REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0396.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; sirtuins; mitochondria; leaky gut; inflammation; neuroimmune
Online: 27 February 2020 (10:52:33 CET)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of extensive investigation as to its biological underpinnings. However, this has produced little of therapeutic benefit or indeed provided any accepted biomarkers that could tailor treatment. This chapter reviews data on the main pathophysiologic processes that have been widely shown to be altered in AD, including circadian dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, gut dysbiosis, and immune-glia-platelet activation. It is proposed that alterations in the gut microbiome, including gut dysbiosis and increased gut permeability drive changes in mitochondrial function that are intimately associated with significant variations in sirtuin expression. Both mitochondria-located and nucleus/cytoplasm located sirtuins can act on mitochondrial function in different cells and body systems to co-ordinate the ageing-associated changes that underpin AD. The sirtuins are therefore key aspect to a developmental model of AD that is more 'holistic' in perspective, thereby providing a framework for the detection of earlier biomarkers and more successful treatment for the heterogenous nature of AD pathoetiology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0742.v1
Subject: Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Glucose metabolism; Histone deacetylase; HDACs; Histone deacetylase inhibitor; HDACi, Insulin release; Sirtuins, Sirtuin activation
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:23:12 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the principal manifestations of metabolic syndrome and its prevalence with modern lifestyle is increasing incessantly. Chronic hyperglycemia can induce several vascular complications that were referred to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in DM. Although several therapeutic targets have been identified and accessed clinically, the imminent risk of DM and its prevalence are still ascending. Substantial pieces of evidence revealed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoforms can regulate various molecular activities in DM via epigenetic and post-translational regulation of several transcription factors. To date, 18 HDAC isoforms have been identified in mammals that were categorized into 4 different classes. Classes I, II, and IV are regarded as classical HDACs, which operate through a Zn-based mechanism. In contrast, class III HDACs or Sirtuins depend on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) for their molecular activity. Functionally, most of the HDAC isoforms can regulate β cell fate, insulin release, insulin expression and signaling, and glucose metabolism. Moreover, the roles of HDAC members have been implicated in the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and other pathological events, which substantially contribute to diabetes-related vascular dysfunctions. Therefore, HDACs could serve as the potential therapeutic target in DM towards developing novel intervention strategies. This review sheds light on the emerging role of HDACs/isoforms in diabetic pathophysiology and emphasized the scope of their targeting in DM for constituting the novel interventional strategies for metabolic disorders/complications.