ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0430.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: aggregation-induced emission (AIE); Iridium(III) complex; phosphorescence; singlet oxygen (1O2)
Online: 7 November 2023 (09:27:21 CET)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has garnered significant attention in the fields of cancer treatment and drug-resistant bacteria eradication due to its non-invasive nature and spatiotemporal controllability. Iridium complexes have captivated researchers owing to their tunable structure, exceptional optical properties, and substantial Stokes displacement. However, most of these complexes suffer from aggregation-induced quenching, leading to diminished luminous efficiency. In contrast to conventional photosensitizers, photosensitizers exhibiting aggregation-induced luminescence (AIE) properties retain the ability to generate a large number of reactive oxygen species when aggregated. To overcome these limitations, we designed and synthesized a novel iridium complex named Ir-TPA in this study. It incorporates quinoline triphenylamine cyclomethylated ligands that confer AIE characteristics for Ir-TPA. We systematically investigated the photophysical properties, AIE behavior, spectral features, and reactive oxygen generation capacity of Ir-TPA. The results demonstrate that Ir-TPA exhibits excellent optical properties with pronounced AIE phenomenon and robust capability for producing singlet oxygen species. This work not only introduces a new class of metal iridium complex photosensitizer with AIE attributes but also holds promise for achieving remarkable photodynamic therapeutic effects in future cellular experiments and biological studies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Ultraviolet; superoxide; singlet Oxygen; cell blebbing; skin aging; peroxidative cascade; antioxidants
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:32:55 CEST)
The interaction of ultraviolet radiation with biological matter results in direct damage such as pyrimidine dimers in DNA. It also results in indirect damage provoked by the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) catalyzed by photo-sensitizers. Photosensitizers can be endogenous (e.g. Tryptophan) or exogenous (e.g. TiO2 and other photo-stable UVA sunscreens). Direct damage triggers an inflammatory response and the oxidative and proteolytic bursts that characterize its onset. The inflammatory reaction multiplies the effects of one single photon. Indirect damage, such as the peroxidative cascade in membrane lipids, can extend to thousands of molecular modifications per absorbed photon. Sunscreens should therefore be formulated in the presence of appropriate anti-oxidants. Superoxide and Singlet Oxygen are the main ROS that need to be tackled: this review describes some of the molecular, biochemical, cellular and clinical consequences of exposure to UV radiation as well as some results associated with scavengers and quenchers of Superoxide and Singlet Oxygen, as well as with inhibitors of singlet Oxygen production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0536.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: 3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine; reactive oxygen species (ROS); reactive nitrogen species (RNS); photoacoustic probes; optical sensors; singlet oxygen
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:17:34 CEST)
Photoacoustic imaging is attracting a great deal of interest owing to its distinct advantages over other imaging techniques such as fluorescence or magnetic resonance image. Availability of photoacoustic probes for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) could shed light on a plethora of biological processes mediated by these key intermediates. Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is a non-toxic and non-mutagenic colorless dye that develops a distinctive blue color upon oxidation. In this work we have investigated the potential of TMB as photoacoustic probe for ROS/RNS. Our results indicate that TMB reacts with hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide to produce the blue oxidation product, while ROS such as the superoxide radical anion, sodium peroxide, hydroxyl radical or peroxynitrite yield a colorless oxidation product. TMB does not penetrate Escherichia coli cytoplasm but is capable of detecting singlet oxygen generated in its outer membrane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0472.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: polymerization; modeling; kinetic; singlet oxygen; polymerization efficacy; crosslinking
Online: 30 October 2018 (07:18:35 CET)
The kinetics and efficacy profiles of photoinitiated polymerization are theoretically presented. For the same dose, lower light intensity achieves a higher steady-state-efficacy (SSE) in type-I; in contrast, type-II has an equal SSE. Higher light intensity has a faster rising efficacy, due to faster depletion of photoinitiator (PS) concentration. However, type-II process is also affected by the available oxygen. Higher light intensity produces more efficient singlet oxygen, resulting a higher transient efficacy, in which all intensities reach the same SSE when oxygen is completely depleted. With external oxygen, type-II efficacy increases with time, otherwise, it is governed only by the light dose, i.e., same dose achieves same efficacy. Moreover, type-II has an efficacy follows Bunsen Roscoe law (BRL), whereas type-I follows non-BRL. The measured type-I efficacy and gelation profile are analyzed by our analytic formulas. Schematics of the photocrosslinking stage defined by the availability of oxygen is developed, where both type-I and –II coexist until the oxygen is depleted. The overall efficacy may be enhanced by resupply of PS or oxygen during the light exposure. The roles of light dose and PS concentration on the efficacy of photoinitiated polymerization should be are governed a new concept of a volume efficacy (Ve), defined by the product of the crosslink (or gelation) depth (CD) and local [efficacy].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0066.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: carotenoid; lutein; zexanthin; dehydrolutein; retina; retinal pigment epithelium; singlet oxygen; photosensitized oxidation; age-related macular degeneration.
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:04:44 CEST)
Dehydrolutein accumulates in substantial concentrations in the retina. The aim of this study was to compare antioxidant properties of dehydrolutein with other retinal carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, and their effects on ARPE-19 cells. The time-resolved detection of characteristic singlet oxygen phosphorescence was used to compare the singlet oxygen quenching rate constants of dehydrolutein, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The effects of these carotenoids on photosensitized oxidation were tested in liposomes, where photooxidation was induced by light in the presence of photosensitizers, and monitored by oximetry. To compare the uptake of dehydrolutein, lutein, and zeaxanthin, ARPE-19 cells were incubated with carotenoids for up to 19 days, and carotenoid contents were determined by spectrophotometry in cell extracts. To investigate the effects of carotenoids on phototocytotoxicity, cells were exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal or all-trans-retinal. The results demonstrate that the rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching are 0.77x1010, 0.55x1010, and 1.23x1010 M-1s-1 for dehydrolutein, lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Overall, dehydrolutein is similar to lutein or zeaxanthin in protection of lipids against photosensitized oxidation. ARPE-19 cells accumulate substantial amounts of both zeaxanthin and lutein but no detectable amounts of dehydrolutein. Cells pre-incubated with carotenoids are equally susceptible to photosensitized damage as cells without carotenoids. Carotenoids provided to cells together with the extracellular photosensitizers offer partial protection against photodamage. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of dehydrolutein are similar to lutein and zeaxanthin. The mechanism responsible for its lack of accumulation in ARPE-19 cells deserves further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0381.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: singlet correlations; twisted Malus law; EPR-B experiments; local hidden variables; spinning coloured disk model; spinning coloured ball model; simulation models
Online: 29 December 2019 (11:28:25 CET)
The famous singlet correlations of a composite quantum system consisting of two spatially separated components exhibit notable features of two kinds. The first kind consists of striking certainty relations: perfect correlation and perfect anti-correlation in certain settings. The second kind consists of a number of symmetries, in particular, invariance under rotation, as well as invariance under exchange of components, parity, or chirality. In this note, I investigate the class of correlation functions that can be generated by classical composite physical systems when we restrict attention to systems which reproduce the certainty relations exactly, and for which the rotational invariance of the correlation function is the manifestation of rotational invariance of the underlying classical physics. I call such correlation functions classical EPR-B correlations. It turns out that the other three (binary) symmetries can then be obtained "for free": they are exhibited by the correlation function, and can be imposed on the underlying physics by adding an underlying randomisation level. We end up with a simple probabilistic description of all possible classical EPR-B correlations in terms of a "spinning coloured disk" model, and a research programme: describe these functions in a concise analytic way.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0363.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Photochemistry; Photophysics; Coordination Chemistry; Metal atom effect; Photodynamic Therapy; Triplet Photosensitizer; Dipyrrinato Complexes; Singlet Oxygen Generation; Triplet-triplet Annihilation; Heavy atom effect.
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:14:36 CEST)
Within this work we review the metal coordination effect on the photophysics of metal dipyrrinato complexes. Dipyrrinato complexes are promising candidates in the search for alternative transition metal photosensitizers for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). These complexes can be activated by irradiation with light of a specific wavelength, after which cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The metal coordination allows for the use of the heavy atom effect, which can enhance the triplet generation necessary for generation of ROS. Additionally, the flexibility of these complexes for metal ions, substitutions and ligands allows the possibility to tune their photophysical properties. A general overview of the mechanism of photodynamic therapy and the properties of the triplet photosensitizers is given, followed by further details of dipyrrinato complexes described in the literature that show relevance as photosensitizers for PDT. In particular, the photophysical properties of Re(I), Ru(II), Ir(III), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), Zn(II), Ga(III), In(III), Al(III), Sn(II), and P dipyrrinato complexes are discussed. The potential for future development in the field of (dipyrrinato)metal complexes is addressed and several new research topics are suggested throughout this work. We propose that significant advances could be made for heteroleptic bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) and homoleptic bis(dipyrrinato)palladium(II) complexes and their application as photosensitizers for PDT.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Si micro- and nanoparticles; optically induced dynamic nuclear polarization; optical spin orientation; nuclear spin hyperpolarization; photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen; magnetic resonance imaging; diagnostics and therapy of cancer
Online: 21 June 2020 (10:37:30 CEST)
The present overview of spin-dependent phenomena in nonmagnetic semiconductor microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) with interacting nuclear and electron spins is aimed at covering a gap between the basic properties of spin behavior in solid-state systems and a tremendous growth of the experimental results on biomedical applications of those particles. The first part of the review represents modern achievements of spin-dependent phenomena in the bulk semiconductors from the theory of optical spin orientation under indirect optical injection of carriers and spins in the bulk crystalline silicon (c-Si) – via numerous insightful findings in the realm of characterization and control through the spin polarization – to the design and verification of nuclear spin hyperpolarization in semiconductor MPs and NPs for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics. The second part of the review is focused on the electron spin-dependent phenomena in Si-based nanostructures, including the photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen in porous Si and design of Si NPs with unpaired electron spins as prospective contrast agents in MRI. The experimental results are analyzed by considering both the quantum mechanical approach and several phenomenological models for the spin behavior in semiconductor/molecular systems. Advancements and perspectives of the biomedical applications of spin-dependent properties of Si NPs for diagnostics and therapy of cancer are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0294.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Dimeric copper(I) complexes; PN phosphine ligands; X-ray structures; Combined thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and phosphorescence; Combined singlet and triplet harvesting; High emission quantum yields; Tunability of photophysical properties; Zero-field splitting (ZFS), Spin-lattice relaxation (SLR); Triplet substate decay components.
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:41:01 CEST)
We present an overview over eight brightly luminescent Cu(I) dimers of the type Cu2X2(PN)3 with X = Cl, Br, I and P^N = 2-diphenylphosphino-pyridine (Ph2Ppy), 2-diphenylphosphino-pyrimidine (Ph2Ppym), 1-diphenylphosphino-isoquinoline (Ph2Piqn) including three new crystal structures (Cu2Br2(Ph2Ppy)3, 1-Br, Cu2I2(Ph2Ppym)3, 2-I, and Cu2I2(Ph2Piqn)3, 3-I). However, we mainly focus on their photo-luminescence properties. All compounds exhibit combined thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and phosphorescence at ambient temperature. Emission color, decay time, and quantum yield varies over large ranges. For deeper characterization, we select Cu2I2(Ph2Ppy)3, 1-I, showing a quantum yield of 81 %. DFT and SOC-TDDFT calculations provide insight into the electronic structures of the singlet S1 and triplet T1 states. Both stem from metal+iodide-to-ligand charge transfer transitions. Evaluation of the emission decay dynamics, measured from 1.2 ≤ T ≤ 300 K, gives ∆E(S1-T1) = 380 cm-1 (47 meV), a transition rate of k(S1→S0) = 2.25×106 s-1 (445 ns), T1 zero-field splittings, transition rates from the triplet substates, and spin-lattice relaxation times. We also discuss the interplay of S1-TADF and T1-phosphorescence. The combined emission paths shorten the overall decay time. For OLED applications, utilization of both singlet and triplet harvesting can be highly favorable for improvement of the device performance.