REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: demand prediction, energy systems; machine learning; artificial neural network (ANN); support vector machines (SVM); neuro-fuzzy; ANFIS; wavelet neural network (WNN); big data; decision tree (DT); ensemble learning; hybrid models; data science; deep learning; renewable energies; energy informatics; prediction; forecasting; energy demand
Online: 14 May 2019 (14:00:40 CEST)
Electricity demand prediction is vital for energy production management and proper exploitation of the present resources. Recently, several novel machine learning (ML) models have been employed for electricity demand prediction to estimate the future prospects of the energy requirements. The main objective of this study is to review the various ML models applied for electricity demand prediction. Through a novel search and taxonomy, the most relevant original research articles in the field are identified and further classified according to the ML modeling technique, perdition type, and the application area. A comprehensive review of the literature identifies the major ML models, their applications and a discussion on the evaluation of their performance. This paper further makes a discussion on the trend and the performance of the ML models. As the result, this research reports an outstanding rise in the accuracy, robustness, precision and the generalization ability of the prediction models using the hybrid and ensemble ML algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0180.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; smart cities; IoT; deep learning; big data; soft computing; sustainable urban development; building energy; energy demand and consumption; sustainable cities
Online: 17 August 2019 (04:11:44 CEST)
Building energy consumption plays an essential role in urban sustainability. The prediction of the energy demand is also of particular importance for developing smart cities and urban planning. Machine learning has recently contributed to the advancement of methods and technologies to predict demand and consumption for building energy systems. This paper presents a state of the art of machine learning models and evaluates the performance of these models. Through a systematic review and a comprehensive taxonomy, the advances of machine learning are carefully investigated and promising models are introduced.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0179.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: biofuels; deep learning; big data; machine learning models; biodiesel
Online: 17 August 2019 (03:48:28 CEST)
Biofuels construct an essential pillar of energy systems. Biofuels are considered as a popular resource for electricity production, heating, household, and industrial usage, liquid fuels, and mobility around the world. Thus, the need for handling, modeling, decision-making, demand, and forecasting for biofuels are of utmost importance. Recently, machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques have been accessible in modeling, optimizing, and handling biofuels production, consumption, and environmental impacts. The main aim of this study is to review and evaluate ML and DL techniques and their applications in handling biofuels production, consumption, and environmental impacts, both for modeling and optimization purposes. Hybrid and ensemble ML methods, as well as DL methods, have found to provide higher performance and accuracy in modeling the biofuels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0152.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: deep learning; machine learning model; convolutional neural networks (CNN); recurrent neural networks (RNN); denoising autoencoder (DAE); deep belief networks (DBNs); long short-term memory (LSTM); review; survey; state of the art
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:32:09 CEST)
Deep learning (DL) algorithms have recently emerged from machine learning and soft computing techniques. Since then, several deep learning (DL) algorithms have been recently introduced to scientific communities and are applied in various application domains. Today the usage of DL has become essential due to their intelligence, efficient learning, accuracy and robustness in model building. However, in the scientific literature, a comprehensive list of DL algorithms has not been introduced yet. This paper provides a list of the most popular DL algorithms, along with their applications domains.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: biogas; chemical kinetics; anaerobic digestion; modelling
Online: 1 November 2019 (11:18:40 CET)
The kinetics of biogas production from biomass depends on several factors such as: carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), reactor temperature (T), and retention time (RT). The purpose of this study was to obtain a new model for predicting biogas production. Spent Mushroom Compost (SMC) was used to produce biogas in a batch type reactor. The experiments were carried out with different C/N ratios (12.1, 20, 30 and 40) and in both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures. The results showed that the Maximum biogas production at 35°C, C/N=20 was equal to 41.9 mL/gVS and 55°C, C/N=30 was equal to 51.6 mL/gVS. By using experimental data, a new kinetic model was proposed to predict biogas production. Comparing the values of the results indicate that the total values of RMSE for Logistics, Gampartz and new kinetic models was 0.1906, 0.1830 and 0.1617, respectively. Therefore, the process of anaerobic digestion of biomass can be assumed to be just a chemical reaction, and the new kinetic model is an appropriate alternative to microbial growth models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0166.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; big data; hydrology; climate change; global warming; hydrological model; earth systems
Online: 15 August 2019 (05:50:48 CEST)
Artificial intelligence methods and application have recently shown great contribution in modeling and prediction of the hydrological processes, climate change, and earth systems. Among them, deep learning and machine learning methods mainly have reported being essential for achieving higher accuracy, robustness, efficiency, computation cost, and overall model performance. This paper presents the state of the art of machine learning and deep learning methods and applications in this realm and the current state, and future trends are discussed. The survey of the advances in machine learning and deep learning are presented through a novel classification of methods. The paper concludes that deep learning is still in the first stages of development, and the research is still progressing. On the other hand, machine learning methods are already established in the fields, and novel methods with higher performance are emerging through ensemble techniques and hybridization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0154.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; smart cities; urban sustainability; cities of future; internet of things (IoT); data science; big data
Online: 13 August 2019 (10:00:34 CEST)
Deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML) methods have recently contributed to the advancement of models in the various aspects of prediction, planning, and uncertainty analysis of smart cities and urban development. This paper presents the state of the art of DL and ML methods used in this realm. Through a novel taxonomy, the advances in model development and new application domains in urban sustainability and smart cities are presented. Findings reveal that five DL and ML methods have been most applied to address the different aspects of smart cities. These are artificial neural networks; support vector machines; decision trees; ensembles, Bayesians, hybrids, and neuro-fuzzy; and deep learning. It is also disclosed that energy, health, and urban transport are the main domains of smart cities that DL and ML methods contributed in to address their problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0173.v1
Subject: Keywords: ANFIS; Bilayered neural network; diffusion phenomena; diffusion of molecules; machine learning
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:50:57 CEST)
The diffusion of molecules in aqueous solutions in the domain of membrane technology is very critical in the efficiency of chemical engineering and purification processes. In this study, the diffusion in high and low concentration regions is simulated with finite difference method (FDM), and then the results of numerical computations are coupled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and bilayered neural network method (BNNM). Machine learning approach can individually predict diffusion phenomena across the domain based on understanding of the machine instead of the discretization of an ordinary differential equation (ODE). The findings of the machine learning method are in good agreement with those of FDM at different times of the simulation. In addition to numerical computation, the error of the system is computed for different iterations. The results show that by increasing the number of iterations and training datasets, all errors reduce significantly for both training and testing. BNN method is also used to train the prediction process of diffusion for a more accurate comparison. This technique is similar to ANFIS method in terms of prediction capability. According to the findings, ANFIS approach predicts diffusion slightly better than BNN method. In this regard, ANFIS technique produces R>0.99 while BNN method produces R around 0.98. Both machine learning methods are accurate enough to predict diffusion throughout the domain for different time steps. The computational time for both algorithms is less than that of FDM method to predict low and high concentrations in the domain. Besides, based on the results, artificial intelligence (AI) can find the relationship between inputs and outputs and determine which input has the main influence on the output in this study to optimize the process. As such, future studies can be focused on AI and other methods for faster prediction and optimization processes.