purification with biotechnological filters was also investigated using the example of the city of Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, where an excess of the permissible concentration of harmful substances in the air, according to the WHO air quality guidelines, is recorded throughout the year. Data on the level of pollution recorded by sensors located in the biggest Kazakhstani cities from 06/21/2020 to 06/04/2023 were selected as the basis for calculating the efficiency. In total, there are two hundred twenty sensors in 73 settlements of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with 80 such sensors located in the city of Almaty. Since creating a single biotechnological filter is expensive, the task was to calculate the air purification effect in the case of increasing the number of filters placed in polluted areas. As a result, it is shown that ten filters provide an air purification efficiency of 0.77%, 100 filters 5.72%, and 500 filters 23.11%. A biotechnological filter for air purification based on moss was designed at Astana IT University, considering the climatic features, distribution, and types of pollution in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The obtained results are essential for ensuring compliance with the ISO 37120:2018 standard for environmental comfort in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Additionally, the research findings and the experience of implementing a moss-based biotechnological filter can be applied to designing similar air purification systems in other cities. This is of great importance for the advancement of the field of urban science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0378.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel; smart construction; environment; communication; worker monitoring
Online: 12 July 2023 (04:35:37 CEST)
Due to the inherent risks associated with tunnel construction, including potential collapse, various types of work activities, and challenging visibility and communication conditions, safety management in tunnel projects requires significant investment in terms of cost and time. In this research, we propose and demonstrate a novel smart construction system that utilizes worker location monitoring technology to enhance safety in tunnel construction. The system comprises a wearable beacon integrated into safety helmets, scanners strategically placed at regular intervals inside the tunnel, environmental sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, and air quality, and mobile devices for collecting and analyzing data on workers and the environment. Through a field demonstration conducted in a Korean tunnel construction site, we validated the effectiveness of the proposed system, which demonstrated real-time monitoring of workers and reliable communication capabilities, leading to improved safety and cost-efficiency in tunnel construction. By implementing the proposed system, we achieved a significant reduction of 37% in monthly construction costs and 77% in annual construction costs compared to conventional methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0110.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Climate change; perception; Climate smart agriculture; Adoption
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:31:38 CEST)
Abstract: Climate change is one of the main barriers for agricultural production and productivity globally. Hence, understanding farmers’ adoption level of CSA practices and determinants is of highly important for policy decisions. Consequently, the study's purpose was to assess adoption level of multiple CSA practices and determinants of climate-smart agriculture practices in the study area. The study was conducted in Welmera Woreda, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. From the Woreda, three kebeles were identified, and 306 respondent farmers were selected. A cross-sectional household survey, focus group discussion, and key informant interviews were used. Multivariate probit model was used to examine adoption determinants of multiple climate-smart agriculture practices. According to the result, Conservation agriculture, integrated soil fertility management, and crop diversification are the most commonly practiced CSA techniques in the study area. Demographic factors result indicated that being male as compared with female farmers, has positive and significant effect on crop diversification and improved livestock feed and feeding practices. Age of farmers significantly and negatively affecting the probability of adoption of improved soil fertility management practices and crop diversification. However, it affects the adoption of agroforestry practices positively and significantly. Based on the result of economic factors, having relatively large farm land size significantly increases the adoption of conservation agriculture, improved soil fertility management, crop diversification, improved livestock feed and feeding practices, and postharvest technology practice. Better farm income increases the likelihood of uptake of improved livestock feed and feeding. Having a large number of livestock positively influences adoption of conservation agriculture and having access to credit services positively influences the implementation of agroforestry, crop diversification, and postharvest technology. In addition, institutional factors such as access to agricultural extension service and training found that significantly and positively influences the adoption of crop diversification; access to participation on farmers’ field day similarly significantly and positively influence the adoption of both conservation agriculture and improved soil fertility management practice. Awareness creation for farmers and experts about climate change and including location specific CSA practices in to agricultural program is crucial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0437.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Incentivization; E-waste; Vector space; Smart contract
Online: 8 May 2023 (04:04:29 CEST)
The adoption of recycling and proper disposal techniques for electronic waste is crucial in advancing sustainable development. The traditional approaches of motivating people for collection of electronic waste are often insufficient due to inadequate methods reaching out, given incentives, calculating appropriate incentives associate to the task of gathering the electronic waste and a lack of transparency in the entire process. Insufficient collection of electronic waste could result in the release of numerous harmful substances into the environment. Prior research studies have been carried out to tackle the issue of electronic waste management in a broad sense. The findings of those studies indicated diverse strategies, each of which is relevant solely to a restricted range of electronic waste reprocessing circumstances. The current study has presented a proposed technique for incentivizing tasks and activities associated to collection of electronic waste through the adoption of vector space technique. Blockchain smart contact technology, has been used to implemented the strategy. The method used involves various well defined mapping of tasks, nature of activities, and their magnitude in order to derived an incentive. Some scenarios for the calculations of incentives are presented, and the findings reveals the based case is by utilizing weighting scale scheme where each tasks and activities are mapped to its associated inventive rather than providing fixed incentive values. Ethereum was used as digital token for each unit of incentive. This concept has contributed in encouraging personal accountability in the management of e-waste collection in order to cultivate sustainable behaviors for a long term solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0169.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Blockchain; smart contract; homomorphic encryption; IER detection
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:01:49 CET)
(1) Background: As Patient-reported outcome measures face challenges with low response rate on surveys, different incentive mechanism have been proposed to achieve a higher response rate. However, it seems that monetary incentives are the only mechanism with proven effect. Nevertheless, it is less likely to be used than other mechanisms due to the monetary cost. (2) Methods: In this research work, a cryptographic scheme for rewarding patients with cryptographic tokens is developed and implemented on the Ethereum test network. (3) Results: The model is able to distribute decentralised tokens to patients who complete the PROMs in a fair, private, decentralised approach. The token can be further used by patients to exchange more healthcare services, encouraging more patients to participate in PROMs. At the same time, an IER detection method is built to improve the quality of PROMs, avoiding the healthcare provider paying for meaningless PROMs from patients who barely participate for incentives. (4) Conclusions: This work provides an privacy-preserving incentive model to increase the response rate for PROMs surveys. Our model prevents patients providing invalid responses to gain rewards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: smart primary healthcare; building; Construction; South Africa
Online: 15 July 2022 (06:32:30 CEST)
Smart primary healthcare building facility services capture a new level of process and operational data through advanced monitoring, enabling experts to use the building facilities to produce significant and efficient healthcare service delivery within the individual spheres of influence. This study assessed the impact of IoT services on achieving smart primary healthcare building facilities in the rural area of South Africa to enhance primary healthcare delivery. The study identified three (3) basic constructs of IoT services that comprised the application of IoT location recognition and tracking services, the application of the IoT high-speed communication network-based services, and the application of IoT-based services. The study is quantitative, and a questionnaire was used to collect data from the project managers and healthcare practitioners working with the primary healthcare agency in South Africa. The study found a variable degree of impact between the three (3) IoT constructs and the achievement of primary healthcare building facility services in South Africa. The study recommends adopting IoT essential services for achieving smart primary healthcare building facility services in the rural areas of South Africa and other developing countries facing similar primary healthcare delivery challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: blockchain; spatial crowdsourcing; task assignment; smart contract
Online: 9 May 2022 (09:09:49 CEST)
Spatial crowdsourcing emerges as a new computing paradigm that enables mobile users to accomplish spatio- temporal tasks in order to solve human-intrinsic problems. Existing crowdsourcing systems critically use centralized servers for interacting with workers and making task assignment decisions. These systems are hence susceptible to issues such as the single point of failure and the lack of operational transparency. Prior work, therefore, turns to blockchain-based decentralized crowdsourcing systems, yet still suffers from problems of lacking efficient task assignment scheme, requiring a deposit to an untrusted system, low block generation speed, and high transaction fees. To address these issues, we design a blockchain-based decentralized framework for spatial crowdsourcing, which we call SC-EOS. Our system does not rely on any trusted servers, while providing efficient and user-customizable task assignment, low monetary cost, and fast block generation. More importantly, it frees users from making a deposit into an untrusted system. Our framework can also be extended and applied to generic crowdsourcing systems. We implemented the proposed system on the EOS blockchain. Trace-driven evaluations involving real users show that our system attains the comparable task assignment performance against a clairvoyant scheme. It also achieves 10× cost savings than an Ethereum-based implementation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0135.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain; Smart Contracts; Oracles; IoT; Bibliometric Analysis
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:07:49 CEST)
Whereas the use of distributed ledger technologies has previously been limited to cryptocurrencies, other sectors—such as healthcare, supply chain, and finance—can now benefit from them because of bitcoin scripts and smart contracts. However, these applications rely on oracles to fetch data from the real world, which cannot reproduce the trustless environment provided by blockchain networks. Despite their crucial role, academic research on blockchain oracles is still in its infancy, with few contributions and a heterogeneous approach. This study undertakes a bibliometric analysis and aims to shed light on the institutions and authors that are actively contributing to the oracle literature, intending to promote progress and cooperation. On the one hand, although worldwide collaboration is still lacking, various authors and institutions are working in similar directions. On the other hand, most areas of research are scarcely explored, and others are even untouched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0034.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain technology; security; Machine learning; Smart System
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:53:16 CET)
Blockchain and Machine Learning gives the best solutions together in performing various tasks in the Smart Health care system. With these two new emerging technologies, that have materialized in the last decade. In this paper, we proposed secure, transparent and intelligent methods in the Internate of medical things industry using Machine learning models and blockchain technology to enhance security level and train our models to improve diagnostic, prevention, treatment of the patient, patient rights, patient autonomy and equality in the health care system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0145.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Smart grids; Optimization; Prediction methods; Energy exchange
Online: 10 February 2022 (07:55:02 CET)
The concept of distributed generation has made photovoltaic an integral source of energy in smart grid systems, especially in peer-to-peer energy trading frameworks that exploit excess power to fulfill the energy requirements of consumers in cost-efficient and eco-friendly manner. It is believed that P2P energy trading will dominate a significant portion of research in forthcoming power generation systems due to the excessive rise of energy demands across the globe. Despite a plethora of studies on energy optimization solutions in P2P trading, minimizing nanogrid energy trading cost and efficient energy sharing between consumers and prosumers are deemed among the challenging problems. This study overcomes essential issues overlooked by the contemporary P2P energy trading models by introducing a predictive optimization-oriented nanogrid energy trading model. The proposed study encompasses two stages: (1) predictive optimization model which harnesses BD-LSTM-based forecasted energy parameters (energy load, energy consumption, and PV generation) that are later incorporated in PSO-enabled objective function to reduce nanogrid trading cost, (2) optimal energy sharing plan is devised to decide the role of nanogrids as prosumers or consumers by emphasizing the use of PV-produced energy. The proposed model is validated on the case study containing nanogrid houses data. The simulation provides detailed experiments by comparing the energy demand and response using the proposed energy sharing model. The outcomes yield that the energy sharing plan holds a significant potential to fulfill maximum energy requirements of nanogrid house in P2P cluster and significantly reduces the energy cost compared to grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: public space; smart-city; children; affordance; Sardinia
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:41:08 CEST)
The global process of urbanization, and the modification of social interaction determined by the pandemic crisis poses the issue of the place of vulnerable users, and in particular children, within the contemporary city. This research aims to elaborate a theoretical and methodological framework, based on the concepts of affordance and capability, for analyzing the potential of public spaces to enable and support children’s independent activities. This potential, or meaningful usefulness, is expressed by the Index of Meaningful Usefulness of public Urban Spaces (IUIS). The latter is calculated via the tool ‘Opportunities for Children in Urban Spaces’ (OCUS). This methodology is applied to the analysis of significant public spaces within the historic center of the city of Iglesias in Sardinia, Italy. The results reveal adequate usefulness of the selected spaces, while underlining criticalities related to intrinsic spatial and physical attributes. The application to the case study confirms the validity of the theoretical and methodological framework embodied in the OCUS tool for supporting urban design and planning by orienting place-shaping processes towards the acknowledgement of children’s needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0688.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart city; mobility; IOT Applications; safety critical
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:57:36 CET)
The new IoT/IoE (internet of things/everythings) paradigm and architecture permits to rethink about the way the Smart City infrastructures are designed and managed, on the other hand a number of problems have to be solved. In terms of mobility the cities that embrace the sensoring era can take advantage of this disruptive technology to improve the quality of life of their citizen, also thanks the rationalization in the use of their resources. In Sii-Mobility, a national smart city project on mobility and transportation, a flexible platform has been designed and here, in this paper, is presented. It permits to setup heterogeneous and complex scenarios that integrate sensors/actuators as IoT/IoE in an overall scenario of Big Data, Machine Learning and Data Analytics. A detailed and complex case-study has been presented to validate the solution in the context of a system that dynamically reverse the traveling direction of a road segment, with all the safety conditions in place. This case study composes several building blocks of the IoT platform, which demonstrate that a flexible and dynamic set-up is possible, supporting off-grid, security, safety, cloud and mixed solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Agricultural information, smart-mobile, stakeholder farmers, Sudan
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:12:49 CEST)
The access to agricultural information in Sudan continues to be challenging to farmers due to use of inadequate sources and traditional extension approaches. The rapid growth of smart-mobile phones usage in developing countries resulted in several advantages compared to other alternatives in term of costs, geographic coverage and ease of use. This research was conducted in North Kordofan Sate to explore the role of smart-mobile phone in accessing agricultural information. Primary data were obtained by structured questionnaires and focus group discussion through participatory rural appraisal and observation while secondary data were collected from scientific journals, books and authenticated web sources. A number of 230 respondents (10% from total farmers) were interviewed and five focus group discussions were done. Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 was used to analyze the data with aid of descriptive statistics and Chi-squire Test. The result indicated that most of the respondents fall in age group between 21-40 years, and they depend on farm activity. There was 90% of farmers processed mobile phone since more than three years ago, 90.8%continuedto use smart mobile phone to access agricultural information and showed positive contribution towards income generation. The results also revealed that there was positive perception towards using mobile phones which showed more efficient in use than radio and TVs. The results showed great advantages of using smart mobile phone where 75.2 % of respondents preferred to get agricultural information, logistics and other needs through successful communication in the mid of agricultural season. Results of Chi-squire test showed significant differences between the parameters tested. The study recommended that farmers should be connected with mobile phones to admit ease communication with agricultural extension offices and quick access to their needs and logistics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0075.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: interoperability; IoT; connectivity; Industry 4.0; smart manufacturing
Online: 3 May 2018 (12:25:53 CEST)
This paper presents technical solutions to increase Industry 4.0 maturity. Within the “5G-Enabled Manufacturing” project, a 5G network has been deployed at the shop floor to enable fast and scalable connectivity. This network was used to connect a grinding machine to a private cloud to enable visibility and transparency of the production data, which is the basis for Industry 4.0 and smart manufacturing. Results indicate a present lack of commercially available product independent solutions for interconnection and data transfer despite the availability of open standards and well-documented demonstrator projects. The solution is described and discussed regarding technical interoperability, focusing on the system layout, communication standards, and open systems. From the discussion, it is derived that manufacturing end-users are in need to expand and further internalize knowledge on future information and communication technologies to reduce their dependency on equipment and technology providers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart scheduling; Smart Reservations; Reinforcement Learning; Electric vehicle charging; Electric Vehicle Charging Management platform; DQN Reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:20:13 CET)
Abstract: As the policies and regulations currently in place concentrate on environmental protection and greenhouse gas reduction, we are steadily witnessing a shift in the transportation industry towards electromobility. There are, though, several issues that need to be addressed to encourage the adoption of EVs at a larger scale. To this end, we propose a solution capable of addressing multiple EV charging scheduling issues, such as congestion management, scheduling a charging station in advance, and allowing EV drivers to plan optimized long trips using their EVs. The smart charging scheduling system we propose considers a variety of factors such as battery charge level, trip distance, nearby charging stations, other appointments, and average speed. Given the scarcity of data sets required to train the Reinforcement Learning algorithms, the novelty of the recommended solution lies in the scenario simulator, which generates the labelled datasets needed to train the algorithm. Based on the generated scenarios, we created and trained a neural network that uses a history of previous situations to identify the optimal charging station and time interval for recharging. The results are promising and for future work we are planning to train the DQN model using real-world data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1553.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Smart Buildings; 5G; Cloud Computing; IoT; Energy Efficiency
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:27:20 CET)
As urbanization continues to accelerate, the concept of smart buildings has transitioned from a futuristic vision to an integral component of modern cities. These buildings, often seen as the building blocks of smart cities, are increasingly relying on cutting-edge technologies like 5G and cloud computing to reach unprecedented levels of energy efficiency, sustainability, and occupant comfort. This paper offers a comprehensive exploration into the marriage of smart building technologies with 5G and cloud computing. It scrutinizes the individual and combined impacts of these technologies, presents various case studies showcasing real-world applications, and anticipates future trends. Moreover, it delves into technical challenges, policy implications, and offers concrete recommendations for stakeholders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0332.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: crop responses; environmental impacts; nanoparticles; smart fertilisers; synergist
Online: 7 November 2023 (02:36:49 CET)
Nano-nitrogen fertilizers (NNFs) have emerged as a promising technology in the field of agriculture, offering potential solutions to improve nutrient uptake efficiency, enhance crop productivity, and reduce environmental impacts. The NNFs showed superior characteristics and performance on crops and therefore, became a potential alternative to conventional nitrogen (N) fertilisers. These fertilizers enhance plant uptake while simultaneously reducing environmental losses. Additionally, their small particle size increases crop acclimation and decreases the application rate. With all these beneficial traits of NNFs, they potentially contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This review article summarises the materials used in NNFs formulation, methods of preparing NNFs, and their crop responses. This review also highlights the limitations identified in the research studies and provides research recommendations for the future. Further, this review provides a critical assessment of the current state of NNFs and their prospects for revolutionizing modern agriculture to attain SDGs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Smart Livestock Farms; Applications; Opportunities; Challenges; Solutions; Benefits
Online: 19 October 2023 (06:54:43 CEST)
Smart livestock farming leverages technology to boost production and meet food demand sustainably. This study delves into smart technologies in animal production, covering opportunities, challenges, and solutions. Smart agriculture employs modern technology to enhance efficiency, sustainability, and animal welfare in livestock farming. It includes remote monitoring, GPS-based animal care, robotic milking, smart health collars, predictive disease control, and other innovations to achieve these goals. While smart animal production holds great promise, it does face challenges related to cost, data management, and connectivity. To address these challenges, potential solutions include remote sensing, technology integration, and farmer education. Smart agriculture offers opportunities for increased efficiency, improved animal welfare, and enhanced environmental conservation. A well-planned approach is crucial to maximize the benefits of smart livestock production while ensuring its long-term sustainability. This study confirms the growing adoption of smart agriculture in livestock production, with the potential to support sustainable development goals and deliver benefits such as increased productivity and resource efficiency. To fully realize these benefits and ensure the sustainability of livestock farming, it is essential to address cost and education challenges. Therefore, this study recommends promoting a positive outlook among livestock stakeholders and embracing smart agriculture to enhance farm performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0659.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Digital Twin; Smart City; Interoperability; High-Level Architecture
Online: 11 October 2023 (03:32:37 CEST)
Infrastructure and urban network operators, city users and industrialists are faced with complex issues to ensure the sustainability of the service, maintain, operate and develop their urban systems, while integrating environmental, economic and societal impacts and being resilient to unexpected geopolitical and climatic upheavals. Digital Twins are now recognized as the cornerstone of digital transformation. In the field of smart cities, they can enable all stakeholders to collaborate across disciplinary silos and foster digital transformation in urban and territorial projects to ensure sustainability, resilience and increased inventiveness. However, the application of the Digital Twin technology to Smart Cities lacks of standards. This paper proposes a high-level architecture for Digital Twins as an enabler of various levels of interoperation between key stakeholders of a Smart City. Such a technology-agnostic architecture, when implemented for a given Smart City, produces a middleware for large scale interoperability between actors involved in multiple supply chains of this territory.