ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-management, type 2 diabetes, immigrants, health systems, chronic diseases, qualitative study, lifestyle change, thematic analysis, socioeconomically disadvantaged, Stockholm
Online: 19 July 2018 (00:44:34 CEST)
Studies comparing provider and patient views and experiences of self-management within primary healthcare are particularly scarce in disadvantaged settings. In this qualitative study, patient and provider perceptions of self-management were investigated in five socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Stockholm. Twelve individual interviews and three group interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interview guides included questions on perceptions of diabetes diagnosis, diabetes care services available at primary health care centers, patient and provider interactions, and self-management support. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes were identified. These were characterized by inherent dilemmas representing confusions and conflicts that patients and providers experienced in their daily life or practice respectively: adopting and maintaining new routines through practical and appropriate lifestyle choices (patients); and balancing expectations and pre-conceptions of self-management (providers). Patients found it difficult to tailor information and lifestyle advice to fit their daily life. Healthcare providers recognized that patients were in need of support to change behavior, but saw themselves as inadequately equipped to deal with the different cultural and social aspects of self-management. This study highlights patient and provider dilemmas that influence the interaction and collaboration between patients and providers with respect to communication and uptake of self-management advice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1434.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: chronic disease; self-management; elder patients; qualitative study
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:52:39 CEST)
Living with a chronic disease involves a variety of daily life limitations that severely affect people in their daily life. Identifying and promoting self-management strategies may improve health outcomes and increase patients’ autonomy. The purpose of the present study was to explore the perceived limitations and self-management strategies of elder patients suffering from chronic diseases. An inductive content analysis was applied, with a purposive sampling of 21 patients living with chronic conditions. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Two main-categories were emerged from content analysis, namely “Limitations of daily life” and “Disease Management”. Physical restrictions and negative feelings were referred to as daily burdens, while scheduling and self-care, supporting environment and technology were related to disease management. Information, training and provision of digital literacy may increase patients' self-efficacy in managing their chronic condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0768.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); non-communicable diseases (NCDs); disease self-management; digital health application; randomized controlled trial; multiple behavior change
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:49:15 CET)
(1) Background: Prevention of acute cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) requires promoting health-protective behaviors (e.g., physical activity) and preventing health-compromising behaviors (sitting). Digital health interventions provide much potential. Based on multiple behavioral change theory, an intervention (reCardial app) was evaluated, and the following hypotheses were tested: H1: Health behaviors (physical activity, sitting) and disease self-management (self-care maintenance, self-care confidence) are closely interrelated. H2: Change in health behaviors and disease self-management indicators over time is more pronounced in reCardial app-users. H3: In the intervention group, changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicate a positive trajectory. (2) Methods: A study with the design of a randomized controlled trial over 12 weeks was conducted. 40 CVD-patients were randomized equally to the Intervention Group (35% women; Mage=60.6years) and Control Group (45% women; Mage=61.5years). (3) Results: Findings support H1 with significant correlations between health behaviors (r=0.45-0.63**), and disease self-management (r=-0.32-0.54**), H2 with Eta²=0.21 (not statistically significant) and H3 partially with d=0.101 for systolic blood pressure but not regarding diastolic blood pressure. (4) Conclusions: Replications are needed with larger samples and more objective measures. The app can help prevent and manage CVD by means of promoting health-protective behaviors and preventing health-compromising behaviors. Taking different behaviors into account can increase intervention effects and with that support of users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus; qualitative research; patient experience; self-management; diabetes care
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:54:04 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes imposes a complex and challenging routine on patients and caregivers. Therefore, considering individual experiences and personal facilitators to promote assertive interventions is crucial. However, no studies have addressed these perspectives in the Brazilian adult population. We aimed to identify psycho-behavioral characteristics perceived as facilitators for coping with the condition. We used a biographical method to conduct semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews for each participant. Transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants (n = 22) were aged 18–57 years (mean: 30.2, standard deviation (SD): 8.7), and the duration since diagnosis was approximately 20.6 years (SD: 4.6). Twelve (54.4%) were women, 13 (59.1%) used insulin pumps, 14 (63.6%) had at least a college degree, and 13 (59.1%) had HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) levels above 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Five major themes emerged: 1) peer learning, 2) ownership, 3) welcoming experiences, 4) equity, and 5) reframe the path (P.O.W.E.R.). All themes appeared in the lived experiences shared by participants with HbA1C levels below 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Improved glycemic control can be achieved, and the challenges encountered in diabetes care within similar socioeconomic contexts can be addressed, by an interdisciplinary care team that takes P.O.W.E.R into consideration when providing person-centered care strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: pediatric patient with T1DM; physical activity; muscle strength exercise; self-rated health
Online: 5 June 2018 (10:00:16 CEST)
Background: Even though a number of studies have verified the positive effect of physical activity (PA) on self-related health (SRH) no previous research has examined this association among pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between regular physical activity (PA) and self-rated health (SRH) in pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who lacked diabetes care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care and were enrolled in a diabetes education program between January 2011 to January 2015 at the endocrinology clinic of Seoul National University Children’s Hospital in South Korea. The eligible participants for this study were 37 pediatric patients with T1DM aged 9 to 17 years. PA was divided into regular PA and muscle strength exercise to analyze the relationship with SRH using binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: The results showed SRH of pediatric patients with T1DM who did not engage in regular PA was significantly lower than those who did (OR in regular PA = .199 [95% CI: .040, .995]; OR in regular muscle strength exercise = .097 [95% CI: .023, .825]). Conclusions: In conclusion, regular PA and muscle strength exercise in pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care were effective in improving their SRH. A systematic plan is required to enhance regular PA for pediatric patients with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; self-management; blood glucose self-monitoring; mobile applications; medically underserved area; health literacy; telemedicine; disease management
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:19:05 CET)
Medically underserved communities have limited access to effective disease management resources in the U.S. Mobile health applications (mHealth apps) offer patients a cost-effective way to monitor and self-manage their condition and to communicate with providers; however, current diabetes self-management apps have rarely included end-users from underserved communities in the design process. This research documents key stakeholder-driven design requirements for a diabetes self-management app for medically underserved patients. Semi-structured survey-interviews were carried out with 97 patients with diabetes and 11 healthcare providers from medically underserved counties in South Texas to elicit perspectives and preferences regarding a diabetes self-management app, and their beliefs regarding such an app’s usage and utility. Patients emphasized the need for accessible educational content and for quick access to guidance on regulating blood sugar, diet, and exercise and physical activity using multimedia rather than textual form. Healthcare providers indicated that glucose monitoring, educational content, and graphical visualization of diabetes data were among the top-rated app features. These findings suggest that specific design requirements for the underserved may improve the adoption, usability, and sustainability of such interventions. Designers should consider health literacy and numeracy, linguistic barriers, data visualization, data entry complexity, and information exchange capabilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: diabetes self-management; family support; glycemic uncontrolled; type 2 DM; systematic review
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:27:28 CEST)
Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing in the wide world. The managing of diabetes care emphasized the self-management education and support into patients’ care and family care. Objective: to review and synthesizes the effectiveness of DSME strategies involving family as a key person to provide social support for diabetes mellitus self-management of glycemic uncontrolled patients Method: Three databases through PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed to assess the relevant articles. The following search terms: “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “family support,” and “glycemic uncontrolled.” We summarized details of family support on self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients for 14 existing studies. Results: A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. Those studies have a heterogeneous of the education strategies, support perceived, follow-ups strategies and outcomes among type 2 DM. Family integration on diabetes self-management education (DSME) has a positive impact on several outcomes including, self-care behaviors, psychological outcomes, self-efficacy and clinical outcomes Conclusions: This systematic review found robust data related to the integration of family support on diabetes self-management among glycemic uncontrolled patients. Consequently, the improvement in outcomes was identified. Implications: The findings suggest model of family engagement is better and needed for sustaining the diabetes care in the long-term care
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes mellitus; obesity; meta-analysis; patient education; self-management; disease management
Online: 13 July 2022 (15:19:53 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis presents a critical synthesis of development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus, qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included into quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in reporting of these outcomes (I2= 88.35%, Q= 317.64), with significant improvement (SMD=0.36, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.49) noted in biomedical outcomes in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (P < 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve health of patients suffering from DM and obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0145.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Requirement Change Management; Methodology; Change Management Process; Software System
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:41:40 CET)
During software development requirement gathering is an important phase. Requirements are the basis of software development. The success or failure of any software depends upon level of understanding developed in requirements. During software development requirements keeps on changing due to different reasons. Hence requirements are such a critical phase that leads to the total project failure. So, to understand the impacts and to identify the conflicts with existing requirements, it is important to manage and analyze the requirements well. Requirement change management is the interest of this paper. Different requirement change management techniques has been discussed in this paper and analyzed them well and finally conclude the results accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0419.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: self-employed; cancer; work; return to work; cancer survivors
Online: 24 February 2023 (04:44:52 CET)
Self-employed individuals comprise around 15% of Canada’s workforce. For those with cancer, frequent functional loss and diminished work ability due to side effects of the disease and its treatment significantly impact their well-being and business vitality. Compared to salaried can-cer survivors, the self-employed experience greater reductions in work hours and up to 48% greater income loss, yet most research addresses the former population. To describe self-employed Canadian cancer survivors’ experiences continuing and returning to work, our quali-tative study examines their strategic efforts to continue working throughout the disease trajecto-ry or return to work post-recovery. Employing an interpretive description approach and an in-terview guide based on a vocational rehabilitation model for cancer survivors, we analyze data from 23 participants—both French- and English-speaking—from six Canadian provinces, with eight different job types and nine different cancer diagnoses. Our constant comparative analysis of the transcribed interviews reveals four major themes and twelve sub-themes: Impact of can-cer on the self-employed function (physical, cognitive, and psychological), on their ability to maintain their business, and financial well-being, and facilitating factors for working with can-cer. Cancer disclosure and non-disclosure were both deemed viable strategies, but ceasing work was not. We thus recommend professional support for self-employed cancer survivors in plan-ning any necessary business modifications to accommodate their condition and cancer treatment to lessen the negative impact of cancer on self and on their business well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: type 2 diabetes; lifestyle behaviors; healthcare provider advice; provider-patient interactions; health care setting; brief lifestyle intervention exposure; diabetes prevention; diabetes management
Online: 15 February 2022 (09:20:36 CET)
Growing evidence suggests that healthcare provider advice may increase tobacco cessation, reduce alcohol use, and improve the adoption of desirable lifestyle behaviors among patients. However, how brief interventions and other provider-patient interactions can shape cumulative adoption of multiple modifiable behaviors is less well studied for diabetes prevention and control. Using weighted internet panel survey data from a large socio-demographically diverse urban population in the United States (n=1,003), the present study describes differences in group characteristics among those who had been “ever diagnosed” with prediabetes/diabetes versus those who had not. It also examines the associations between the cumulative adoption of lifestyle behaviors and each of the following: a) lifetime prediabetes/diabetes diagnosis; b) brief lifestyle intervention exposure (i.e., received provider advice/encouragement); and c) recent provider-patient communication about diabetes. There were several group differences in “ever diagnosed” prediabetes/diabetes status by age, employment status, health status, nutrition knowledge, blood pressure/hypertension diagnosis, and diabetes-related health behaviors (p<0.05). Each of the three provider-patient interactions of interest were positively associated with a higher cumulative sum of adopted modifiable lifestyle behaviors for diabetes prevention and management. Results suggest that provider advice/provider-patient interactions of any type can have a salutary impact on whether individuals with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes will engage in recommended lifestyle behavior modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0263.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Bed management; COVID-19; Emergency Department; Overcrowding; Efficiency; Hospital management
Online: 19 January 2023 (03:45:21 CET)
Overcrowding in the emergency department is a problem that generates several implications for bed management, which is deemed one of a hospital's most critical processes. Effective management of hospital production capacity includes bed management processes, which can be improved in order to leverage hospital performance. Thus, this study sought to understand how bed management works and identify the main factors that influence its management. The study was performed through a case study, with data collected from semi-structured interviews and bibliographic research, which were triangulated. Thematic content analysis of the interviews and cross-analysis were performed. As a result, the main factors that influence hospital Bed management were identified: communication between teams and units; definition of performance goals; decisions shared between units; occupation and discharge planning by the teams; length of stay; the role of the nurses; and COVID-19. The greatest difficulties in the management process are related to these factors. Additionally, suggestions are provided to mitigate such reported difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Self-Evolving, Recurrent Type-2 Fuzzy, Nonlinear Consequent Part, Convergence Analysis, Renewable Energy.
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:57:24 CET)
Not only does this paper present a novel type-2 fuzzy system for identification and behavior prognostication of an experimental solar cell set and a wind turbine, but also it brings forward an exquisite technique to acquire an optimal number of membership functions and the corresponding rules. It proposes a seven-layered NCPRT2FS. For fuzzification in the first two layers, Gaussian type-2 fuzzy membership functions with uncertainty in the mean, are exploited. The third layer comprises rule definition and the forth one embeds fulfillment of type reduction. The three last remained layers are the ones in which resultant left–right firing points, two end-points and output all get assessed correspondingly. It should not be neglected off the nutshell that recurrent feedback at the fifth layer exerts delayed outputs ameliorating efficiency of the suggested NCPRT2FS. Later in the paper, a modern structural learning, established on type-2 fuzzy clustering, is held forth. An adaptively rated learning back-propagation algorithm is extended to adjust the parameters ensuring the convergence as well. Eventually, solar cell photo-voltaic and wind turbine are deemed as case studies. The experimental data are exploited and the consequent yields emerge so persuasive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2085.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: organic food knowledge; attitude toward organic food purchase; subjective norm; organic food purchase intention; organic food purchase self-efficacy; gender; education
Online: 30 August 2023 (12:05:24 CEST)
The objectives of this study are threefold. First, we evaluate the applicability of the information–motivation–behavioral skills (IMB) model for predicting organic food purchase intention (OFPI) in adults with chronic conditions. Second, we examine the indirect effects of organic food knowledge, attitudes toward organic food purchase, and subjective norms on OFPI through self-efficacy. Third, we examine whether these indirect effects are moderated by gender and educational attainment. Data were collected from Indian adults with chronic conditions using a self-administered questionnaire. The results show significant indirect effects of organic food knowledge, attitude toward organic food purchase, and subjective norm on OFPI through self-efficacy. Moreover, the mediating effect of knowledge was moderated by gender and education attainment, with the effect being stronger for females and among individuals with a lower level of education. Organic food marketers, social marketers, and public health agencies promoting organic food consumption to people with chronic conditions should aim to increase their confidence in comprehending organic food. This study contributes to the literature by assessing the applicability of Fisher and Fisher’s (1992) IMB model in understanding behavioral intention toward organic food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0130.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Kenya; COVID-19; community representatives; self-testing; diagnostics; qualitative research
Online: 10 May 2022 (09:38:58 CEST)
Rapid SARS-CoV-2 self-tests have the potential to expand access to COVID-19 testing and improve community-level case detection, particularly in resource-constrained countries such as Kenya. However, prior to their introduction, their acceptability must be assessed. This qualitative study explored key decision-takers’ values towards SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya. Healthcare workers, representatives of civil society, and potential implementors from Mombasa and Taita-Taveta were selected as decision-takers. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data on their values towards self-testing. A thematic analysis approach was applied. Most informants considered that the Kenyan public is equipped to accept and use self-testing safely as an approach to help to reduce workload at public healthcare facilities, and know one’s COVID-19 status in a private manner. The informants emphasized the need to provide counselling to end-users, to support those needing to self-isolate, and to engage different civil society stakeholders in information provision on self-testing. Fear of stigma and of forced isolation were noted as potential deterrents to self-testing uptake for some individuals. In conclusion, there is high acceptability of self-testing in Kenya among decision-takers. However, enhanced education, counselling, and addressing deterrents to testing would be helpful to ensure effective use of SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya.
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Validation; Questionnaire Design; Self-Perception; Diabetes Mellitus; Self Care.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:00:07 CET)
Background: Level of perceived competence as a basic psychological need could trigger achievement of diabetes self-management goals. Due to lack of a specific data collection tool to measure level of self-competence among Persian speaking patients with diabetes this study was conducted for cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of Perceived Competence Scale for Diabetes (PCSD-P). Methods: Standard translation/back-translation procedure was carried out to prepare a preliminary draft of the PCSD-P. Content and face validity of the early draft were checked by an expert panel including 15 scholars in the field of health education and promotion as well as nursing education with experience of working and research on diabetes. The final drafted questionnaire was completed by 177 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on the collected data structural validity of the contrived version was appraised using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA). Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to check the scale’s reliability and internal consistency. ; (3) Results: The estimated measures of Content Validity Index (CVI= 0.95) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR= 0.8) were in the range of acceptable recommended limits. The EFA analysis results demonstrated a single factor solution according to the items’ loadings for the component. The model fit indices i.e. RMSEA= 0.000, CFI=1, TLI=1, GFI= 0.998, NFI= 0.999 RFI= 0.995 confirmed consistency of the hypothesized one-factor solution. Values of the internal consistency and reliability coefficients were also in the vicinity of acceptable range (α= 0.892, ICC=0. 886, P= 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings revealed good internal validity and applicability of the PCSD-P to measure degree of self-competence among Persian speaking type 2 diabetes patients to manage the chronic disease. Due to unrepresentativeness of the study sample future cross-cultural test of PCSD-P on diverse and broader Persian speaking populations is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1449.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: chronic non-communicable diseases; disease management; digital health technologies; technology-based applications; mHealth; mobile apps
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:25:24 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Elders’ needs are rarely examined beforehand, and thus, although technology-based tools can enhance self-management, acceptability rates are still low. This study aimed to examine and compare self-reported needs, priorities, and preferences of elders with heart failure (HF), diabetes mellitus (DM), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) toward technology use to enhance self-management. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 473 participants over 60s (60.5% females), diagnosed with HF (N=156), DM (N=164), or COPD (N=153) was recruited. They were administered a questionnaire about the usefulness of technology in general and in specific areas of disease management. Results: Most participants (84.7%) admitted that technology is needed for better disease management. This was equally recognized across the three groups both for the overall and specific areas of disease management (in order of priority: ‘Information’, ‘Communication with Physicians & Caregivers’, and ‘Quality of Life & Wellbeing’). Sociodemographic differences were found. Cell phones and PCs were the devices of preference. The four common features prioritized by all three groups were related to ‘information about disease management’ (i.e., monitoring symptoms, reminders for medication intake, management and prevention of complications), whereas the fifth one was related to ‘communication with physicians and caregivers (i.e., in case of abnormal or critical signs). The top disease-specific feature was also monitoring systems (of respiratory rate or blood sugar or blood pressure, oxygen), whereas other disease-specific features followed (i.e., maintaining normal weight for HF patients, adjusting insulin dose for DM patients, and training on breathing exercises for COPD patients). Conclusions: Elders in these three samples seem receptive to technology in disease management. mHealth tools, incorporating both common and disease-specific features and addressing different chronic patients, and being personalized at the same time, could be cost-saving and useful adjuncts in routine clinical care to improve self-management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0909.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: psychological changes; self esteem; resilliance; Nurses
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:56:08 CEST)
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) almost ceased to spread across the globe, but post Covid psychological experiences are rarely documented. It is essential to understand the individual psychological needs and challenges regarding working during the covid-19 pandemic and resilience and psychological health to continuing work in the aftermath of this crisis. Objective To explore the psychological transformation of staff nurses after COVID-19 Methods A phenomenological and purposive sampling approach was employed. Registered nurses working at the largest health organization in Qatar includes 14 health facilities were invited to participate in this study. 17 nurses who were working in the facilities and were deployed during the first, second and third wave of Covid 19 participated in the interview. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews using quarantine measures. The interview data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results The psychological transformation of participants was summarized into three themes fear zone, Learning zone and growth zone. These themes were classified into 10 sub-themes Fear and anxiety, Influence of media and news, Frequent change in policies and guidelines were the fear zone factors .Secondly Coping mechanism, teamwork, establishing compassionate care, social acceptance, personal and professional benefits helps them learn psychologically. Thirdly growth factors such as confident & resilient, Sense of purpose and Change life perception and meaning Conclusion Working during COVID-19 imposed many challenges on nurses such as workload and stress. However, the different waves of the pandemic may increase the resilience, confidence and life meaning in nurses. Their previous experiences in handling difficult situations during the pandemic may make the nurses become more confident in dealing with stressful situations and working under pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0012.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Project Management; Artificial Intelligence (AI); Project Schedule Management; Project Cost Management; Project Risk Management
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:34:59 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to study the main areas in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) will impact the field of project management that relates to cost, risk and scheduling. The research model was based on a previous study of the ten project management knowledge areas presented in the PMI’s PMBOK 6th edition where project schedule-, cost- and risk management knowledge areas were identified as being the ones most likely to be affected by the development of AI. A group of experts that participated in the study agreed that AI will affect the project management profession in the future. Different elements of the three knowledge areas were considered to be affected more by AI than others. The schedule baseline is the element believed to be affected the most out of the project schedule management elements. For project cost management, the estimation of resource cost is believed to be affected the most. In the case of project risk management, the application of AI will have the strongest impact on the probability and impact format.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; demand-side management; hybrid power system; micro grid; renewable energy resources; supply-side management
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:18:48 CEST)
Sources are classified into two depending upon the factor of reviving. These sources, which cannot be revived into their original shape once they are consumed, are considered as nonrenewable energy resources, i.e., (coal, fuel) Moreover, those energy resources which are revivable to the original condition even after being consumed are known as renewable energy resources, i.e., (wind, solar, hydel) Renewable energy is a cost-effective way to generate clean and green electrical energy Now a day’s majority of the countries are paying heed to energy generation from RES Pakistan is mostly relying on conventional energy resources which are mostly nonrenewable in nature coal, fuel is one of the major resources, and with the advent of time their prices are increasing on the other hand RES have great potential in the country with the deployment of RES greater reliability and an effective power system can be obtained In this thesis, a similar concept is being used and a hybrid power system is proposed which is composed of intermixing of renewable and nonrenewable sources The Source side is composed of solar, wind, fuel cells which will be used in an optimal manner to serve load The goal is to provide an economical, reliable, uninterruptable power supply. This is achieved by optimal controller (PI, PD, PID, FOPID) Optimization techniques are applied to the controllers to achieve the desired results. Advanced algorithms (Particle swarm optimization, Flower Pollination Algorithm) will be used to extract the desired output from the controller Detailed comparison in the form of tables and results will be provided, which will highlight the efficiency of the proposed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0606.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: tinnitus; acupressure; self-help; ecological momentary assessment; stress
Online: 9 August 2021 (11:45:41 CEST)
Tinnitus is a phantom sound perception in the ears or head and can arise from many different medical disorders. Currently, there is no standard treatment for tinnitus that reliably reduces tinnitus. Individual patients reported that acupressure at various points around the ear can help to reduce tinnitus, which was investigated here. With this longitudinal observational study, we report a systematic evaluation of auricular acupressure on 39 tinnitus sufferers, combined with a self-help smartphone app. The participants were asked to report about tinnitus, stress, mood, neck and jaw muscle tensions twice a day using an ecological momentary assessment study design for six weeks. On average, 123.6 questionnaires per person were provided and used for statistical analysis. The treatment responses of the participants were heterogeneous. On average, we ob-served significant negative trends for tinnitus loudness (Cohen’s d effect size: -.861), tinnitus dis-tress (d = -.478), stress (d = -.675), and tensions in the neck muscles (d = -.356). Comparison with a matched control group revealed significant improvements for tinnitus loudness (p = .027) and self-reported stress level (p = .003). The positive results of the observational study motivate fur-ther research including a randomized clinical trial and long-term assessment of the clinical im-provement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0029.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Sleep tracking; Context aware recommender system; Quantified self; Personal informatics; Ubiquitous computing; Mobile computing; mHealth; CBI-I
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:34:09 CEST)
The practice of quantified-self sleep tracking is increasingly common nowadays among healthy individuals as well as patients with sleep problems. However, existing sleep-tracking technologies only support simple data collection and visualization, and are incapable of providing actionable recommendations that are tailored to users' physical, behavioral and environmental context. Here we coined the term context-aware sleep health recommender system (CASHRS) as an emerging multidisciplinary research field that bridges ubiquitous sleep computing and context-aware recommender systems. In this paper, we presented a narrative review to analyze the type of contextual information, the recommendation algorithms, the context filtering techniques, the behavior change techniques, the system evaluation, and the challenges in peer-reviewed publications that meet the characteristics of CASHRS. Analysis results identified current research trends, the knowledge gap, and future research opportunities in CASHRS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0615.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building management system; Smart building; Energy consumption management; Demand response management; Energy consumption optimization
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:19:32 CEST)
Considering the increasing rate of energy consumption and its environmental detrimental effects, as well as considering the use of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, energy management issues have become more important. Given the 40% share of the building industry's total energy consumption, as well as the 80% share of energy consumed during the operation period, attention to the areas of energy management and optimization during the operation period of the buildings can have a major impact on buildings’ energy performance. In this research, through identifying building energy management tools and studying previous studies and assessing the effects of building energy management systems, the economic and environmental impacts of using building energy management systems on the annual energy consumption in an office building in Tehran as a case study has been investigated. The results indicate a 32 percent reduction in energy consumption and a significant reduction in the release of the environmental pollutants in smart mode compared to the base mode. Moreover, considering the social costs associated with the emitted pollutants as well as the return period, it has been attempted to identify the factors contributing to the economic justification of using smart heating and cooling systems. According to the results, the use of smart energy management systems can be considered as an effective step in optimizing and managing energy consumption in the construction sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: engineering procurement and construction project (EPC); project management; design changes; infrastructure development projects; construction management; New Zealand
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:06:44 CEST)
Design changes seem inevitable in engineering, procurement and construction EPC projects. Such changes create a need for a proactive approach to adjusting project scope, cost and time (the triple constraints) for efficiency and effectiveness in overall delivery. This study investigates the causes and implications of design changes in order to improve design change management practices. Data for the study was obtained through online interviews with New Zealand industry practitioners. Thematic analysis was used to collate the results into meaningful data. The study found that design changes were predominantly caused by clients' inadequate strategic planning, insufficient attention to design, EPC contractors' inadequate design ability, and on-site variations. There were three categories of such design changes: direct impact on the project, the reciprocal and complementary effect on stakeholders, and the far-reaching impact on the community. The study concludes by suggesting improvements, such as strengthening the integration of project teams to enhance design quality, strategic alignment of stakeholders at the planning stage, early contractor involvement (ECI) between the planning and design phases, and improving collaboration between design and construction teams. Further, a combination of high technical skills (e.g. design ability) and soft skills (can-do attitude, interpersonal skills, problem-solving skills, documentation skills, etc.) are needed to effect the desired improvement in design change management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0407.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: big data analytics; healthcare; data technologies; decision making; information management; EHR
Online: 31 March 2022 (12:24:19 CEST)
Big data analytics tools are the use of advanced analytic techniques targeting large and diverse volumes of data that include structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data from different sources and in different sizes from terabytes to zetabytes. The health sector is faced with the need to generate and manage large data sets from various health systems, such as electronic health records and clinical decision support systems. This data can be used by providers, clinicians, and policymakers to plan and implement interventions, detect disease more quickly, predict outcomes, and personalize care delivery. However, little attention is paid to the connection between big data analytics tools and the health sector. Thus, a systematic review of the bibliometric literature (LRSB) was developed to study how the adoption of big data analytics tools and infrastructures will revolutionize the healthcare industry. The review integrated 77 scientific and/or academic documents indexed in SCOPUS presenting up‐to‐date knowledge on current insights on how big data analytics technologies influence the healthcare sector and the different big data analytical tools used. The LRSB provides findings related to the impact of Big Data analytics on the health sector by introducing opportunities and technologies that provide practical solutions to various challenges.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0910.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; undergraduates; self-time management; behavior; values
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:33:13 CEST)
This study is a two-phase hybrid study on the behavioral activities of undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. A questionnaire survey of students during the whole school period and a semistructured interviews with 13 undergraduates of different majors were conducted. First, we found that compared with primary and secondary school students, undergraduates showed many problems with self-time management. Second, the behavior of undergraduates at home may result from multiple factors, such as past experience, professional identity and behavioral habits. When secondary school provided a relatively relaxed learning environment or secondary school teachers placed more emphasis on continuous effort, and when students had a strong sense of the social value of their undergraduate major, students worked harder and achieved more during the pandemic. Otherwise, it was easier for students to slack off and be passive during the pandemic. Altogether, this study deepens our understanding of undergraduates' self-management of free time, and the differences in the values underlying different behaviors and the formation process of various behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0080.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes mellitus; Insulin; Diabetes management; Technology; Continuous glucose monitoring systems; Insulin pumps
Online: 1 June 2023 (11:07:07 CEST)
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM) occurs when insulin is not produced in the Pancreas due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells. The patients may be diagnosed after 80-90% of the beta cells are destroyed. Insulin remains the essential medicine in T1DM management, under continuous monitoring of glucose levels. T1DM management consists of a complex and precise set of self-care measures for the entire life; during this continuous process, the patients could become overwhelmed, angry, anxious, frustrated, and/or discouraged. Therefore, to be widely used and provide general benefits, new technologies for DM management must provide clinical advantages without compromising safety. The compliance of T1DM patients is also essential, thus improving their quality of life (QoL). Moreover, the accessibility of the new system for patients through healthcare coverage is critical; they must be able to buy the new devices and accessories and pay for their maintenance. In this context, our work aims to describe the most recent technologies regarding continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems, correlated with psychosocial impact and capacity to improve T1DM patients' life quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0330.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: integration; climate change; sustainable forest management; information and communication technology; sustainable development goals; systems thinking approach
Online: 20 February 2023 (08:03:25 CET)
The 2030 global agenda of the United Nations emphasizes peace, human rights, gender equality, partnership, and women's empowerment. It balances the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The SDG framework was designed to be integrated and indivisible, making the interconnections of 17 Goals and 169 Sustainable Development Goals Targets (SDTs) more complex that need extensive and intensive investigative research. Recent studies have increased on the interrelationships of SDGs, but none of these have focused on integrating Climate Change (CC), Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT), also known as CSI Nexus. This study aims to investigate and identify the 169 SDTs linked to CC, SFM, and ICT and assesses the significance of the relationships between these variables. The alignment of SDTs to CSI Nexus was identified through clustering and mapping techniques. The result argued that 56 SDTs are directly connected within CC+SFM+ICT, 16 within CC+SFM, one within SFM+ICT, and 51 within ICT+CC. Our result suggests that CC is significantly associated with SFM; however, ICT has no significant association with CC and SFM. It further asserts that the ICT and SFM have minimal influence on the SDG 2030 framework. The proposed CSI Nexus and SDTs Integration Framework was a science-informed guide for priority-setting, policy coherence, and decision-making supporting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. This study does not include interactions, network analysis and visualization, simulations, and modeling between SDG targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: large scale systems; risk assessment; risk management techniques; risk mitigation
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:14:12 CET)
Risk assessment management have been a hot topic for the researchers since a very long time. Software risk management is an important part of project management as it contains the identification, analysis, estimation and monitoring of different risks present in the system. This helps developers in decision making while assessing the problems that could arise in the software systems. Risk management is very complex in large scale system as these systems have very complex development. The paper describes risk management techniques for large scale system. Furthermore we have provided a detailed comparative analysis of these techniques with commonly identified risks in software systems and have provided a systematic order for risk management process to ensure risk mitigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0694.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Behavior Management; Scopus; VOSViewer
Online: 11 July 2023 (08:30:18 CEST)
Purpose: This study's objective was to examine international research trends in behavior management that had been written about in journals that were indexed by Scopus and authored by scientists from all around the world.Patients and methods: We examined publications in the Scopus database using bibliometric and content analysis. We only retrieved English-language articles. The VOSviewer program was used for content analysisResults: We found 808 papers on behavior management during the previous 50 years by following the study strategy. The study concentrated more on authors, nations, institutions, journals, documents, and keywords, as well as the annual scientific production (classification by subject area and document type)Conclusion: The finding prompts a discussion regarding behavior management for next research.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: self-care; self-care monitoring; quality of life; stoma care; health promotion; nurse – patient interaction
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:32:17 CET)
The current article examined stoma self-care and health-related quality of life in patients with drainage enterostomy, describe clinical and sociodemographic variables and analyze the relations between all of them. Trained interviewers collected data using a standardized form that queried sociodemographic and clinical variables, collected from the electronic medical record, in addition to the Specific Self-Care for Ostomized Patients Questionnaire (CAESPO) and Stoma Quality of life (S-QoL) from January 2016 to January 2017. This was a multicenter, cross sectional study conducted in four hospitals of the province of Castellon (Spain) where 120 participants were studied. Significant differences were found in Self Care according to sex (p = .043); married participants show higher score (p < .01); also, significant differences according to work activity were observed (p < .01). Regarding the clinical variables, differences were observed according to the autonomy of care, the presence of complications in the stoma, the use of irrigation and the type of effluent (p < .01). We can highlight the importance of the skills related to self-care by ostomized patients has for a good level of quality of life related to health. In this learning process, the figure of the stoma therapist plays a very important role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Self-Regulation Therapy; coping strategies; emotionality; drugs
Online: 7 September 2021 (17:01:06 CEST)
Background: This study consists of a brief psychological intervention, which uses the Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT, procedure based on suggestion and classical conditioning), to improve coping with stress and emotionality by reproducing the positive effects of illegal drugs: cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy. Method: 15 volunteers (8 males, 7 females), with a mean age of 24.67 (SD = 4.43), underwent intervention to improve their coping with stress and emotionality using SRT. They carried out pre- and post-intervention scores for 10 days and during a 4-week fol-low-up. The employed instruments were: COPE (Coping Skills Inventory) and PNAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Results: SRT was superior to non-intervention for the 4 coping strategies (2= .829, .453, .411 and .606) and for positive (2= .371) and negative emotionality (2= .419). An improvement in scores was evidenced in the follow-up scores compared to the pre-intervention measures. Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that it is possible to use illegal drugs, considered harmful to public health, to improve young people’s coping capacity and emotionality by reproducing their positive effects with SRT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: informality; working conditions; self-reported health; survey
Online: 2 March 2022 (02:41:32 CET)
Peru has one of the highest informal employment rates in Latin America (73%). Previous studies have shown higher prevalence of poor self-perceived health (P-SPH) in informal workers compared to formal. The study’s aim is to analyse the role of working conditions in the association between informality and SPH in urban working population in Peru. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 3098 workers from the working conditions survey of Peru 2017. Prevalence of P-SPH and exposure to poor working conditions were calculated separated by formal and informal employment and stratified by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between P-SPH and informal employment, with its prevalence ratios (PR) crude and adjusted for working conditions. Informal employment was 76% in women and 66% in men. Informal workers were more exposed to poor working conditions than formals and reported worse SPH. Workers in informal employment showed higher risk of P-SPH than formals: PR 1.38 [95% CI: 1.16 – 1.64] in women and PR 1.27 [95% CI: 1.08 – 1.49] in men. Adjustment by working conditions weakened the association in both sexes. In women, this association was only partially explained by worse working conditions 1.23 [95% CI: 1.04 – 1.46]. The negative effect on informal workers’ health is partially explained by poor working conditions. However, there is a part of the effect explained by informality per se.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0618.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: digital community engagement; social media; cultural heritage management; sustainable urban development
Online: 24 December 2020 (12:34:36 CET)
During the last 20 years, with the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), an emerging interest has appeared in Digital Community Engagement (DCE) in the process of cultural heritage management. Due to a growing need to involve a broader community in the Historic Urban Landscape approach, social media are considered one of the most important platforms to promote the public participation process of urban heritage conservation in the context of rapid urbanization. Despite the growing literature on DCE, which has delivered a general overview of different digital technologies and platforms to enhance heritage conservation, little research has been done on taking stock of the utilization of social media in this process. This study aims to fill the research gap by providing a more comprehensive picture of the functionalities of social media platforms and impacts on sustainable urban development through a systematic literature review. As a result, 19 out of 248 DCE relevant articles are selected as objects to illustrate the contribution of social media. The study identified the characteristics of these applied social media tools, explores their roles and influences in cases. The article concludes with directions for further research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0165.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Shariah; hospital; healthcare; management; Islam
Online: 7 September 2020 (10:52:33 CEST)
The Ministry of Health evaluates hospital management in accordance with the standard of quality of service. The concept of Shariah hospitals offers management services that exceed the standard of quality of hospital care. The study aims to illustrate the concept of Shariah hospitals in Indonesia. We collect related literature from various media via online search with the keywords “Shariah hospitals,” “implementation of Shariah hospitals,” and “application of Shariah hospitals.” Main findings: The study finds that the Shariah hospitals built by the philosophy of Islam are willing to provide the best health-care services to patients. A code of conduct must be fulfilled by the hospital management in Shariah hospitals: (1) general liability, (2) obligations to society and the environment, (3) obligations to patients, (4) obligations to the leaders, staff, and employees, and (4) relationships with related institutions. The foremost challenges include the improvement of health personnel performance and the quality of services in addition to perceptions that are not inclusive of the system of Shariah hospitals. This implementation should run consistently and with the commitment of all parties. Such insight, in turn, can be counted as an input to an approach to health services, particularly in increasing the performance rates, such as hospital. This study is the first to provide new insight into discussion about shariah hospital by presenting its focuses on Islamic approaches in meeting the quality standards of health services in hospitals so as to obtain more value. However, exclusive principles—Islamization, heterogeneity, and the performance of health workers—challenge the implementation of this hospital system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0243.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccines; Adverse Events; Self-reporting; Pandemic
Online: 18 May 2022 (11:06:19 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put a lot of pressure on health systems worldwide. Mass vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has reduced morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite their safety profiles, vaccines like any other medical product can cause adverse events. Yet, in countries with poor epidemiological surveillance and monitoring systems, reporting vaccine-related adverse events is scarce. The objective of this study was to describe self-reported vaccine adverse events after receiving one of the available COVID-19 vaccine schemes in Ecuador. A cross-sectional analysis based on an online self-reporting 32-questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April 1st to July 15th, 2021. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 6,654 participants were included in this study. A 38.2% of the participants reported having at least one comorbidity. Patients received AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Sinovac vaccines, and these were distributed 38.4%, 31.1%, and 30.5%, respectively. Pain, inflammation at the injection site (20,01%), and headache (16,91%) were the most reported adverse events. Women addressed ESAVIs (64%), more often than men (36%). After receiving the first dose of any available COVID-19 vaccine, a total of 19,481 self-reported ESAVIs were informed (86.9% were mild, 11.6% moderate and 1.5% severe). In terms of vaccine type and brand, the most reactogenic vaccine was AstraZeneca with 57.8%, followed by Pfizer (24.9%) and Sinovac (17, 3 %). After the second dose, 6,757 self-reported ESAVIs were reported (87.0% mild, 10.9% moderate, and 2.1% severe). AstraZeneca vaccine users reported a higher proportion of ESAVIs (72.2%) in comparison to Pfizer/BioNTech (15.9%) and Sinovac Vaccine (11.9%). Swelling at the injection site, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue were the most common ESAVIs for the first as well as second dose. In conclusion, most ESAVIs were mild. AstraZeneca users were more likely to report adverse events. Participants without a history of COVID-19 infection, as well as those who receive the first dose, were more prone to report ESAVIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; health practices; stress; self-care; cross-cultural study
Online: 2 February 2021 (15:09:40 CET)
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyze the differential impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown (3rd April 2020) on stress, health practices, and self-care activities across different Hispanic countries, age range and gender groups. 1082 participants from Spain, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador took part in this study. Irrespective of the country, and controlling for income level, young people, especially females, suffered a greater level of stress, perceived the situation as more severe, showed less adherence to health guidelines and reported lower levels of health consciousness, in comparison to their male peers and older groups. However, in the case of self-care, it seems that older and female groups are generally more involved in self-care activities and adopt more healthy daily routines. These results are mostly similar between Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. However, Chile showed some different tendencies, as males reported higher levels of healthy daily routines and better adherence to health guidelines compared to females and people over the age of 60. Differences between countries, genders and age ranges should be considered in order to improve health recommendations and adherence to guidelines. It would also be crucial to identify vulnerable groups to promote the adoption of health behaviors that may help in the development of effective public health strategies. Future studies should be addressed to explore the possible causations of such differences in more cultural-distant samples and at later stages of the current outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1029.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: self-care; self-management; hypertension; validation; scale development
Online: 17 July 2023 (12:11:43 CEST)
Background: The adoption of self-care behaviors among patients with arterial hypertension (AH) plays an important role in the management of their health condition. However, a lack of scales assessing self-care is observed. We aimed to develop and validate the Hippocratic hypertension self-care scale. Methods: From a pool of questions derived from a literature review, 18 items were included in the scale and reviewed by a committee of experts. Participants indicate the frequency at which they follow the self-behavior prescribed in each statement on a five-point Likert scale. Data were collected between April 2019 and December 2019. Re-sults: 202 consecutive adult patients with AH were enrolled in the study. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be 0.807, using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. An exploratory factor analysis identified two do-mains that accounted for 92.94% of the variance of the scale items; however, each sub-scale could not be used as an independent scale. Finally, the test- retest of the scale showed a significant strong correlation (r=0.0095, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing self-behaviors in patients with AH. Health professionals can use it in their clinical practice to improve the management of patients’ health condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disaster risk management; mitigation; preparedness; response; recovery; Germany; USA; Russia; China
Online: 16 February 2023 (04:00:58 CET)
The uniqueness of each system stems from the fact that the risks of disasters are specific and that their presence and manifestation are not universal and the same for every country. Just as no country is the same in all other segments, their disaster risk management systems are unequal. The paper describes the systems in four different countries, through observation and comparison of four areas of activity that are implemented in dealing with disasters. First of all, in the paper, the legal basis and institutional frameworks on which these systems rest in each of the countries were considered – starting from the international level and guidelines given at international conferences, to all by-laws and local disaster activity plans. It was considered how each of the states implements risk mitigation activities and how it increases preparedness for them. When the system recognizes risks, their probability and the frequency of their occurrence, activities are planned to prepare the country and every individual in it for a potentially unwanted event. Differences in the ways of mitigating risks and preparing all elements of the system and protected values for disasters are presented. The third element of action in the event of disasters concerns the response. In this segment, questions are raised regarding institutional solutions in the system, division of responsibilities, the priority of response and mobilization of resources at all levels. The last phase, the one that occurs after the disaster, and that is the recovery from it, depends on the reaction. In the paper, it was discussed how in the end, when a disaster occurs and when damage to the population, environment, material and other goods occurred, how each of the states implements reconstruction, i.e. how it recovers - whether that recovery was previously well planned or whether ad hoc solutions are applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0645.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: self-medication; children; family doctors; Health Belief Model
Online: 11 October 2023 (08:46:01 CEST)
Many relevant health social actors have voiced concerns about the danger of self-medication in times of growing use of over-the-counter medicines and, in some contexts, unregulated selling of them. Previous research has examined the incidence of parental self-medication as well as the use and abuse of antibiotics without professional advice. However, these studies have limited evidence on the role of family doctors and the perceived severity of self-medication in the case of parents. Based on Health Belief Model, our research tested the effects of exposure to medical information on the perceived level of self-treating the children without medical advice. Specifically, we aimed to assess whether exposure to information warning about the risks of treating children without a medical prescription influences parents' attitudes toward administering medicines to their children without medical advice. The results showed that our respondents evaluated the practices of self-medication negatively, especially when it came to treating their children without medical advice. However, their attitudes towards self-medication varied depending on their beliefs about administering certain medications. Additionally, the results showed that the perceived level of satisfaction with the family physician could be a significant factor in controlling and avoiding the treatment of children without professional advice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0078.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: missing value imputation; machine learning; decision tree imputation; k-nearest neighbors imputation; self-organizing map imputation
Online: 15 December 2016 (08:27:13 CET)
Many clinical research datasets have a large percentage of missing values that directly impacts their usefulness in yielding high accuracy classifiers when used for training in supervised machine learning. While missing value imputation methods have been shown to work well with smaller percentages of missing values, their ability to impute sparse clinical research data can be problem specific. We previously attempted to learn quantitative guidelines for ordering cardiac magnetic resonance imaging during the evaluation for pediatric cardiomyopathy, but missing data significantly reduced our usable sample size. In this work, we sought to determine if increasing the usable sample size through imputation would allow us to learn better guidelines. We first review several machine learning methods for estimating missing data. Then, we apply four popular methods (mean imputation, decision tree, k-nearest neighbors, and self-organizing maps) to a clinical research dataset of pediatric patients undergoing evaluation for cardiomyopathy. Using Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL) to learn ruleset models, we compared the performance of imputation-augmented models versus unaugmented models. We found that all four imputation-augmented models performed similarly to unaugmented models. While imputation did not improve performance, it did provide evidence for the robustness of our learned models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0726.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Climate change; integrated water research management; water resources; nature based solutions; groundwater management
Online: 9 June 2023 (13:17:32 CEST)
Climate change affects water resources through the decrease of rainfall and the increase in temperatures and evapotranspiration. An indirect impact of climate change is also the increase of water uses by human activities. In this review, 320 papers were retrieved, of which 134 spanning five continents impacts and solutions to be used to better understand the effects of climate change on water resources, ecosystems, human health, security and socio-economic aspects were selected. Here, suggestions and proposals by scientists from around the world towards solutions, tips and ideas to deal with climate change and the best solutions for future water management were presented. The main solutions highlighted concern integrated water resources management, political direction, policies, increase in knowledge and new technologies. Furthermore, most of the papers analyzed underline that water resources management needs to incorporate protection and restoration of ecosystems and their services. Nature-based solutions need to be the starting point of new scientific and innovative ways to deal with climate change and towards future climate adaptation. In this complex evolution of the water resource, where is the management of the water resource in Italy going?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-Action Leadership (SAL), SAL model, SAL theory, nomological, existential growth, organizational (or corporate) citizen, SAR project, SAL project, step-habit, Self-Declaration of Independence, Self-Constitution
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:26:10 CEST)
In 2015, the Self-Action Leadership Theory—a qualitative, nomological expansion of self-leadership theory rooted in atmospheric and astronomical metaphor aimed at expanding the personal freedom of individuals, organizations, and nations by bolstering the existential growth of individuals through a series of Maslow-esque stages of holistic, personal development. This article introduces an accompanying, practitioner-based Model of Self-Action Leadership (SAL) aimed at the implicit enhancement of a holistic range of administrative processes through explicit training, mentoring, and coaching in the model’s general and universally-applicable principles and practices. The SAL model produces an original construct of personal leadership practice that builds upon the extant self-leadership academic canon, which dates back to 1983 (Manz, 1983). It also provides an analogue to four of the five core processes of Project Management by positioning a self-action leader (an individual) as the ongoing “project” at hand. The SAL Model is rooted in action research and was developed through a variety of self-oriented, action research projects in conjunction with a comprehensive, qualitative, analytical autoethnographic study of a scholar’s life experiences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0095.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hypertension; Elderly; Intervention; Self-management
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:58:22 CEST)
Background: Indonesia is an archipelago with various cultured, will bee affects all aspects of people's lives, including beliefs related to health behavior and health care. One problem that needs serious attention is the elderly group because the elderly are a vulnerable group who have a high risk of experiencing health problems, such as anemia with hypertension, so they need good care management. The research objective was to determine self-management intervention for hypertensive elderly. Methods: This research is a literature review with five databases (Scopus, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Proquest), the study design used is an experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional, and review systematic, in March 2021. Guidelines for using JBI to measure quality and listing check out Prisma in this review guide. A feasibility study based on title, abstract, full text, and research methodology. The data analysis used narrative analysis based on the research findings. Results: Twelve articles met the predefined review inclusion criteria. The study found eight interventions for self-management in elderly hypertension, namely: 1) Knowledge of hypertension, 2) Regulation of physical activity, 3) Limitation of alcohol and cigarette consumption, 4) Sleep rest and stress management, 5) Diet and body weight management, 6) Blood pressure control, 7) Family and social support, 8) Adherence to therapy regimens. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study results obtained eight elderly self-management interventions, this done properly will affect compliance in optimizing the health of the elderly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0314.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Diabetes; Theory; Model; Concept; Management; Health Care
Online: 21 September 2022 (05:46:19 CEST)
BackgroundGood management behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus can reduce disease complications and improve quality of life. This philosophical problem is very important for nurses who are able to provide management care for diabetic patients. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the concept, model or theory that can be used in improving the management of diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsThe method used is by searching several studies published through the Scopus database, PubMed, CINAHL, SpingerLink, and web of science (WOS). The search strategy uses a combination of the terms MeSH Terms. The research questions were designed using the principles of the PICOS framework. Selected studies were published from 2017-2022.ResultsA total of 15 studies were included, with 12 using quantitative methodology and 3 were qualitative. The studies were conducted across various countries. The majority of articles used the concept of self-management intervention based on digital-based development and e-health (n=6), Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory n=2) and the transtheoretical model (n=2). These concepts, models and theories are able to improve good self-management through lifestyle changes, psychosocial, cultural acculturation and increase in spiritual values (n=6).ConclusionTransitional change focuses on changing the modifiable factors found in the concepts, models and theories of the articles obtained. Future research can be developed to assess the existence of elaborations and modifications based on the philosophy that people with diabetes are responsible for their own health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0102.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Breast cancer; self-management; non-pharmacological interventions; clinical practice guidelines; content analysis
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:21:21 CET)
Background: A growing number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) with regards to non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors are available. However, given the limitations in guideline development methodologies and inconsistency of recommendations, it remains uncertain how best to design and implement such non-pharmacological strategies to tailor interventions for breast cancer survivors with varied health conditions, healthcare needs, and preferences. Aim: To critically appraise and summarise available non-pharmacological interventions for symptom management and health promotion that can be self-managed by breast cancer survivors based on the recommendations of the CPGs. Methods: Clinical practice guidelines which were published between January 2016 and September 2021 and described non-pharmacological interventions for breast cancer survivors were systematically searched in six electronic databases, nine relevant guideline databases, and five cancer care society websites. The quality of the included CPGs was assessed by four evaluators using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation, second edition tool. Content analysis was conducted to synthesise the characteristics of the non-pharmacological interventions that were recommended by the included CPGs, such as the intervention’s form, duration and frequency, level of evidence, grade of recommendation, and source of evidence. Results: Fourteen CPGs were identified and analysed. Of the 14 CPGs appraised, only five were rated as high quality. The domain with the highest standardised percentage was “scope and purpose” (84.61%), while the “applicability” domain had the lowest standardised percentage (51.04%). Five guidelines were assessed as “recommended”, seven were rated as “recommended with modifications”, and the remaining two were considered “not recommended”. Regarding the content analysis, physical activity/exercise, meditation, hypnosis, yoga, music therapy, stress management, relaxation, massage, and acupressure were the common self-managed non-pharmacological interventions recommended by the 14 CPGs. Physical activity/exercise was the only self-managed non-pharmacological intervention that was mostly recommended for psychological and physical symptom management by the included CPGs. However, there were significant disparities in terms of level of evidence and grade of recommendation in the included CPGs. Conclusion: The recommendations for the self-managed non-pharmacological interventions were varied and limited among the 14 CPGs, and some were based on medium- and low-quality evidence. More rigorous methods are required to develop high-quality CPGs in order to guide clinicians in offering high-quality and tailored breast cancer survivorship care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0392.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: forest management methods; adaptive forest management; climate change; ecological norm
Online: 27 July 2022 (04:40:00 CEST)
The compelling effects of climate change on forests may have been underestimated in the past few decades in practical forestry. Although the first attempts to draw attention to this complex problem appeared almost half a century ago, the debate has been conceptual rather than experimental and applicative. At first glance, the con-cerns were mainly related to sustainable forest management (SFM) issues, which obviously needed attention. Over time, the effects of climate change have been mainly considered in the context of the SFM; they started from various and somewhat different scales and goals. Over time, more research and awareness of the im-portance of SFM under the pressure of climate change have led to the development of a clearer field that can be defined as ‘adaptive forest management’ - to climate change. One of the characteristics of this discipline is to be featured by the absence of univocal methods and / or objectives to be pursued but to identify, verify, and adapt methods to the various climatic and forest types and conditions found in the field. Therefore, this work shows some phases of forest planning and management concepts and criteria over time and recalls some innovative and / or adaptive methods related to the approach to forest planning and management under climate change
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0354.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health self-tracking; data donation; data sharing; quantified self; mobile tracking
Online: 27 June 2022 (08:46:26 CEST)
Health self-tracking is an ongoing trend as software and hardware evolve, making the collection of personal data not only fun for users but also increasingly interesting for public health research. In a quantitative approach we studied German health self-trackers (N=919) for differences in their data disclosure behavior by comparing data showing and sharing behavior among peers and their willingness to donate data to research. In addition, we examined user characteristics that may positively influence willingness to make the self-tracked data available to research and propose a framework for structuring research related to self-measurement. Results show that users' willingness to disclose data as a "donation" more than doubled compared to their "sharing" behavior (willingness to donate= 4.5/10; sharing frequency= 2.09/10). Younger men (up to 34 years), who record their vital signs daily, are less concerned about privacy, regularly donate money, and share their data with third parties because they want to receive feedback, are most likely to donate data to research and are thus a promising target audience for health data donation appeals. The paper adds to qualitative accounts of self-tracking but also engages with discussions around data sharing and privacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0757.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: solid waste; solid waste management; Navrongo; Karlshrue
Online: 12 September 2023 (11:07:16 CEST)
Effective solid waste management is crucial for protecting public health and the environment. Global concentration on finding sustainable methods of handling waste continue to top the list of most governmental-related project checklists. This paper provides a case study on the management of municipal solid waste in the cities of Karlsruhe, Germany and Navrongo, Ghana as developed and developing countries respectively. This study aimed at comparing and drawing lessons from how these two different cities manage their solid waste. The waste management system in Karlsruhe prioritizes waste separation, recycling, and a pay-as-you-throw system has led to an efficient and sustainable waste management system that minimizes waste and protects the environment. Karlshrue's adoption of a continual developmental plan structure focused on integrated WM concepts is credited with safeguarding the long-term viability of waste management in the city. In contrast, Navrongo's waste management system faces several challenges, including inadequate resources and infrastructure, traditional waste disposal practices, and the lack of well-planned waste management strategies. To improve effective solid waste management systems in Ghana, a collaborative approach involving the government, local organizations, and the community is necessary. This can include investing in infrastructure, implementing waste separation and recycling programs, and educating the public on the benefits of sustainable waste management practices. Learning from successful models like Karlsruhe can help accelerate the development of sustainable waste management practices in Ghana, and ultimately protect public health and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1168.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: self-management; Covid-19; aging management; PTSD; PTG; anxiety
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:28:45 CEST)
The restrictions imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic left many older adults isolated and confined. Under active aging theory, self-management is crucial for well-being among older adults coping with aging. The current study examines how (a) initial self-management, and (b) changes in self-management due to independent physical training, affect psychological outcomes in a sample of care home residents following outbreak of the pandemic. 64 older adults (53 females, 11 males), mean age is 82.23, reported on their self-management abilities, then embarked on six months of training in chair exercises (one session per week). The training exercises were halted after 22 sessions due to the pandemic, but some residents continued to practice independently. Eight weeks after the outbreak of the pandemic, residents who had continued to practice at least once per week (n = 35) and those who had not continued to practice (n = 29) were questioned again about their self-management, and about five psychological outcomes: anxiety, traumatic stress, satis-faction, general mood, and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Self-management improved among older adults who independently practiced the exercises, and declined among those who did not. Pre-pandemic self-management significantly predicted post-outbreak traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, general mood, and satisfaction with life, but not PTG. However, the difference in self-management between the pre-pandemic and post-outbreak measures was associated with PTG, and made a unique contribution to prediction of the other effects. Self-management abilities among older adults can be seen as a protective factor against adverse psychological outcomes at times of trauma. Further, the improvement in self-management among older adults who independently practiced physical excises made a unique contribution beyond initial self-management abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: tinnitus; self-help; ecological momentary assessment; ehealth; smart-phone; intervention
Online: 31 January 2022 (14:00:09 CET)
Tinnitus is an auditory phantom perception in the ears or head in the absence of a corresponding external stimulus. There is currently no effective treatment available that reliably reduces tinnitus. Educative counseling is a treatment approach that aims to educate patients and inform them about possible coping strategies. For this feasability study, we implemented educational material and self-help advice in a smartphone app. Participants used the educational smartphone unsupervised during their daily routine over a period of 4 months. Comparing the tinnitus outcome measures before and after smartphone-guided treatment, we measured changes in the tinnitus-related distress, but not in tinnitus loudness. Improvements on the Tinnitus Severity numeric rating scale reached an effect size of .408, while the improvements on the THI were much smaller with an effect size of .168. Analysis on the user behavior showed that frequent and intensive use of the app is a crucial factor for treatment success: participants that used the app more often and interacted with the app intensively, reported a stronger improvement of the tinnitus. Between study allocation and final assessment, 26 of 52 participants dropped out of the study. Reasons for the dropouts and lessons for future studies are discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0086.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis; nature; flood management; disaster
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:08:52 CEST)
A disaster wrecks those affected. It spares many in the affected areas, yet those spared may be indirectly impacted. Specific risks are often inherent within a social system or physical location, but they can also be created due to unavoidable natural or technological hazards. The consequences, however, can be similar in that they wreak havoc in communities and destroy economic systems. The analytical framework of deterrence and coping has ascertained beneficial in many circumstances, but a cost benefit calculation is a must to infer the feasibility of planning strategy and resource allocation. This study points to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) of flood management by District Disaster Management Kulgam. The assessment is established on secondary pooled data collected from administration offices, NGOs, published Journals, and local and national newspapers. It also characterised the strategy, the technique adopted, and the sources of flood damage cost information. The totalled benefits report for 78686.18 lakh of rupees, and that of total costs account for 2218.75lakh of rupees. The Benefit-Cost ratio greater than one (>1) indicates that Flood Management in District Kulgam was economically feasible and successfully governed. The State of Jammu and Kashmir put up with necessary prevention and administration measures to break the spell of devastation due to floods to significant status.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1969.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Shrimps; Disease management; Epigenetics; Epigenetic modulation; Future applications
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:21:05 CEST)
Aquaculture assumes a pivotal role in meeting the escalating global food demand, and shrimp farming, in particular, holds indispensable significance for the global economy and food security, providing a rich source of nutrients for human consumption. Nonetheless, the industry faces formidable challenges, primarily attributed to disease outbreaks, and the diminishing efficacy of conventional disease management approaches, such as antibiotic usage. Consequently, there is an urgent imperative to explore alternative strategies to ensure the sustainability of the industry. In this context, the burgeoning field of epigenetics emerges as a promising avenue for combating infectious diseases in shrimp aquaculture. Epigenetic modulations entail chemical alterations in DNA and proteins, orchestrating gene expression patterns without modifying the underlying DNA sequence by utilizing DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA molecules. Exploiting epigenetic mechanisms presents an opportunity to enhance immune gene expression and bolster disease resistance in shrimp, thus revolutionizing disease management strategies and optimizing shrimp health and productivity. Additionally, the concept of epigenetic inheritability in marine animals holds immense potential for the future of the shrimp farming industry. To this end, this comprehensive review thoroughly explores the dynamics of epigenetic modulations in shrimp aquaculture, with a particular emphasis on its pivotal role in disease management. It accentuates the significance of harnessing advantageous epigenetic changes to ensure the long-term viability of shrimp farming while deliberating on the potential consequences of these interventions. Overall, this appraisal highlights the promising trajectory of epigenetic applications, propelling the field toward strengthening sustainability in shrimp aquaculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1773.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: metabolic syndrome; rising prevalence; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; obesity; high blood pressure; dietary habits; preventive strategies; management
Online: 25 August 2023 (05:01:36 CEST)
This article explores the relationship between metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, providing a comprehensive overview of its risk factors and prevalence. Metabolic syndrome, characterized by a cluster of interconnected risk factors, significantly increases the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. The study, conducted over a one-year period, involved 117 patients with ages between 30 to 79 years old. Various elements such as gender, age, education level, background, smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary aspects, physical activity, and their contribution in developing the metabolic syndrome, were analysed.Central adiposity and high blood pressure emerged as prominent elements of the condition. The findings underscore the importance of a healthy lifestyle in the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. Encouraging regular physical activity, maintaining a balanced diet, rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, and avoiding harmful behaviours, such as smoking or alcohol consumption, are essential in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular complications. The study highlights the need for public health initiatives, as well as individualized preventive strategies to combat the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Through promoting awareness of its risk factors and implementing effective interventions, healthcare professionals can contribute to better cardiovascular health worldwide. Further research in this area will continue to enhance our understanding of the metabolic syndrome and refine preventive and therapeutic approaches for its management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0386.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: self-healing; polymers; batteries; silicon anodes
Online: 25 January 2022 (15:37:52 CET)
Self-healing is the capability of materials to repair themselves after damage has occurred, usually by interaction between molecules or chains. Physical and chemical processes are applied for the preparation of self-healing systems. There are different approaches for these systems such as heterogeneous systems, shape memory effects, hydrogen bonding or covalent-bond interaction, diffusion and flow dynamics. Self-healing mechanisms can occur in particular by heat and light exposure or by reconnection without direct effect. The applications of these systems display an increasing trend in both R&D and industry sectors. Moreover, self-healing systems and their energy storage applications are currently getting great importance. This review aims to provide general information on recent developments in self-healing materials and their energy applications in view of the critical importance of self-healing systems for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In the first part of the review, an introduction about self-healing mechanisms and design strategies of self-healing materials is given. Then, selected important healing materials in the literature for the anodes of LIBs are mentioned in the second part. The results and future perspectives are stated in the conclusion section.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0049.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: shape memory; liquid crystalline; self-healing
Online: 15 September 2016 (11:07:50 CEST)
To better understand the shape memory materials and self-healing materials, a new series of liquid-crystalline shape memory polyurethane (LC-SMPU) composites, named SMPU-OOBAm, were successfully prepared by incorporating 4-octyldecyloxybenzoic acid (OOBA) into the PEG-based SMPU. The effect of OOBA on the structure, morphology and properties has been carefully investigated. The results demonstrate that SMPU-OOBAm have liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties and self-healing properties. The incorporated OOBA promotes the crystallizability of both soft and hard segments of SMPU, and the crystallization rate of the hard segment of SMPU decreases when the OOBA-content increases. Additionally, the SMPU-OOBAm forms a two-phase separated structure (SMPU phase and OOBA phase), and it shows two-step modulus changes upon heating. Therefore, the SMPU-OOBAm shows triple-shape memory behavior, and the shape recovery ratio decreases with an increase in the OOBA content. Finally, SMPU-OOBAm shows self-healing properties. The new mechanism can be ascribed to the heating-induced “bleeding” of OOBA in the liquid crystalline state and the subsequent re-crystallization upon cooling. This successful combination of liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties and self-healing properties make the SMPU-OOBAm composites with many promise applications in smart optical devices, smart electronic devices and smart sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes; Emotions; Emotional Intelligence; Health Behaviour; Emotions, Diabetes Management.
Online: 26 February 2021 (14:04:29 CET)
The functioning of the parents’ emotional sphere is very important to a child’s mental and physical health. This study focused on investigating the association between mothers’ emotional intelligence (EI) and paediatric type I diabetes (T1DM) disease management in their children. We hypothesized that mothers’ EI is associated with T1DM outcomes. Mothers of children with T1DM aged 6-12 years were surveyed. One hundred and thirty-four mothers, the main caregivers of their diabetic children, provided measures of EI and completed a demographic questionnaire. The primary indicator of diabetes management was haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; the main form of glycosylated haemoglobin). EI scales and subscales were associated with glycaemic management indices. Logistic regression analysis was applied for the assessment of the association between parents’ EI and their paediatric with T1DM disease management. The analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between T1DM management and mothers’ ability to understand and control own emotions, to transform their own negative emotions into positive and to control own negative emotions. Mothers’ EI scales and subscales of understanding and regulating their own emotions, subscales of transforming their own negative emotions into positive ones and controlling their own negative emotions were statistically reliable predictors of glycaemic control in children with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0589.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: globalization; systems thinking; global quality management; global quality system
Online: 27 August 2020 (03:28:46 CEST)
A global approach towards quality management highlights the need for constructing a new body of knowledge that views the field of global quality from a systems perspective. Based on the results of field experiments, and in light of the need to develop new global quality management terminology, the current article presents several key concepts in this field, with emphasis on a systems-oriented rationale and perspective. As such, the article is an important stage in building this body of knowledge, and towards the conceptualization of key variables used in global quality management, from a systems approach that interacts with the fields of international management and strategic management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: sustainability; transportation; fleet management; campus; university; renewable energy; energy transition; economic analysis; risk management; modelling; ghg emissions reduction
Online: 6 January 2023 (02:27:18 CET)
The global transport sector of the world economy contributes about 15% of the Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) emissions in the world today. The University of Saskatchewan has pursued the green energy transition over the years. They have spearheaded diverse sustainability projects and agendas, due to the importance of curbing climate change and advancing sustainability. The transport system in the university campus is one area of focus where the Sustainability Office plans to introduce some innovations, as a way of curbing GHG emissions while also advancing sustainability practice in the university campus. The study carried out an economic benefit analysis on the campus fleet (consisting of 91 ICE vehicles) to determine if it is economically or financially feasible to transition from Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) or PVs (Petrol Vehicles) to Electric Vehicles (EVs). The analysis used RETScreen Expert software for analyzing renewable energy technology projects. The variables of Payback Period (PBP), cash flow projections, savings made from transitioning (fuel cost savings and energy cost savings), Benefit-Cost-ratio, GHG emission reduction potential, etc. were analyzed. The findings revealed that the GHG emission from the campus fleet will be reduced by 100% (this will result in the removal of about 298.1 tCO₂ from the environment). Also, the fleet manager will save approximately $129,049 (88.9%) in fuel costs. Apart from these, the return on investment will be achieved in year 5 (all things being equal), but can be reduced to year 2 if the vehicles are put into constant and active use (eliminating most idle times. Also, the Sustainability Office will be making a GHG reduction revenue of $14,906.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0226.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver; diseases; cirrhosis; diagnosis; management
Online: 21 July 2023 (11:03:46 CEST)
Chronic liver diseases stimulate a degree of hepatocyte injury. This previously mentioned modifications, alters the known liver architecture and finally ends in cirrhosis. Liver pathology as cirrhosis develops after a long period of pathological alterations. The management of this liver pathology, is centred on the treatment of the causes and complications. Liver transplantation can be required in some cases. The aim of this article is to identify the best available evidences analyzing liver samples, normall and pathological. Normal liver with hepatocytes, Kiernann space, connective septa, observations using lens x10 and samples colored with Goldner Szekely trichrome stains. Beside, for comparisions, ill liver images, classic stain H&E. Inflammation is a great point that results in replacement of the healthy liver parenchyma with fibrotic tissue and regenerative nodules. In addition, progressive portal hypertension, systemic inflammation, and liver failure drive cirrhosis outcomes. All this previously mentioned factors, area great impact on the health-related quality of life of adult patients with liver cirrhosis. The management of this liver pathology, is centred on the treatment of the causes and complications. Liver transplantation can be required in some cases.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0686.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: H2O networks; Aqua biomolecule complexes; Thermodynamic mechanism; “Aquamoleculosome"; Entropic systems biology; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organization triggering factor (SOTF); Bioinformatics of aquamoleculomics.
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:02:20 CEST)
Systems biology has been established for more than a decade in the post-genomic era. With the help of the computational and mathematical tools, systems biology reconstitutes the entire scenario of the cell, tissue and even organism from the pieces data generated in the past decades. However, the modern biology is mainly focusing on the structure and function of the biomolecule, cell, tissue or organ, which are far from the essence of the life because of missing thermodynamic information. It is doubtable that the current systems biology-based omics is no-how to fully understand the dynamic courses of the structure, function and information in life. For this reason, we promote a novel concept of aquamoleculomics, in which the biological structure and function as well as thermodynamic characteristics and bioinformation of the aquamolecule complexes are included in this theoretical model of systems biology. Water is mother of life, matter and matrix of organism. Indeed, the fundamental roles of H2O molecules in biological processes might be dramatically underestimated. Extremely speaking, H2O networks in the living system might be engaged in all the biological processes including building all the biological structures, the residential places of the motherhood molecules as the honeycombs of honeybees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: advanced industrial engineering; strategy; management; business performance; key performance indicators
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:43:32 CEST)
The paper deals with the design of a systematic procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes for a project-oriented production type of organization. In the first part of the contribution, a summary of the theoretical starting points for the field of strategic management and change management is presented. In the second part, the contribution deals with the analysis of the current situation in the area of the impact of the change of strategy on the management of business processes. In the last part, the proposal of the procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes and the verification results are presented. The proposed procedure includes steps where the selection and verification of key performance indicators at individual levels of management plus the quantification of the impact of the change in strategy on the processes takes place. The management can thus monitor and evaluate the chosen processes in accordance with the fulfilment of the chosen strategy of the company. The last chapter presents the verification of the proposal for the systematic introduction of changes into the processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: seaweed; bioactive; nutraceuticals; coeliac disease; diabetes; hyperglycemia; glycemic index; cholesterol management
Online: 18 September 2023 (11:56:21 CEST)
The number of people with gluten-related illnesses has been increasing and the available treatments include the introduction of a gluten-free diet. In the bakery industry, there are problems with gluten-free products, namely the important characteristics that this component gives to doughs and the low nutritional value they present. A disease that has also increased in recent years is diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by a lack of insulin and the effectiveness of its action (type 1 diabetes) or tissue insensitivity to the hormone (type 2 diabetes). In terms of treatments, there are several approaches: inhibition of digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) or techniques based on mechanisms of action (stimulation of insulin production and release, insulin transport and decreased glucose absorption). Hyperglycemia is also associated with the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to cell apoptosis. On the other hand, there was also an association with high levels of cholesterol in the body, which contributed to the development of other types of diseases. In this sense, macroalgae have been studied as a source of natural compounds and used as food supplements, due to their protein, amino acid and mineral content, and the anti-diabetic effect in controlling the glycemic index, oxidative stress and cholesterol have already been demonstrated. Seaweed emerges as a promising source of bioactive nutraceuticals for individuals with coeliac disease, diabetes, and hyperglycemia. The rising prevalence of gluten-related illnesses calls for effective treatments, and seaweed's potential in enhancing the nutritional value of gluten-free products is noteworthy. Additionally, its demonstrated anti-diabetic effects, including glycemic index control, oxidative stress reduction, and cholesterol management, make it a valuable dietary supplement. Further research is needed to explore the specific bioactivities of seaweed compounds and their mechanisms of action. Integrating seaweed-based nutraceuticals into diets could complement traditional treatments, offering potential health benefits to those with coeliac disease and diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0491.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart Health; Internet of Medical Things; Healthcare 4.0; Chronic-Disease Management; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 18 April 2023 (05:20:36 CEST)
Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are major public health problems and a significant financial burden on public health systems. By 2030, mortality due to NCDs, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes, is predicted to increase in Brazil. A peculiar aspect of NCDs involves their long-term and integrated care management. This paper proposes a chronic disease management platform based on artificial intelligence to deliver digital health services everywhere. The proposed platform is anchored and built with healthcare 4.0 technologies, such as wearable devices, the internet of medical things, and artificial intelligence cloud-based solutions that allow the deployment of a smart healthcare system. In addition, the paper presents the feasibility of the platform in a diabetes prediction study case. For the study case, an initial dataset was established with bio-impedance, oxygen concentration, pulse rate, skin impedance, and skin temperature attributes. A baseline was implemented with ten regression models to assess the prediction performance of the mean squared error, root mean squared error, and r-squared score to compare predictive findings with capillary blood glucose measurements. Results evidence that the decision tree regressor and three ensemble methods (bagging decision tree regressor, random forest regressor, and AdaBoost regressor) yielded improvement over the other models. Moreover, a comparison among those models revealed that the decision tree regressor outperforms them and presents promissory outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0455.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: photovoltaics; air-source heat pumps; self-consumption; TRNSYS; hybrid installations
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:58:53 CEST)
Nowadays Air-Source Heat Pumps (ASHP) in combination with a Photovoltaic (PV) installation are a very promising option for a necessary and urgent energy transformation in European Union (EU). It is extremely important to develop solutions that will help maximize the use of energy generated from renewable energy sources (RES). Such issues include the problem of insufficient use of generated electricity in PV on-grid microinstallations in residential buildings. This paper's aim is to analyze the results of one-year-round operation of a PV array grid-connected hybrid installation with ASHP for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a residential building in Cracow, Poland in the context of increasing self-consumption (SC) of PV energy. Models of systems are built and simulated in Transient System Simulation Tool 18 (TRNSYS) software. Simulations were carried out for different scenarios involving different building electricity consumption profiles, PV system capacity and specified runtime management of ASHP. The novelty of this study lies in the evaluation of the impact of a certain range of conditions on the energy performance of the system, in particular on SC. The results showed that the use of ASHP, with specified runtime management, results in an increase in monthly SC values from 7 to 18%, and annual SC values up to 13%. Also determining the appropriate size of the used PV system depending on whether it is present ASHP in the installation is crucial to increase the value of the SC parameter. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of PV panels and ASHP operating together, in particular on SC values.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: self-replicating RNA viruses; vaccines; infectious diseases; cancer; immune response; tumor regression; protection; approval
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:38:49 CEST)
Alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles viruses and rhabdoviruses are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses, which have been engineered as expression vector systems for recombinant protein expression and vaccine development. Due to the presence of non-structural genes encoding the replicase complex, a 200,000-fold amplification of viral RNA occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells providing extreme transgene expression levels, which is why they are named self-replicating RNA viruses. Expression of surface proteins of pathogens causing infectious disease and tumor antigens provide the basis for vaccine development against infectious diseases and cancer. The self-replicating RNA viral vectors can be administered as replicon RNA, recombinant viral particles, or layered DNA/RNA replicons. Self-replicating RNA viral vectors have been applied for vaccine development against influenza virus, HIV, hepatitis B virus, human papilloma virus, Ebola virus and recently coronaviruses, especially SARS-CoV-2 the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Measles virus and rhabdovirus vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have been subjected to clinical trials. Moreover, RNA vaccine candidates based on self-amplifying alphaviruses have also been evaluated in clinical settings. Various cancers such as brain, breast, lung, ovarian, prostate cancer and melanoma have also been targeted for vaccine development. Robust immune responses and protection have been demonstrated in animal models. Clinical trials have shown good safety and target-specific immune responses. Ervebo, the VSV-based vaccine against Ebola virus disease has been approved for human use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: prevalence; smoking; medical students; self-esteem; self-efficacy
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:31:33 CEST)
: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among students is a growing concern, particular-ly among medical students. Being associated with stress, competitiveness, and various social in-fluences, smoking can have detrimental effects on self-esteem and self-efficacy and may create a vicious cycle that may contribute to students’ well-being and academic performance out-comes.METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 456 medical students was conducted via an online survey using structured questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking habits, nicotine dependence, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 31.1% The scores of self-esteem and self-efficacy were positively correlated with smoking habits (W1=0.957, W2=0.975, P<0.05). Students presented rather low smoking addiction with male stu-dents having slightly higher scores than female students on self-esteem and self-efficacy, mili-tary students had higher self-esteem scores than civilians with physical activity having a posi-tive correlation with non-smoking behavior. CONCLUSION: According to our results, self-esteem and self-efficacy were slightly positively correlated with smoking habits. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant association between other social factors and smoking. Our results may develop a theoretical basis for medical students’ psychological variables studying for further implementation of university educational programs and preventive interventions em-powering students towards an overall better quality of life, addressing, among others, smoking behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1547.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Amyloid; Aggregation; Self-assembly; Gene mutation; Disease Pathogenesis; Inborn errors of metabolism
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:35:10 CEST)
Amyloids were conventionally referred to as extracellular and intracellular accumulation of Aβ42 peptide which causes the formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles inside the brain leading to the pathogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease. Subsequently, amyloid-like deposition was found in the etiology of Prion diseases, Parkinson disease, Type II Diabetes and Cancer which was attributed to the aggregation of Prion protein, α-Synuclein, Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Protein and p53 protein respectively. Hence, traditionally amyloids were considered as aggregates formed by the proteins or peptides exclusively. However, since the last decade it has been discovered that other metabolites like single amino acids, nucleobases, lipids, glucose derivatives etc. have propensity to form amyloid-like toxic assemblies. Several studies suggest direct implications of these metabolite assemblies in the patho-physiology of various Inborn errors of metabolisms like Phenylketonuria, Tyrosinemia, Cystinuria and Gaucher’s disease to name a few. In this review, we present a comprehensive literature overview which suggests amyloid-like structure formation as a common phenomenon for the disease progression and pathogenesis in multiple syndromes. The review on this topic is urgently required to create awareness about the understanding of fundamental molecular mechanism behind the origin of diseases from an amyloid perspective and possibly look for a common therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these maladies by designing generic amyloid inhibitors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0199.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: dissipative structure; energy conversion; mechanical work; self-oscillation; collective dynamics; autonomous motion; self-replication; autocatalysis; molecular motor; molecular robot
Online: 9 September 2020 (05:24:42 CEST)
The construction of molecular robotic-like objects that imitate living things is an important challenge for current chemists. Such molecular devices are expected to perform their duties robustly to carry out mechanical motion, process information, and make independent decisions. Dissipative self-organization plays an essential role in meeting these purposes. To produce a micro-robot that can perform the above tasks autonomously as a single entity, a function generator is required. Although many elegant review articles featuring chemical devices that mimic biological mechanical functions have been published recently, the dissipative structure, which is the minimum requirement, has not been sufficiently discussed. This article aims to show clearly that dissipative self-organization is a phenomenon involving autonomy, robustness, mechanical functions, and energy transformation. Moreover, the author details the recent experimental results of an autonomous light-driven molecular device that achieves all of these features. In addition, a chemical model of cell-amplification is also discussed to focus on the generation of hierarchical movement by dissipative self-organization. By reviewing this research, it may be perceived that mainstream approaches to synthetic chemistry have not always been appropriate. In summary, the author proposes that the integration of catalytic functions is a key issue for the creation of autonomous microarchitecture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Thermal management; PEMFC; PCM; Heat pipes; critical review
Online: 30 June 2023 (08:53:43 CEST)
Converting chemical energy from green hydrogen to electricity using Membrane Exchange Protons Fuel cell (PEMFC) is a promising solution in various applications such e-mobility and building facilities. The electrical efficiency of PEMFCs can reach 60%. However, they are immensely sensitive to the working temperature, requiring good thermal management. Active thermal management systems are expensive and energy-consuming. Passive thermal management systems enable PEMFC thermal management without additional energy consumption. Here various passive thermal management technologies are reviewed. Different techniques are thorougly described and critically compared in terms of complexity, efficiency, cooling rate, scope of applicability, and the sizes of PEMFCs to which they apply. The conclusions provide a solid background for further investigations, and recommendations for future work are suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: risk management; safety critical systems; safety assessment; methodology
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:33:14 CET)
The complex systems that require safety are the Safety Critical Systems. Maintaining these systems is a big challenge. Now a days, safety is a very critical requirement for the latest systems. Safety critical systems must be safe. Different approaches to ensure quality and safety in safety critical systems has been discussed in this paper. A comparison is also conducted between these various approaches. Safety critical systems must remain more influential in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0151.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: adaptation; identification; identifiability; stability; excitation constancy; Lyapunov vector function; self-oscillation
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:12:16 CET)
The system identification problem with multiple nonlinearities is relevant. Its decision depends on many factors. These include: feedbacks, the method of connecting nonlinear links, signal properties. They affect the identifiability of the system parameters. We introduced a condition for the excitation constancy for state variables, which considers the S-identifiability of the system. We propose system decomposition by measuring input to identify parameters. Each subsystem has an implicit identification representation. It guarantees obtaining estimates of subsystem parameters based on experimental data. The trajectories boundedness of adaptive system proved in parametric and coordinate spaces. Conditions guaranteeing exponential stability of the system obtained. Systems of self-oscillation generation and nonlinear correction of a nonlinear system consider. Conditions for the trajectories boundedness of the adaptive system obtained for these cases. The influence of nonlinearity and feedback on the system performance estimated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0897.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water management; climate history; humans-nature cooperation; conflict resolution; dialectics
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:26:41 CEST)
The way humans use natural resources and especially freshwater, reflects their relationship with nature. It also influences the conceptual Water Resources Management (WRM) model. A historical review shows that the interplay between Humans and Nature is diachronically in constant change between two opposites: conflict and cooperation. Lessons from the past 20.000 years indicate that the WRM model is a function of two main parameters: (1) socio-economics, and (2) climate conditions. Three different Eras of the Humans-Nature relationship have been distinguished: (1) Naturalistic: Nature dominating Humans during the Last Glacial Period (100-10) kyr BC, (2) Dualistic: Nature-Humans cooperation and competition from 10 kyr BC to 1800 AD, and (3) Anthropocentric: Humans dominating Nature from 1800 AD to now. Since 2000, the Integrated WRM (IWRM) model is promoted as state-of-the-art and remains anthropocentric producing huge externalities. Its assessment during the last 20 years has given mixed results and needs to be reformulated. The new model we suggest is based on the dialectical tool for conflict resolution. It unifies Humans and Nature and enhances the social dimension of WRM. After identifying conflicts between stakeholders and the natural laws (eristic part), opposite objectives are unified to harmonize Humans with Nature (dialectical resolution). A case study of flood mitigation illustrates the eristic-dialectical methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0187.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: associativity; self-management; autonomy; solidarity; micro-credits; sustainability
Online: 10 August 2022 (03:50:20 CEST)
This research was carried out with the objective of analyzing the principles of social and solidarity economy in the community funds of the rural sector of Pichincha, Ecuador. Small organizations promote microcredits for local, social and economic development, representing an alternative to those managed by traditional banks. The research was descriptive, non-experimental field research. The population analyzed consisted of 220 community funds, and the size of the representative sample was 49 community organizations that practice solidarity finance. The data were collected through online questionnaires using a Likert scale, and the validity of this approach was judged by experts; the reliability of the instrument obtained was 0.95 using the Cronbach’s alpha method. The results highlight that in these organizations, the following traits prevail: associativity, self-management and organization. However, autonomy and solidarity have a negative valuation, which shows that strategies must be rethought to achieve the empowerment of the financial service. This will allow them to be sustainable and to expand with more benefits that promulgate financial activity and promote structures in rural community networks that promote local development and strengthen deficient principles as a basis for generating a greater benefit to the partners.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1959.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: change management; resistance to change; organizational change; bibliometric analysis
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:14:09 CEST)
We are living in a business context characterized by change, which today behaves with an unprecedented intensity, driven by the technological revolution and increased competition. As a result, increasingly large and complex companies are facing profound transformation processes in which the role of the human factor and of managers in particular, due to their high capacity to impact the organization, is essential. In response to this reality, the literature has developed a large number of approaches from different areas of knowledge: from business economics to psychology, including technical disciplines. This article offers a classification of these approaches that provides an overview of research on the role of managers in change management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0433.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CRS); Management Systems (MSs); ANOVA; Integration of Management Systems (IMS)
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:11:10 CEST)
The implementation of management systems has become a strategic advantage in achieving business goals, especially in industrial organizations, but the implementation of social responsibility requirements is especially ethical. Large multinational companies have long been developing and, in particular, implementing their own codes of conduct, which include their suppliers, to demonstrate their commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The compliance with CSR requirements from stakeholders is thus extended or intertwined with requirements in established management systems (MSs). The objectives of the study were to (1) analyze the different approaches to CSR in internationally recognized cross-industry and industry-specific standards and codes in different industries; (2) select the most appropriate framework for assessing the degree of applicability of CSR in the selected management systems and develop a methodology for its assessment; (3) apply the proposed methodology (referred to as SRIMS) in the selected areas: automotive industry, research organization, and metallurgical industry; (4) through ANOVA, validate its use for assessing the overall level of CSR applicability in an organization's established management systems. The application of the Bonferroni method confirmed the hypotheses that the developed SRIMS model is a sufficiently appropriate tool for assessing the overall level of applicability of CSR requirements to established MSs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0031.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: coronavirus; sports; management; football; rules; games
Online: 2 September 2020 (06:09:34 CEST)
Each sport has its specific rules, which determine what is allowed (or not) impacting directly on the sport demands. Studies involving physiological and time-motion measurements have shown that soccer is a highly demanding sport. The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a world health crisis. Soccer seasons were interrupted worldwide to avoid spreading the virus. Leagues resumed the season (no fans at the arenas) after several weeks of interruption, causing overlay of schedule. This overlay (e.g., games every Sunday and Wednesday) will cause accumulated fatigue on players, raising the risk of injuries. Considering this condensed calendar, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) has changed (temporarily) up to five substitutions during elite games (instead of three as the regular rule allows). Considering the already published scientific evidence, clearly, the change in the soccer substitution rule due to COVID-19 is insufficient. Implementing unlimited substitutions may benefit soccer players' health, coaches’ jobs, more entertainment for fans and sponsors (e.g., keeping intensity during all game, including on the second half) and eventually prolonging the useful life of the players. A real game-changer!
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1268.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Foliar fungal diseases; Integrated disease management; Marker-assisted selection; Quantitative trait loci; Resistance breeding; Solanum lycopersicum; Tomato
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:14:19 CEST)
Foliar fungal diseases in tomatoes include early blight (Alternaria linariae), Septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici), and late blight (Phytophthora infestans) which is oomycetes. These are one of the significant production constraints in tomatoes. We describe the etiology, host range, distribution, symptoms, and disease cycle to understand the biology followed by management practices emphasizing the resistance breeding approach for these diseases. In crop improvement efforts, we provide an analytical review, including conventional and molecular methods for improving this disease resistance. Modern breeding tools, including genomics, genetic transformation, and genome editing, can be used to improve these traits. There is a good possibility of using these tools in the future to improve these traits.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0458.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: strategy; national security; competitive gaming; wargaming; military; defense force; arboviruses; crisis management
Online: 18 March 2021 (07:20:31 CET)
The emergence of existing and novel vector-borne disease pathogens is highly unpredictable because there are so many possible causal factors of sociological, ecological, biological, behavioral and political origin. Traditional data-driven forecasting tools have limited use in circumstances featuring low-probability crises for which trend data is unreliable and non-predictive. Commercial and security sectors have been quick to adopt various forms of wargames to address this gap and provide intelligent insights on possible outcomes in the short, mid and long term future. The lack of commitment and action against vector-borne diseases by governments and local authorities requires a new approach that presents risk in terms of potential actions, possible outcomes and resulting consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0362.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: employee retention; employee turnover; client embeddedness; human resource management
Online: 28 November 2019 (11:22:28 CET)
The employee turnover literature to date is teeming with process models that assume only organizational and personal factors contribute to employees’ intentions to leave and stay. However, with the average percentage variance explained still only around 50%, it is clear that other factors play a substantial role in these decision-making processes. One possible explanation is to explore the unique role that clients play in employees’ intentions to stay or leave. This paper extends the conceptualization of the role that clients play on employee’s intentions to stay and leave their roles, particularly within service industries such as health care. This paper presents the results of two qualitative studies that examine employees’ decision-making process for turnover and retention intentions. The first study explores the factors influencing employees’ intentions to stay and leave the Australian aged care sector (N = 420) and the second study explores prison health care nurses in the United States (N = 175). The results of both studies reveal that client-related factors affect the choice to stay within a job and, in some cases, are the favoured aspect of the role. Therefore encouraging client-staff relationships will expand job satisfaction and therefore increase retention of employees within both contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0079.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Systems Management, Biomedical Research Policy, Organizational Development, Quality Management
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:42:47 CET)
There has been a growing call for reform of the U.S. biomedical community in recent years. As a community, we face a growing list of issues including excessive waste, reproducibility, bias, inadequate training, and the absence of sustainable long-term planning that detract from the overall goal of advancing human health. In response to this debate, biomedical stakeholders have taken positive steps forward to remedy these issues. However, we must continually improve upon these steps to promote the long-term stability of the biomedical enterprise. Given the widespread interest of the scientific community in addressing these issues, there exists a unique opportunity to come together and create a new era of biomedical discovery. The completion of this exciting task requires reflection on our view and management of the system, and what the best route to sustainable change may be. Importantly, a coordinated approach that considers the collective make-up of the biomedical system and how processes and people influence collective output and create value for patients is needed. Here, these three areas and the concepts of systems theory, total quality management, and organizational development and their contribution to the management and effectiveness of biomedical discovery are discussed. Importantly recommendations are made concerning overall management strategy, process efficiency and quality research, administrative tasks, organizational cultural challenges, individual and team development, and funding strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0007.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Crop production, Soil management, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil productivity
Online: 2 January 2017 (14:25:02 CET)
Crop productivity is directly dependent to soil fertility. High soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is vital as it leads to improved soil quality, increased productivity, and stable soil-aggregates. In addition, with the signing of the climate agreement, there is growing interest in carbon sequestration in landscapes. This paper looks at how SOC can be increased so that it not only contributes to reduction of CO2, but also translates to increased food production thereby enhancing food security. This synergy between mitigation and enhancing food security is even more relevant for mountain landscapes of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region where there remains huge potential to increase CO2 sequestration and simultaneously address food security in the chronic food deficit villages. Soil samples were collected from seven transects each in Bajhang and Mustang and from 4 land use types in each transect. Samples of soils were taken from two depths in each plot; 0-15 cm below the soil surface and 15-30 cm below the soil surface to compare the top soil and subsoil dynamics of the soil nutrients. The lab analysis was performed to assess the soil texture, soil color, soil acidity in 'power of hydrogen' (pH), macro-nutrients as soil fertility. Secondary data was used to analyze the level of food deficit in the villages. The result shows that most of the sample soils from Mustang were clay (82.1%) which is 46 samples out of 56. The pH value of soil from Bajhang ranged from 5.29 to 9.09. The pH value of soil ranged from 5.65 to 8.81 in Mustang. SOC contents of sampled soils from Bajhang ranged from 0.20% to 7.69% with mean amount of 2.47% ± 0.17. SOC contents of sampled soils from Mustang ranged from 0.51% to 8.56% with mean amount of 2.60% ± 0.25. By land use type, forest land had the highest carbon (C) content of 53.61 t ha-1 in Bajhang whereas in Mustang, agricultural land had the highest C content of 52.02 tons ha-1. Based on these data, we can say that there is potential for increasing SOC through improved soil health and crop production and soil. Sustainable soil management should be practiced for higher productivity. Livestock may also provide farmyard manure, which can be used to fertilize cultivated soils, which increases soil productivity. Increasing productivity would aid in increasing the access and availability of food in these mountain villages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0693.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: balanced scorecard, integrated analysis, strategic rating, management, company
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:20:55 CEST)
Research background – Effective management of modern business is impossible without the systematic development and implementation of solutions aimed at changing it, due not only to market demands and competitive conditions, but also to the requirements of various social groups. Corporate governance should be focused on ensuring that all stakeholders perform their functions in the best possible way and satisfy their needs while maintaining a balance of interests between them.Purpose – This article is devoted to the consideration of the possibility of using the integrated business analysis developed by its author, based on a balanced scorecard, in the process of studying the strategic aspects of a company's activities.Design/methodology/approach – The methodological basis of the study was the concept of business analysis as such and the concept of a balanced scorecard by R. Kaplan and D. Norton.Findings – It is shown that an integrated business analysis based on a balanced scorecard involves a comparison with the target value, identifying the causes of deviations and predicting the company's strategic rating. It includes a comprehensive analysis of financial performance, customer performance, internal business process performance, and learning and development performance of a company's balanced system. Integrated business analysis based on a balanced scorecard begins with the analysis of the indicators of training and development of the company's personnel and ends with the forecasting of its strategic rating. His methodological tools are expert- score rating, comparison method, graphical and tabular methods, factor analysis techniques and various forecasting methods. Development of an integrated business analysis based on a balanced scorecard is the result of further development of the concepts of business analysis and a balanced scorecard and is aimed at further improving the information support of the strategic management of the company, ensuring its sustainable development in the long term.Originality/value – The author comes to the conclusion that integrated business analysis based on a balanced scorecard is a new and quite effective tool for studying the strategic aspects of a company's activities, forming the analytical support for its strategic management in modern conditions. Its results can be used in the development of management decisions not only long-term, but also medium-term and short-term, providing a sufficient degree of stability of the company from the point of view of its main stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0217.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: SVR-ARMA model; Change-point; Self-normalization test; Structural change-point
Online: 11 April 2023 (09:41:04 CEST)
This study considers the change-point test problem for time series based on the self-normalization ratio statistic test, which is constructed using residuals obtained from a support vector regression (SVR)-autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. Under the null hypothesis, the series is a stationary process, and our test statistic converges to a non-degenerate distribution. Under the alternative hypothesis, there are change-points in the time series, and the self-normalization test statistic diverges to infinity. The simulations show that our proposed new test has better finite sample performance than other SVR-based tests in the literature. Finally, we illustrate its usefulness by analyzing two actual data sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0210.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate Change; SSPs scenarios; Water Management; Mining; Kazakhstan
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:40:39 CEST)
Climate change is a threat to mining and other industries, especially those involving water supply and management by inducing or amplifying some climatic parameters such as changes in precipitation regimes and temperature extremes. Using the latest NASA NEX-GDDP-CMIP6 datasets, this study quantifies the level of climate change that may affect the development of two mine sites (Site1 and Site2) in northeast Kazakhstan. The study analyses the daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature a of a number of global circulation models (GCM) over three future time periods, 2040s, 2060s and 2080s, under two shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) scenarios, SSP245 and SSP585, against the baseline period 1981- 2014. The analyses revealed that: (1) Both maximum and minimum temperature will increase under both SSP in those time periods, with the rate of change for minimum temperature being higher than maximum temperature. (2) The mean annual precipitation will increase by an average rate of 7% and 10.5% in 2040s for SSP245 and 17.5% and 7.5% for SSP585 in 2080s at Site1 and Site2, respectively. It is also observed that summer months will experience drier condition whilst all other months will increase in precipitation. (3) The values of 24-hour precipitation with 10-year return period will also increase under both SSP scenarios and future time periods for most of the studied GCM and at both mine sites. These predicted changes should be considered as design criteria adjustments for project water supply and water management structures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0648.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: self-adaptive systems, environment, concept, model, systematic literature review
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:22:54 CEST)
The runtime environment is an important concern for self-adaptive systems (SASs). Although researchers have proposed many approaches for developing SASs that address the issue of uncertain runtime environments, the understanding of these environments varies depending on the objectives, perspectives, and assumptions of the research. Thus, the current understanding of the environment in SAS development is ambiguous and abstract. To make this understanding more concrete, we describe the landscape in this area through a systematic literature review (SLR). We examined 128 primary studies and 14 unique environment models. We investigated concepts of the environment depicted in the primary studies and the proposed environment models based on their ability to aid in understanding. This illustrates the characteristics of the SAS environment, the associated emerging environmental uncertainties, and what is expressed in the existing environment models. This paper makes explicit the implicit understanding about the environment made by the SAS research community and organizes and visualizes them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; HMLV; LMHV; Production scheduling; Digital Manufacturing; Computer aided production management (CAPM); Smart Manufacturing; MCDM
Online: 17 March 2022 (11:47:59 CET)
Sustainability is the core concern of every business; The exploration of avenues to maintain sustainability while staying competitive with high level of productivity remains a vital endeavor. Production flexibility is a key area that can enhance the sustainability of manufacturing industries as it can ensure product availability, scalability, agility/fault tolerance as well as disaster recovery potentials. Technological advancements have provided avenues where companies can enhance virtually all aspects of their operations for efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative research approach to identify the capability requirements for smart and effective production management and subsequent analysis is done using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making methodology to identify and rank various industry 4.0 technologies and concepts that can provide these smart capabilities in in manufacturing industries to aid the businesses to achieve sustainability with production flexibility. The paper identifies over 12 smart capabilities and 9 Industry 4.0 Technologies which are applicable to production management. It also compares results from the analytics of historical I4.0 implementation as discussed in literatures with the current state as deduces from survey feedbacks from various manufacturing industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0345.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Self-perceived health; Psychosocial risks; Determining factors; Workplaces; Ecuador.
Online: 12 November 2020 (12:15:25 CET)
Self-perceived health is an important indicator of occupational health. This research explores the relationship between poor self-perceived health and exposure to psychosocial risk factors, taking into account potential socio-demographic, occupational and employment determinants. Using data from the First Survey of Occupational Safety and Health Conditions covering 1049 salaried workers in Guayaquil, Ecuador descriptive and stratified binary logistic regression analyses (Odds Ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals) were carried out. No significant relationship was found between exposure to psychosocial risk factors and the probability of presenting poor self-perceived health by socio-demographic, occupational and employment characteristics. Occupational exposure factors to psychosocial risks are predictors of self-perceived ill health and are related to the variables analyzed; the most frequently expressed factors among the respondents were Cognitive Demands (DGOG) and Job Insecurity (IL). The results have implications in terms of designing effective workplace interventions pursuant of ensuring the health and wellbeing of employee.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychotherapy; mental health; self-management; intervention; art therapy; bonsai
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:30:07 CEST)
Objective: The study investigated the benefit of practicing the art of bonsai and the well-being of practitioners. The art promotes relaxation, focus and art therapy that can have personal and emotional value in a self-help setting. When the bonsai tree is used as a healing object, it may improve the ability of the bonsai practitioner to adapt to adverse and stressful life events, such as the present global COVID-19 pandemic. Method: International bonsai artists (n = 255) participated in a study that examined the effect their bonsai had on their mental well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bonsai artists answering the question: “How has bonsai helped you?”. Results: Most participants acknowledged that being able to take care of their bonsais affected their mood in a positive manner. Discussion: Although the participants did not report overall improved mental health, participants expressed an improvement in their mood when being able to work on a bonsai tree. Conclusion: These findings are significant in that it can be useful in as a preventative and restorative manner in the mental well-being of people who practice the art.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Biocontainment; Bioexclusion; Biosecurity; Health-management; Poultry
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:19:29 CET)
Biosecurity is a tool used to alleviate the introduction, emergence and spread of diseases caused by infectious agents. It comprises different health-management activities that need to be followed to reduce the passage and dissemination of infectious agents within and among farms, poultry flocks, and humans, as well as within a country, among countries, or the whole globe. In terms of public health measures, biosecurity applies to practices that will reduce contact between poultry and humans and thereby reduce zoonotic disease transmission. Two of the common biosecurity measures are bioexclusion and biocontainment which themselves are further categorized as segregation/isolation, movement control and hygiene/sanitation/disinfection. Isolation is about putting poultry under an exclusively isolated environment where it lives alone without any interference from any source external to the poultry or at least under reduced and controlled interference. Movement/traffic control and sanitation measures are practices to follow the isolation of poultry or preparatory phase as in the case of sanitation of poultry houses before introduction of poultry. These techniques have been effective in controlling poultry diseases like avian influenza, exotic Newcastle, Marek’s disease, and any other diseases. Depending upon the underlying situation either bioexclusion or biocontainment measure will be used to control these infectious diseases of poultry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0694.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: apospory; cytogeography; fertility; mating systems; polyploidy; reproductive behaviour; self-incompatibility
Online: 10 May 2023 (05:43:54 CEST)
The genetic systems of Paspalum species have not been extensively studied. We analysed the ploidy, reproductive mode, mating system, and fertility of four Paspalum species - P. durifolium, P. ionan-thum, P. regnellii, and P. urvillei. An analysis of 378 individuals from 20 populations of north-eastern Argentina was conducted. All populations of the four Paspalum species were pure tetraploid and had a sexual and stable reproductive mode. However, some populations of P. durifolium and P. ionanthum showed low levels of apospory. Populations of P. durifolium and P. ionanthum had low seed sets under self-pollination but were fertile under open pollination, showing that self-incompatibility likely caused self-sterility. In contrast, populations of P. regnellii or P. urvillei showed no evidence of apospory and seed set in both self- and open pollination conditions were high, suggesting that they are self-compatible, due to the absence of pollen-pistil molecular in-compatibility mechanisms. The evolutionary origin of the four Paspalum species could explain these differences. This study supplies valuable insights into the genetic systems of Paspalum species, which could have implications for their conservation and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Online Fake News; Interpersonal influence; Self-evaluation; Motivation for Change; Food Consumption.
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:39:34 CET)
In the Italian context, the diffusion of online fake news about food is becoming increasingly fast-paced and widespread, making it more difficult for the public to recognize reliable information. Moreover, this phenomenon is deteriorating the relation with public institutions and industries. The purpose of this article is to provide a more advanced understanding of the individual psychological factors and the social influence contribute to the belief in food-related online fake news and the aspects that can increase or mitigate this risk. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire between February and March 2019. We obtained 1004 valid questionnaires filled out by a representative sample of Italian population, extracted by stratified sampling. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and the multi-group analyses to test our hypothesis. The results show that self-evaluation negatively affects the social-influence, which in turn positively affects the belief in online fake news. Moreover, this latter relationship is moderated by the readiness to change. Our results suggest that individual psychological characteristics and social influence are important to explain the belief in online fake news in the food sector; however, a pivotal role is played by the motivation of change lifestyle. This should be considered to engage people in clear and effective communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; Medicine; Practice; Bedelle city; Self-Medication
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:09:14 CEST)
Abstract Introduction There is a clear link between self-medication practice and ongoing pandemic diseases like COVID-19, According to studies conducted globally and the general Ethiopian population turned to self-medication and symptomatic treatment as a result of inadequate COVID-19 treatment and also about 80% of the population amassed drugs for pandemic use. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess self-medication practice for treatment of Covid-19 and reason to use self- medication among residents in Bedelle city and its surrounding, Southwest Oromia, Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross sectional study design was employed and the standardized questionnaire was developed by reviewing relevant literatures then the data was collected using face to face interview. Final data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23. Result: The final study contained 415 respondents in total, with a response rate of 98.5%. The majority of responses were females and between the ages of 18 - 25 Category. In this study population, the use of self-medication since the onset of the Covid-19 epidemic was reported by participants were around 50.6%. Analgesics (42.4%) and cold medicines (29.5%) were the most frequently used medications for treatment of COVID-19. Also the reported uses of these drugs included treatment of Covid-19 symptoms like the Headache (22.2%), Fever (13.2%), respiratory infective (14.3%), and cold (21.4%) were the most frequently reported symptoms for self-medication. Self-medication methods were used more frequently by women than Men. Conclusion: According to this study, analgesics and cold medications are commonly self- medicated drugs used for Covid-19 therapy. It is a serious health concern, particularly when COVID-19 symptoms are present, and high consumption of self-medication has been linked to COVID-19 prevention or treatment. Key words: Covid-19, Medicine, Practice, Bedelle city, Self-Medication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Risk management; Defense systems; System of Systems (SoS)
Online: 8 September 2020 (06:08:59 CEST)
Identifying and assessing risk is one of the most important processes in managing complex systems and requires careful consideration. The need for an effective, efficient approach to risk management is considerably more important for defense projects based on systems of systems (SoS), because they are exposed to risk already in early stages of development. This paper uses advanced data science tools to present the complexity of the risk factors relevant to defense systems, and proposes a methodology for identifying, analyzing and monitoring the risks that they face. Findings from an in-depth analysis of 46 classified defense projects based on SoS shows a need to focus on three main risks faced by defense projects: uncertainty, the lack of clearly defined goals, and managing a system under constrained conditions. The paper also presents some recommendations for minimizing risk factors in SoS for defense projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0193.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: polymer thermoreversible gels; self-assembled systems; functional materials
Online: 22 March 2018 (13:01:15 CET)
The synthesis these past few years of novel organic molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into a large variety of molecular architecture, particularly generating organogels, has opened up new horizons for preparing functional materials. Here, we present an original preparation path of such materials through the making of hybrid gels of these molecules together with covalent polymers. Three types of systems are described: i) intermingled gels where a polymer gel and an organogel pervade one another; ii) encapsulation of self-assembled filaments in polymer fibrils, which provides a system with unusual magnetic properties; iii) the reverse situation where self-assembled nanotubes sheathe polymer fibrils. Here two covalent polymers are considered: a neutral polymer, namely stereoregular polystyrene (isotactic or syndiotactic), and a semi-conducting polymer, P3BT. In the latter case, semi-conducting nanowires are obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0226.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Supply Chain Management (SCM); Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM); risk modelling; time-series analysis; machine learning
Online: 20 January 2020 (10:21:00 CET)
Risk modelling along with multi-objective optimization problems have been at theepicenter of attention for supply chain managers. In this paper, we introduce a datasetfor risk modelling in sophisticated supply chain networks based on formal mathematical models. We have discussed the methodology and simulation tools used to synthesize the dataset. Additionally, the underlying mathematical models are discussed in granular details along with providing directions to conducting statistical analyses or neural machine learning models. The simulation is performed using MATLAB ™Simulink and the models are illustrated as well.