ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0326.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: zero‐point energy; quantized spacetime; static electromagnetic field; gravity field; weak interaction; strong interaction; masses of W and Z; β collapse; quantized Einstein gravity equation
Online: 9 November 2023 (13:40:49 CET)
We propose a new theory beyond the standard model of elementary-particle physics. Employing the concept of a quantized spacetime, our theory demonstrates that the zero-point energy of the vacuum alone is sufficient to create all the fields, including gravity, the static electromagnetic field, and the weak and strong interactions. No serious undetermined parameters are assumed. Furthermore, the relations between the forces at the quantum-mechanics level is made clear. Using these relations, we quantize Einstein’s gravitational equation: Beginning with the zero-point energy of the vacuum, and after quantizing Newtonian gravity equation, we combine the energies of a static electromagnetic field and gravity in a quantum spacetime. Applying these results to the Einstein gravity equation, we substitute the energy density derived from the zero-point energy in addition to redefining differentials in a quantized spacetime. This is how we derive the quantized Einstein gravitational equation without assuming the existence of macroscopic masses. For the weak interaction, by considering plane-wave electron and the zero-point energy, we obtain a wavefunction that represents a β collapse. In this process, from a different point of view than Weinberg-Salam theory, we derive the masses of the W and Z bosons and the neutrino, and we calculate the radius and lifetime of the neutron. For the strong interaction, we previously reported an analytical theory for calculating the mass of a proton by providing a specific linear attractive potential obtained from the zero-point energy, which agrees well with the measurements. In the present study, we further calculate the strong interaction between two nucleons, i.e., the mass of the pi-meson. The resulting calculated quantities agree with the measurements, which verifies our proposed theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1127.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: voltage source; current source; super-condenser; renewable energy; electric power
Online: 15 June 2023 (11:05:16 CEST)
In this study, a new methodology based on the circuit approach is employed to obtain renewable electric energy. Although a voltage source and a current source generate voltage and current, respectively, they work only when they receive electric power, which is the product of voltage and current. However, this paper proposes a circuit with a voltage source, a current source and a super-condenser connected in series, in which the voltage source provides voltage for the current source and the current source provides current for the voltage source. Resultantly, electric power is generated both at the voltage and current sources, and the energy (i.e., the electric power) from the current source is converted to the charging energy in the super-condenser. Herein, we describe the method for charging the super-condenser using a voltage source and a current source. To confirm the abovementioned concept, we conducted experiments, and the energy was successfully produced, with high reproducibility. Finally, the brief mechanism for the energy conversion, a schematic method for reducing the capacitances of stored batteries, and the significance of this study are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0033.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: temperature-independent superconductivity; circuit-approached superconductivity; electron pair; Bose–Einstein condensation; large superconducting energy gap; London equation; Meissner effect; macroscopic wave function; critical current density; negative voltages
Online: 20 March 2023 (06:59:15 CET)
In general, a superconductor has zero resistance, although it requires significant refrigeration or high pressures, which prevents it into practical applications. In other words, solving these issues implies main superconducting researches. This paper describes a new type of superconductivity, which is independent for temperatures and which operates without pressures. The principles of the presented system are as follows:First a voltage source, a current source and a load are connected in series. Then, the voltage of the voltage source is adjusted to balance the voltage of the load. Under this condition, the balance of the two voltages provides a zero voltage between the taps of the current source and the generated current from the voltage source becomes zero because of the internal infinite resistance of the current source. As a result, the electric powers generated by the two sources are zero, and therefore, the load cannot generate Joule heating because of energy conservation. However, the current from the current source (not the voltage source) is not zero; therefore, we can predict that the resistance of the load must be zero. As a theory, we derived a new electric field and transient attractive force, which result in a very short coherence of an electron pair because there is not Coulomb repulsive force due to the existence of the above transient attractive force. Note that both the forces are derived by the Poisson equation, which implies that they cannot compatible. Therefore, the pair combination energy from spins becomes extremely strong, which is not destroyed by the normal heat energy. Moreover, every center-of-mass motion of electron pair results in the Bose-Einstein condensation and the macroscopic wave function, which produces the London equation (i.e., the Meissner effect). Moreover, by introducing the equivalent circuit, this paper conducted numerical calculations. As a result, we could derive numerically zero resistance and responses for additional static magnetic fields as a discharged current. Note that this paper has prepared Appendix section, which provides a guide to reproduce actual experiments and preliminary experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0105.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: high Tc cuprates; macroscopic Boson; many-body interactions; pseudo gap; critical temperature; anomaly metal phase; conservation of angular momentum; attractive force; Cooper pair
Online: 2 February 2023 (11:23:18 CET)
This study describes all the properties of high Tc cuprates by introducing rotating holes that are created by angular momentum conservations on a 2D CuO2 surface, and which have a different mass from that of a normal hole because of the magnetic field energy induced by the rotation. This new particle called a macroscopic Boson describes the doping dependences of pseudo-gap temperature and the transition temperature at which an anomaly metal phase appears and describes the origin of the pseudo-gap. Furthermore, this study introduces a new model to handle many-body interactions, which results in a new statistic equation. This statistic equation describing many-body interactions accurately explains why high Tc cuprates have significantly high critical temperatures. Moreover a partition function of macroscopic Bosons describes all the properties of anomaly metal phase, which sufficiently agree with experiments, using the result from our previous study  that analytically describes the doping dependence of Tc. By introducing a macroscopic Boson and the new statistical model for many-body interactions, this study uncovered the mystery of high Tc cuprates, which have been a challenge for many researchers. An important point is that, in this study, pure analytical calculations are consistently conducted, which agree with experimental data well (i.e., they do not use numerical calculations or fitting methods but use many actual physical constants).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0021.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: quark; linear interactive potential; mass of a proton; spin; quark confinement; pi-meson
Online: 22 August 2022 (15:50:41 CEST)
In this study, we describe quark confinement in terms of linear interaction potentials and solve the problem of the net spin of a proton. The three quarks in a proton are assumed to revolve around a common center, and their masses are determined assuming they are Dirac particles. On the basis of these assumptions, the magnetic moment of a proton can be derived. Moreover, the rotation of the quarks is considered, in which an electrical current induces a magnetic field. Thus, the scalar product of the magnetic moment and field describes the linear interaction potential between the quarks, and the mass of the proton can be obtained. The proton mass predicted by this physical model is consistent with experimental values, and no numerical or fitting calculations are required. Furthermore, using the newly derived spins and angular momentum of the three quarks, we derived the net spin of a proton. Additionally, we predicted the mass of a pi-meson from the same model, which agrees with the experimental values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0227.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: vortices; vortex physics; critical temperature; magnetic flux quantum; critical current density; critical magnetic field; many-body interaction
Online: 4 August 2022 (08:51:33 CEST)
To clarify the relationships among critical temperature, critical magnetic field, and critical current density, this paper describes many-body interactions of quantum magnetic fluxes (i.e., vortices) and calculates pinning-related critical current density. All calculations are analytically derived, without numerical or fitting methods. Afteralculating a magnetic flux quantum mass, we theoretically obtain the critical temperature in a many-body interaction scenario (which can be handled by our established method). We also derive the critical magnetic field and inherent critical current density at each critical temperature. Finally, we determine the pinning-related critical current density with self-fields. The relationships between the critical magnetic field and critical temperature, inherent critical current density and critical temperature, and pinning critical current density and temperature were consistent with experimental observations. From the critical current density and critical magnetic field, we clarified the magnetic field transition. It appears that a magnetic flux quantum collapses when the lattice of magnetic flux quanta melts. Our results, combined with our previously published papers, provide a comprehensive understanding of the transition points in high-Tc cuprates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0269.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Fe-based superconductor; critical temperature; transition temperature; attractive Lorentz force; Tc-dome diagram; structure transition; quantum critical point
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:03:33 CEST)
In this study, Fe-based superconductors (SCs) are described with a model showing a novel attractive force. First, we describe this novel force using an analog from electromagnetism. From electromagnetism, it was found that this force is a Lorentz force in which two electrons orbit around a Fe-ion with the same velocity. Then, we consider a wave function of an electron. Consequently, due to the property of the proposed attractive force and the quantum-field Hamiltonian, we clarified that the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) ground state can be reused. Afterward, attractive force energy was calculated according to the presented model. In Fe-based SCs, a structure transition is essential. Considering that the derived attractive force energy is relatively large, we employ the expanded Tc-equation from the BCS theory that includes the structure transition effect and the derived attractive force energy. In addition, we succeed in analytically reproducing Tc-dome diagrams in various types of Fe-based SCs. Moreover, we discuss the universal property a general SC should have as well as the quantum critical point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0304.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: non-equilibrium superconductivity; EPR-pair superconductivity; Many-body interaction; transition temperature; Lorentz conservations
Online: 17 March 2022 (12:09:08 CET)
In this work, we analytically describe a superconducting transition in a non-equilibrium state taking into account many-body interactions; the obtained transition temperatures indicate the presence of superconductivity at room temperatures.First, we consider many-body interactions and discuss the case of locally thermal equilibrium with many-body interactions; in this section, we derive statistical equations that describe many-body interactions at locally thermal equilibrium state. Then, the same theory is used to derive a many-body statistical equation that is expanded to include the case of non-equilibrium states; in this case a transition temperature is derived. Moreover, a wave function of an Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pair (EPR pair) is calculated according to the Lorentz conservation, and a specific condensation is observed and the Meissner effect is found to be present.Furthermore, considering the Lorentz conservations, relativistic energy, and Boltzmann statistics, algorithms are presented to calculate charge density, current density, and internal local energy. We note that these calculations do not require a specific code but instead utilize the software Microsoft Excel.We present plots showing the charge density and current density vs. the applied electric potential, which demonstrate the practical applicability of the theory. Moreover, internal local energy was found to be close to zero for sufficiently large electric potentials at room temperature.In the discussion section, the universally induced superconducting current is derived, which can be employed as the renewable energy.This paper describes non-equilibrium and EPR-pair type superconductivity, with the complete consideration of many-body interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0072.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Integer quantum Hall effect; Fractional quantum Hall effect; stationary wave; nodes in stationary wave; quantization of electric charge; the plateau of quantized resistivity
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:49:01 CET)
In this paper, using the two integers that describe the stationary 2-dimensional wave and the charge quantization along with the balance between the Lorentz force and electrical force, we succeed in deriving the fractional quantum Hall effect and the integer quantum Hall effect; we find that the latter exists as a special case of the former. Moreover, using the derived expression describing the fractional quantum Hall effect, a relationship between the plateau in the resistivity of the sample and the applied magnetic field is obtained. The findings of this model agree well with experimental measurements. Because the two integers that describe the stationary 2-dimensional wave and the charge quantization along with the force balance have concrete physical meanings in this work, we could provide a clear picture of the origin of both the integer quantum Hall effect and the fractional quantum Hall effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0194.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Artificial magnetic monopole; new electromagnetic equations; superconducting loop; stationary wave; conservation of momentum; Lorentz conservation; magnetic potential; Dirac equation; energy gap in vacuum; pair of two Cooper pairs
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:21:23 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of an artificial magnetic monopole and to introduce new electromagnetic equations by altering an electric field and a magnetic field vectors.As a principle device, a cylindrical condenser is prepared, and a superconducting loop is inserted into it. By this conduction, radial electric fields take a role as the centripetal force and both counterclockwise and clockwise motions are induced. As a result, a stationery wave is formed in which the nodes take a part in creating a monopole as follows.First, employing the Lorentz conservations and because node of the stationary wave has no phases, the momentum k and the vector potential A vanish and instead a magnetic potential appears in order to maintain the Lorentz conservation. This magnetic potential has relationship with an electric potential, and thus consequently, a dependent relationship is obtained between an electric field and a magnetic field vectors. Using this conclusive dependent relationship, we can derive new Maxwell equation assembly which are created by altering the electric field and the magnetic field vectors. In this process, we derive a divergent equation of magnetic fields which is not zero, i.e., the existence of a magnetic monopole. Employing these newly derived Maxwell equation, an electromagnetic wave is derived whose speed is the same as one the existing Maxwell equations provide. As a monopole configuration, this paper discusses the energy gap of the vacuum, which is a result of the Dirac equation and describes a monopole as pairs between two Cooper pairs (i.e. four electrons) whose interaction is a photon. As mentioned, because the total momenta and phases are zero, this paper defines the wave function as the Dirac function and demonstrate the condensation, employing the Bloch’s theorem. Moreover, using the macroscopic basic equations, we retrace the creation of the divergent magnetic field in view of macroscopic phenomenon., which provides results in this paper.In Result section in this paper, we succeeded in demonstrating the distribution of the divergent magnetic field of monopole in terms of both microscopic and macroscopic scales. Furthermore, Discussion section describes properties a magnetic monopole should follow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0577.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: quantum diode; quantum gate element; novel superconductivity; bias current; memorization property; quantum correlation
Online: 17 November 2020 (12:50:24 CET)
Two opposed p–n diodes are connected with another junction that causes cancellation of the electric field in the depletion layer of each diode by the field of the other diode. This derived quantum diode is called the A system. Another dual diode, constructed by the same process but with the p- and n-types positioned as duality, called the B system. When a bias voltage is applied between the A and B systems, Lorentz conservation imparts a momentum (i.e., a wave number) to the carriers in the absence of any internal voltage. Thus, a superconducting bias current density appears without the need for cooling. The reappearances of electron–hole pairs on the junction surfaces are assumed to be described by entire wavefunctions normalized by the band gap. Based on the bias superconducting current, NOT and NAND gates were constructed from the quantum diode systems. Numerical calculations revealed that the constant phases of the entire wavefunctions of the p-and n-types converged. Accordingly, it was clarified that Bose–Einstein condensation and the Meissner effect (described by the London equation) occurred in the quantum diode systems. Moreover, the systems exhibited rectification characteristics and a switching speed of the order of 10-14 s. Combining this switching property with the large bias superconducting current (of the order of several V), we developed NOT and NAND gates with direct quantum correlations among many qubits, which are unaffected by random and thermal noises. These gates have memorization and initialization properties and are compatible with existing and accumulating programing algorithms. Moreover, when harvesting a divergent current output from these systems, the bias superconducting current and memorization property preserve the formed quantum correlations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0462.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: unified field theory; zero-point energy; quantized space–time; quantized Einstein’s gravity equation; conservation of angular momentum in terms of quantized space–times
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:48:03 CEST)
In our previous papers [1,3], using only the concepts of the zero-point energy and quantized space–times, all the fields including gravity were explained. However, the previous papers had the following limitations: First, the concept of the quantized space-time must be experimentally confirmed. Second, we should clarify the meaning of the quantized Einstein’s gravity equation, which is derived in . Moreover, in another paper , we succeeded in describing the neutrinos’ self-energy and their oscillations. However, this paper assumes the rest energy of 3-leptons in advance, which is why we needed to uncover the reason why leptons have 3-generations. As mentioned, using the concepts of the zero-point energy and quantized space–times, we derived the quantized Einstein’s gravity equation in our previous paper . The paper provides an analytical solution of this equalized Einstein’s equation, which implies the conservation of angular momentum in terms of quantized space–times. Employing this solution and without the standard big bang model, a unique form of acceleration equation for the acceleration-expansion universe is derived. Moreover, the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) emission is also obtained. Further, this solution results in an analytical (not numerical) derivation of the gravity wave. Moreover, based on the configuration of quantized space–times in terms of both electric and magnetic fields, we analytically attempted to calculate every equation in terms of electromagnetic and gravity fields, using the solution of the quantized Einstein’s gravity equation. As a result of this theory, first the calculated acceleration and temperature of CMB emission agree with the measurements. Furthermore, the analytical solution of the quantized Einstein’s gravity equation resulted in all the laws of electromagnetic and gravity fields in addition to the analytically derived gravity wave, which agrees well with the recent measurements. Moreover, the calculations of the energies in the basic configuration of the quantized space–times resulted in all 3-leptons’ rest energies. Considering this basic configuration is uniformly distributed everywhere in the universe, we can conclude that τ-particles or static magnetic field energy derived from the basic configuration of the quantized space–times is the identity of dark energy, which also distributes uniformly in the universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: divergent current density; new superconductivity; Meissner effect; new type of condensation; energy generation; electrostatic potential; independent current source; voltage-controlled current source; renewable energy
Online: 16 March 2020 (04:18:23 CET)
Societies around the world face serious energy problems related to the consumption of fossil fuels and the emission of dangerous radiation. To solve these problems, a new superconductor exhibiting a critical temperature higher than room temperature has been pursued but not achieved. This paper proposes a new energy generation system based on a circuit approach. Secondary to this process, a new type of superconductivity without refrigeration is demonstrated. In our previous paper , this system was proposed, but it did not describe the underlying theory in detail and did not mention an actual method to generate energy from the system. The present paper describes the theory of the existence of divergent current density and new superconductivity with no refrigeration. Moreover, the present paper proposes a method for extracting energy from the system by employing a voltage-controlled current source (i.e., a voltage–current converting method).The principle of the system is based on a circuit of two loops and independent current sources. First, the two electric loops are prepared, each with 4 diodes, where the diodes are oriented in the same direction within each loop, but their direction is opposite from loop to loop; four independent current sources connect the loops. In this circuit system, current is added iteratively as it flows along the loop according to Kirchhoff’s circuit law. As a result, a large current and electric potential are present along the loop. To confirm that this system works properly, it is necessary to demonstrate the presence of divergent currents in the transient state, and to do this, the present paper employs the Dirac equation and Lorentz conservation. Electric circuit software is employed to demonstrate that the presented method generates energy actually from our system.Our results confirm the presence of divergent current at a connected point of an independent current source in the transient state. Moreover, in the steady state, the theory demonstrates the Meissner effect (i.e., a London equation) and a new type of macroscopic wave function and condensation. For an initial small input current of 0.1 μA, the simulation reveals a large generating current of 7 kA and electric power of 1011 W, which is much larger than unit of power from an average thermal power station; moreover, the system presents with superconducting electrical transport conditions.The present study is significant because it demonstrates theoretically the existence of divergent current density and a new type of superconductivity requiring no refrigeration. Secondly, the simulations show the generation of a large energy density that can be obtained in a small laboratory room with minimal cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0082.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: current source; diode; divergent current density; new superconductivity type; zero voltage; symmetric electric circuit; Meissner effect; electric potential; vector potential; Lorentz conservation law
Online: 4 July 2019 (17:26:56 CEST)
This paper proposes a method of extracting energy from zero-point energy and evaluates the amount of energy gained. In addition, this electric circuit-based approach exhibits the Meissner effect, suggesting a new type of superconductivity that does not require refrigeration. The proposed method can provide extremely large amounts of energy, which is more than a conventional power station, without consuming fossil fuels or emitting radiation. Thus, it has the potential to solve the global energy problem. It involves preparing two electric loops containing diodes and connecting the loops together with current sources. The diodes are oriented in the same direction within each loop but in opposite directions in different loops. With this setup, the currents from the current sources build iteratively within the loops, resulting in large output currents. Our numerical analysis indicates that extremely large electric potentials are produced, which in turn yield large output currents. In addition, we confirm numerically that the voltage is zero around a loop and show analytically that the Meissner effect is present, proving the existence of a new type of superconductivity. Furthermore, when we introduce induction coils to not break the loop’s symmetry, they store extremely large amounts of energy and we can thus obtain energy from them via discharge currents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: neutrino; neutrino’s flavor; neutrino oscillation; many-body interactions; superconducting energy gap; a quantized space-time; zero-point energy; lepton; Fermi’s golden rule; mass gap
Online: 8 October 2019 (08:47:19 CEST)
We herein described an investigation of a theory, which describes the energies of neutrinos and the source of neutrino oscillations. A series of experiments were conducted to show evidences of the existence a neutrino mass. We also applied theories to explain the reason for the extremely small energy of a neutrino, mainly by employing a vacuum-derived superconducting energy gap from the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer ground state. Moreover, we succeeded in obtaining the transition probabilities of neutrinos’ flavors (i.e., in terms of neutrino oscillation). We focused on the fact that up- and down-quantized space pairs combine by the Lorentz forces, undertake Bose-Einstein condensation, and then create a superconducting energy gap at the energy level of the vacuum with quantum mechanics fluctuation. Eventually, the superconducting energy gap vanishes to form a real body of the neutrino. Furthermore, assuming that the speed of the neutrino is near the speed of light and exhibits Planck’s blackbody emissions, we derived many-body interactions of neutrinos and applied them in Fermi’s golden rule. As a result, the neutrino energy we calculated agreed well within the realms of the experimental results. The calculated transition probabilities of neutrino’s flavor also explain the experiment results very well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0636.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: new superconductivity, condensation state, new electric field, current emission, new type capacitor, Aharonov–Bohm effect, new energy source
Online: 30 November 2018 (15:57:10 CET)
We previously reported new superconductivity produced by an electrostatic field and a diffusion current in a semiconductor without refrigeration. In particular, the superconductivity was investigated theoretically and confirmed experimentally. Here, we determine that the derived superconducting quantum state can be reproduced in a capacitor. When circuits are formed with this new-type capacitor and diodes, a magnetic field is applied to the diodes’ depletion layer. The depletion layer is biased because of the conversion from the magnetic-field energy to electric-field energy, resulting in the diodes’ spontaneously emitting a current. Thus, the new-type capacitor is charged using no other energy source. This new phenomenon is described theoretically with assistance of initial experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0351.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: superlattice, critical current density, stationary wave, magnetic flux quantum, HTS coil
Online: 28 December 2018 (16:05:19 CET)
In the present work, a superlattice structure comprising superconducting and insulator layers is studied. Here, if a magnetic field is applied parallel to the layers, the lack of a pinning center leads to a novel transition; in particular, as the applied magnetic field is reduced, the stationary wave surrounding the magnetic flux quantum in the superconducting layer eventually collides with the superconducting–insulating interfaces on both sides because its radius becomes larger than the width of the superconducting layer. At this instant, the stationary wave will collapse, and a transition will occur: the magnetic quanta are collapsed and thus the uniform magnetic field distribution is achieved, which corresponds to the transition from the superconducting state to the normal state over critical current. Considering a one-dimensional model of the structure, a critical current density equation is derived that indicates an increase in the critical current density for increased applied magnetic field. Subsequently, the same calculation was conducted after changing the direction of the magnetic field component, and the combination of these two calculations expresses the anisotropic property of the structure. The phenomenon is also predicted for anisotropic critical current density. This phenomenon is an important discovery that helps manufacture high-temperature superconducting tape as well as large high-temperature superconducting coils.