ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1932.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: diatoms; diversity; ecology; floristic; comparative floristics; climate; Red List; threatened species; bioindicators; statistical mapping
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:46:54 CEST)
For the water bodies of the Lena Delta Nature Reserve, 413 taxa were known. In 14 small tundra reservoirs in its vicinity, we identified 385 taxa, which in the compilatory list made up a significant diversity (666 taxa including definitions to the genus level) of diatoms. Thus, the species composition of diatoms in the reserve and adjacent territories was replenished by 278 species. The predominance of species of the genera Pinnularia (57) and Eunotia (51) at the family and generic levels was revealed. Index of intraspecific variability Ssp./Sp. for the lakes of the reserve was 1.11, and for the lakes of the Tiksi region 1.14, which is typical for high-latitude and high-mountain communities. The number of rare or endangered species varied in different lakes within 1-10, totaling 42 species for the entire study area. Bioindication has shown that potentially threatened species prefer moderate temperatures, slightly acidic or neutral environments free from organic pollution. A comparative analysis of the species composition of diatoms in the vicinity of the Lena Delta and other northern water bodies of Yakutia and the Arctic Islands showed that the species composition of each lake in the Arctic is strictly individual. The indicator characteristics show a certain response of the species composition of diatoms to changes in salinity, pH, and organic pollution. A number of regularities in the spatial distribution of diatoms in the study area were found in connection with the physicochemical parameters of their habitat, height above sea level, and relation to a particular catchment basin. Statistical mapping of indicators of community and habitat diversity revealed a strong reaction to point one-time pollution and made it possible to assume the influence of summer northeast winds on the species composition. We suggest that the high diversity inherent in the diatom lakes of the Tiksi coastal zone, which can even be replenished in further studies, can be considered as a property of coastal biota inherent in ecotones. Since it is in the coastal Tiksi region that a surge in the number of species is observed, this region can be considered not only an ecotone, but also a hotspot of diatom diversity. The results of the study are important for developing the basis for monitoring biodiversity under the conditions of anthropogenic and climatic changes in the Arctic.