ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0233.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: DENV; Serotypes; Senegal; Spatio-temporal distribution; Genotypes
Online: 9 October 2023 (10:08:42 CEST)
Dengue virus is becoming a major public health threat worldwide principally in Africa. From 2016 to 2020, 23 outbreaks were reported in Africa principally in West Africa. In Senegal outbreak are reported yearly since 2017 ; data about the circulating serotypes and their spatial and temporal distribution are limited to 2017 – 2018 period. Herein we describes up to date molecular surveillance of circulating DENV serotypes in Senegal between 2019 to 2023 and their temporal and spatial distribution around the country. For this purpose collected suspected DENV infections samples were subjected to dengue detection and serotyping using RT-qPCR methods. Positive samples subjected to temporal and spatial mapping. Subset of DENV+ samples were then sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Results show a co-circulation of three DENV serotypes with a overall predominance of DENV-3 followed by DENV-1 with scarce cases of DENV-2 from 02_2019 to 02_2022. Interestingly data shows extinct of both serotype 1 and serotype 2 and the only circulation of DENV-3 from March 2022 to July 2023. At the genotype level analysis shows that sequenced strains belong to same genotype as previously described DENV-1 belong to genotype V, DENV-2 to cosmopolitan genotype and DENV-3 to Genotype III. Interestingly newly obtained DENV 1-3 sequences cluster in different clades within genotypes. This co-circulation of strains belonging to different clades could have effect on virus epidemiology and transmission dynamic. Overall our results highlight DENV serotypes replacement by DENV-3 accompanied by wider geographic distribution in Senegalese regions. All unmentioned results highlight the importance of virus genomic surveillance and call for further fitness studies using both in vitro and in vivo model as well as in depth phylogeographic study to uncover the virus dispersal patterns across the country.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Tinea capitis; Epidemiology; Children; Koranic Schools; Senegal
Online: 15 June 2023 (08:11:19 CEST)
Introduction: Scalp ringworms or Tinea capitis are ubiquitous superficial fungal infections of the scalp and hair. They represent the most common dermatophytic in the world. They reach almost exclusively pre-pubescent children and mainly school-aged children. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of tinea capitis and its associated factors among residents of koranic schools located in the Thiès region of Senegal. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2019 to March 2020. School children living in Thiès region (Central part of Senegal) were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and biological data were collected standard questionary. Samples collected were examined directly and developed on a medium of Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol and Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol-Actidione. A descriptive analysis was done with the Stata MP. Risk factors were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. Significance level of the different tests was 0.05 two-sided. Results: A total of 110 children were included in this study. The mean age was 9 years and the population was predominantly male (96.4%). The average number of residents in Koranic schools was 112. The prevalence of scalp ringworms was 68.2% [(75/110) (95% CI: 53.6 – 85.5)]. The fungal species found were Trichophyton soudanense (93.4%), Microsporum audouinii (2.7%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton violaceum were found with each (1.3%). Parasitism was endothrix-like in 86.7%. Children over 10 years old were more affected (72.9%), OR =2,16, CI (0,48 - 9,69). The rate of positivity was higher in children with small plaques (72.7%). Children with irregular-edged plaques were most affected (76.5%), Prevalence was higher among children who slept at more than 3 per mattress (79.1%), OR=1.82 (95% CI: 1.08 – 3.04). Conclusion: These results showed that Tinea capitis are frequent in children living in community. Trichophyton soudanense is the main fungal specie identified. Better knowledge of the epidemiology of these diseases and improved living conditions for children in Koranic schools could help improve patient management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0275.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: projections; CMIP6; climate; impacts; health; malaria; Malaria; Senegal
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:46:38 CEST)
Malaria is a constant reminder of the climate change impacts on health. Many studies have investigated the influence of climatic parameters on the of malaria transmission. Climate conditions can modulate malaria transmission through increased temperature, which reduces the duration of the parasite's reproductive cycle inside the mosquito. The intensity and frequency of the rainfall modulate the development of the mosquito population. In this study, the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM) is used to simulate the spatio-temporal variation of the malaria incidence in Senegal. The simulations are based on the WATCH Forcing Data applied to ERA-Interim data (WFDEI) used as a point of reference, and biased-corrected CMIP6 models, separating historical and projections for 3 Shared Socio-economic Pathways scenarios (SSP126, SSP245 and SSP585). Our results highlight a strong increase in temperatures, especially towards eastern Senegal under the SSP245 but mainly the SSP585 scenarios. The ability of the LMM model to simulate the seasonality of malaria incidence is assessed. The model reveals a period of high malaria transmission between September and November with a maximum reached in October. Results indicate a decrease in malaria incidence in certain regions of the country for the far future and for the extreme scenario. This study is importance for the planning, prioritization, and implementation of control activities in Senegal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1684.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Seroprevalence; Pregnancy and COVID-19; Senegal
Online: 26 October 2023 (09:09:00 CEST)
This study aims to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women attending antenatal consultations (ANC) in Senegal. A non-redundant consecutive recruitment of participants was carried out between, March and July 2021 during the Delta wave of COVID-19. The plasma samples biobanked at -80°C were subjected to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the qualitative detection of IgG and IgM antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 using the WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA (Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise, Beijing). To assess factors associated with seropositivity, bivariate analysis was per-formed with JMP® Pro Version 15.0.0 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, 1989–2021). For frequencies below 5%, chi2 or Fischer tests were performed. In all cases, significant statistical threshold was set at p-values considered to be less than 0.05. A total of 1,227 pregnant women were recruited in five health facil-ities, including two in Dakar (n=166) and one in each of the following regional capitals: Saint-Louis (n=400), Ziguinchor (n=264) and Kédougou (n=397). The median age among was 25 years [18 - 50]. The overall sero-prevalence observed was 64.9% (797/1227), with higher exposure rates in Dakar with 71.6% (119/166) and Ziguinchor with 68.1% (180/264). Kédougou and Saint-Louis reported 62.9% (250/397) and 62% (248/400), respectively. According to age group, the seroprevalence was 62.6% (331/528), 66.6% (238/357), 63.5% (148/223) and 67.2% (80/119) respectively for [18-23], [24-29], [30-35] and ≥36 years old. This variability in the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 according to the localities was not statistically significant (p=0.7024). We found no association between factors such as recruitment period, age, level of education, marital and pro-fessional status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0805.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: trends; extremes flow; extremes rainfall; Senegal river basin; upper basin
Online: 10 August 2023 (03:58:52 CEST)
This study aims to assess trends and significant changes in precipitation and river flow in the Senegal River basin and its upper basin over the period 1982-2021. Eight hydroclimate indicators, namely maximum river discharge (QMAX), standardized flow index, mean daily rainfall intensity index (SDII), maximum 5-day consecutive precipitation (RX5DAY), annual precipitation exceeding the 95th percentile (R95p), annual precipitation exceeding the 99th percentile (R99P), annual flows exceeding the 95th percentile (Q95p), and annual flows exceeding the 99th percentile (Q95p) were considered.. The modified Mann-Kendall test (MMK) was used to analyze trends in extremes while standard normal homogeneity and Pettit’s tests were employed to detect potential breakpoints in these trends. The results indicated an irregular precipitation pattern, with high values of extreme precipitation indices (R95p, R99p, SDII, and RX5DAY) in the southern part, while the northern part exhibits lower values. Inter-annual analysis revealed a significant increase in extreme precipitation events between 1982 and 2021, with a notable breakpoint around the years 2006 and 2007. This breakpoint marks a transition to a much wetter period starting from 2008. Regarding extreme flows, a significant increase was observed between 1982 and 2021. This study provides insights into past hydrological extremes in the study area and can serve as a basis for future research in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis E; Associated risk factors; Pregnant women; Environment; Prevention; Senegal
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:06:52 CEST)
In West Africa, research on the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is barely covered despite the recorded outbreaks. The still low level of access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one of the main factors of HEV spread in developing countries. HEV infection induces acute or sub-clinical liver diseases with a mortality rate ranging from 0.5 to 4%. The mortality rate is more alarming (15 to 25%) among pregnant women, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. Here, we conducted a multicentric socio-demographic and seroepidemiological survey of HEV in Senegal among pregnant women. A total of 1,227 consenting participants attending antenatal clinics responded to our questionnaire. Plasma samples were collected and tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by using the WANTAI HEV-IgM and IgG ELISA assay. HEV global seroprevalence was 7.9% with 0.5% and 7.4% for HEV IgM and HEV IgG, respectively. One participant's sample was IgM/IgG positive, while four were declared indeterminate to anti-HEV IgM as per the manufacturer's instructions. From one locality to another, the seroprevalence of HEV antibodies varied from 0 to 1% for HEV IgM and from 1.5 to 10.5% for HEV IgG. The data also showed that seroprevalence varied significantly by marital status (p<0.0001), by the regularity of income (p=0.0043) and by access to sanitation services (p=0.0006). These data could serve as a basis to setup national prevention strategies focused on socio-cultural, environmental and behavioral aspects for a better management of HEV infection in Senegal.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue virus; complete genome; Cosmopolitan genotype; Senegal; 2018; Regional diversification
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:56:19 CET)
To assess the genetic diversity of circulating dengue virus 2 in Senegal in 2018 we performed molecular characterization by complete genome sequencing and performing phylogenetic analysis. Sequenced strains belong to Cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 we observed intra-genotype variability leading to a divergence in two clades with differential geographic distribution. We report two variants namely; the “Northern variant” harbouring three nonsynonymous mutations (V1183M, R1405K, P2266T) located respectively on NS2A, NS2B and NS4A and the “Western variant” with two nonsynonymous mutations (V1185E, V3214E) located respectively in the NS2A gene and the NS5 gene. Findings calls for in depth in vitro and functional study to elucidate the impact of observed mutations on viral fitness, spread, epidemiology and disease outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Hepatitis E Virus; seroprevalence; risk factors; mining gold villages; Southeastern Senegal
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:43:05 CEST)
Rapid proliferation of traditional gold mining sites in Kédougou a Southeast region in Senegal, led to mass population migration from the neighboring West African countries and rapid expansion of small mining villages with poor hygiene and sanitation conditions. An outbreak of hepatitis E was reported in 2014 with several cases of febrile jaundice among traditional mine workers. In this study, we analyzed both HEV IgM and IgG seroprevalence and the associated risk factors of infection by testing any suspected case and contacts collected from February 2012 to November 2014. RNA-negative sera from suspected cases and contacts were tested for anti-HEV IgM and anti-HEV IgG. A total of 799 sera were collected from 290 suspected cases, 470 contacts and 39 individuals with missing information. The median age of the cohort study was 19 years (1-88 years) with a male/female sex-ratio of 1.9. We found an overall prevalence of 43.68% (332/760) of anti-HEV IgM and 38.15% (290/760) of anti-HEV IgG sera. Our data provide new insights into the HEV epidemiology and point to the crucial need to estimate the disease’s burden in Kédougou and assess the viral mechanisms driving the disease’s severity in pregnant women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Agro-industry; Ethiopia; oasis wheat; pasta wheat; Senegal River; value chain
Online: 12 April 2019 (11:04:08 CEST)
Durum wheat is an important food crop in the world and an endemic species of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In the highlands of Ethiopia and the oases of the South Sahara this crop has been cultivated for thousands of years. Today, smallholder farmers still cultivate it on marginal lands to assure production for their self-consumption. However, durum wheat is no longer just a staple crop for food security but it has become a major cash crop. In fact, the pasta and couscous industry currently purchase durum grain at prices 10 to 20% higher than bread wheat. Africa as a whole imports over € 4 billion per year of durum grain to provide the raw material for its food industry. Hence, African farmers could obtain a substantial share of this large market by turning their production to this crop. Here, the achievements of the durum breeding program of Ethiopia are revised to reveal a steep acceleration in variety release and adoption in the last decade. Furthermore, the variety release for Mauritania and Senegal is described to show how modern breeding methods could be used to deliver grain yields above 3 t ha-1 in seasons of just 92 days of length and daytime temperatures always above 32°C. This review describes the ability of releasing durum wheat varieties adapted to all growing conditions of SSA, from the oases of the Sahara to the highlands of Ethiopia. This potential area of expansion for durum wheat production in SSA is not linked to any breeding technology, but rather it remains dependent on the market ability to purchase these grains at a higher price to stimulate farmer adoption. The critical importance of connecting all actors along the semolina value chain is presented in the example of Oromia, Ethiopia, and that success story is then used to prompt a wider discussion on the potential of durum wheat as a crop for poverty reduction in Africa.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue; Dengue virus; cosmopolitan genotype; Senegal; Mauritania; Molecular characterization; Full genome sequencing
Online: 16 December 2021 (12:06:07 CET)
Globally 390 millions of people are at risk of dengue infection; over the past 50 years the virus incidence increased thirty-fold. In Senegal, an unprecedented occurrence of outbreaks and sporadic cases was noticed since 2017. In October 2018 an outbreak of DENV-2 was reported in Rosso area in the north of Senegal at the border with Mauritania. Out of the 187 blood specimen samples collected, 27 were positives by qRT-PCR and 8 were serologically positive for DENV IgM. Serotyping using qRT-PCR reveals that isolates were positive for DENV-2. A subset of DENV-2 positives samples was selected and subjected to full genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of 06 nearly completed genome sequences (n= 6) revealed that isolates belong to the cosmopolitan genotype and are closely related to the Mauritanian strains detected between 2017 and 2018 and those detected in many West African countries such as Burkina Faso or Cote d’Ivoire. Our results suggest a transboundary circulation of the DENV-2 cosmopolitan genotype between Senegal and Mauritania and call for a need of coordinated surveillance of arboviruses between these two countries. Interestingly, high level of homology between West African isolates highlights endemicity and call for a set-up of sub-regional viral genomic surveillance which will lead to a better understanding of viral dynamic, transmission and spread across Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Urban resilience, flood resilience programme, robust evaluation, subjective resilience, Senegal, Africa, BACI
Online: 11 June 2018 (16:52:35 CEST)
In the last decade, sub-Saharan African countries have taken various measures to plan for and adapt to floods in order to reduce exposure and its impacts on human health, livelihoods and infrastructure. Measuring the effects of such initiatives on social resilience is challenging as it requires to combine multiple variables and indicators that embrace thematic, spatial and temporal dimensions inherent to the resilience thinking and concept. In this research, we apply a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) evaluation to empirically measure the impacts of the “Live with Water” (LWW) project on suburban households in Dakar, Senegal. We developed a resilience index that combines anticipatory, adaptive and absorptive capacity – considered as structural dimensions – with the concept of transformative capacity – considered as a temporal reconfiguration of the first three dimensions. Our finding let us estimate that the project increased the absorptive and the anticipatory capacities by 10.61% and 4.61%, respectively. However, adaptive capacity remained unchanged. This may be explained by the fact that the programme was more successful in building drainage and physical infrastructures, rather than improving multi-level organisations and strategies to cope with existing flood events. Further flood resilience program should better combine engineering approaches with institutional change and livelihood support to poor urban dwellers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1372.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; sero-epidemiological survey; Polytechnic High School; Senegal
Online: 24 November 2023 (04:12:01 CET)
Cross-sectional survey was conducted to capture the true extent of COVID-19 exposure among students and staff of Polytechnic High School (PHS). Random cluster sampling was carried out between May 19 and August 18, 2022, after the fourth wave of COVID-19 transmission. IgM and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were screened using WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 ELISA assays. Seroprevalence and descriptive statistics were calculated. Moreo-ver, the association between seropositivity and different factors (age, gender, preventive measures comorbidity, and symptoms, etc.) was determined using Logistic Regression. The overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence were 92% and 6.91% respectively. We found a higher IgM seroprevalence in men than women (9.4% vs. 5.6%) and a lower IgM seroprevalence in (18-25) age group compared to (55-65) years. Low compliance with preventive measures was found with a significant IgM seroprevalence depending on non-respect of social distancing (p = 0.008). A total of 70% of participants presented symptoms linked to COVID-19 at the moment of the survey. Results revealed a significant difference according to IgG seroprevalence among participants who declared fa-tigue symptoms 92.06% compared to those who did not 80.39% (p = 0.0027). IgM seropositivity was associated with Body Mass Indice (BMI) categorized (O.R. 0.238, p = 0.043), ethnic group (O.R. 0.723, p = 0.046) and marital status (O.R. 2.399, p = 0.021). Moreover, IgG seropositivity was associated with Chronic sinusitis comorbidity (O.R. 0.238, p = 0.043) and vaccination status (O.R. 4.741, p < 0.001). The majority of students and staff have al-ready been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and confirm the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in PHS at the time of the survey. Our results underline the importance of sero-epidemiological surveys to estimate the real impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in a community and to monitor disparities in antibody response in the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0013.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Groundwater quality; irrigation and drinking water; hydrochemistry; Water Quality Index; geochemical process; Senegal
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:45:43 CET)
Senegal central regions face rainfall deficit combined with scarcity of surface water and poor quality. Populations use groundwater for drinking and irrigation. A Groundwater assessment studiebased on 42 samples aims to determine their quality. Several parameters (TDS, TH, WQI, SAR, RSC, %N, PI, KR and MR) and ion chemistry determined . Samples exhibit an alcaline pH (7.6) and hydrochemical facies mainly Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3. The ionic dominance is Na+ ˃ Ca2+ ˃ Mg2+ ˃ K+ and HCO3- ˃ Cl- ˃ SO42- ˃ NO3- ˃ F-. From TDS and WQI index most of the groundwaters are suitable for drinking. Irrigation quality (based on SAR, %N, RSC, KR, MR) varie from excellent to good water type. Plotting chemical data (USSL salinity & Wilcox diagrams) reveals that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the fields excellent to good and from good to permissible . Natural processes (rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange) control groundwater quality. As the region faced a persistent rainfall deficit combine with fragile groundwater quality should alert the stakeholders. A sustainable development of the region can be faced if strong measures are planned to follow water quality evolution and quantity available for human purposes
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: deep learning; U-Net; semantic segmentation; schistosomiasis; aquatic vegetation; Neglected Tropical Diseases; Senegal River Basin
Online: 24 February 2022 (07:38:13 CET)
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of poverty that affects more than 200 million people worldwide, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and is clearly associated with the construction of dams and water resource management infrastructure in tropical and subtropical areas. Changes to hydrology and salinity linked to water infrastructure development may create conditions favorable to the aquatic vegetation that is suitable habitat for the intermediate snail hosts of schistosome parasites. With thousands of small and large water reservoirs, irrigation canals, and dams developed or under construction in Africa, it is crucial to accurately assess the spatial distribution of high-risk environments that are habitat for freshwater snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in rapidly changing ecosystems. Yet, standard techniques for monitoring snails are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and provide information limited to the small areas that can be manually sampled. Consequently, in low-income countries where schistosomiasis control is most needed, there are formidable challenges to identify potential transmission hotspots for targeted medical and environmental interventions. In this study, we developed a new framework to map the spatial distribution of suitable snail habitat across large spatial scales in the Senegal River Basin by integrating satellite data, high-definition, low-cost drone imagery, and an artificial intelligence (AI)-powered computer vision technique called semantic segmentation. A deep learning model (U-Net) was built to automatically analyze high-resolution satellite imagery to produce segmentation maps of aquatic vegetation, with a fast and robust generalized prediction that proved more accurate than a more commonly used random forest approach. Accurate and up-to-date knowledge of areas at highest risk for disease transmission can increase the effectiveness of control interventions by targeting habitat of disease-carrying snails. With the deployment of this new framework, local governments or health actors might better target environmental interventions to where and when they are most needed in an integrated effort to reach the goal of schistosomiasis elimination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1825.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Wave climate; WaveWatch III; Wave Climatology; Wave Trends; Remote climatic modes; in-situ data; Atlantic Ocean; Senegalese coast; Senegal
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:19:45 CEST)
Knowledge of wave climate is essential for efficient management of the world's coastal areas. Senegal is a relevant case given its high coastal vulnerability to energetic wave conditions. This study investigates wave climates along the coastal zone of Senegal based on a new high-resolution hindcast covering the period 1980-2021. This study evaluates the average, seasonal and extreme values for the wave significant heights (Hs), periods (Tm02/Tp) and mean directions (DIR). In boreal Winter, the wave climate is dominated by swells coming from the North-Atlantic lows, while in boreal Summer, the Southern Coast (from Dakar to Casamance) is exposed to swells generated in the South-Atlantic Ocean. Throughout their refraction around Dakar Peninsula, NW swells rotate by ~100° from NW to SW, while their Hs is roughly halved when reaching the Southern Coast of Senegal. Over the studied period, trends in Hs are weak (~0.6 cm.decade-1) on the Northern Coast, double on the Southern coast (~1.2 cm.decade-1), mostly due to an increase during boreal Summer (2 cm.decade-1). The wave periods show weak trends (~0.05 s.decade-1) and DIRs show weak counterclockwise rotation (-1°.decade-1). These trends are explained by the main climate modes of the Atlantic Ocean (NAO/EA during Winter, SAM during Summer) and are important for future research and long-term monitoring of the Senegalese Coast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0448.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: onset of the rainy season; offset of the rainy season; length of the rainy season; Kohonen 20 algorithm; hierarchical ascendant classification; Senegal; West Africa
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:30:02 CET)
This study investigates the spatio-temporal variability of the onset, offset, and Length of the rainy season in Senegal over the 1981-2018 period. The onset, offset dates, and length of the rainy season are crucial parameters for agricultural planning in West Africa, which exhibits high interannual and spatial variability in rainfall. The objective is to detect and spatially classify these phenological parameters across Senegal using different approaches. Daily precipitation data from the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset over the study period and ERA5 reanalysis were used. The method of was applied to detect the onset, offset dates, and length of the rainy season. The Kohonen algorithm was then used to spatially classify these parameters on topological maps. A hierarchical ascendant classification was also performed to reduce the number of classes obtained. Finally, a composite analysis of moisture transport before the onset and end of the 1984 and 2007 seasons was conducted with ERA5 data. The results show a meridional gradient of the start of the season, progressively later from southeast to northwest, while the end follows a north-south gradient. The duration of the rainy season ranges from 45 days in northern Senegal to 150 days in the south. The maximum number of dry days also decreases from north to south. The Kohonen self-organizing maps allow spatial prediction of the onset, end date, and duration of the rainy season across Senegal. The dynamics analysis reveals that early onset years are associated with stronger and earlier northward moisture transport over West Africa, underscoring the role of this parameter in triggering the rainy season. These promising results can provide an early warning to policymakers and farmers on the start and end dates of the season in each area of Senegal.