ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2015.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: 4G model of final unification; 3 atomic gravitational constants; Nuclear charge; electromagnetic charge; Integral charge quarks; Quantum of magnetic flux; Planck’s radiation constant; Celestial magnetic moments
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:30:03 CET)
In our previous published papers, considering 3 large atomic gravitational constants assumed to be associated with weak, strong and electromagnetic interactions, we have proposed the existence of a nuclear charge of magnitude, en=2.95e and developed a nuclear mass formula associated with strong and weak interactions having 4 simple terms and only one energy coefficient. Two important assumptions are, there exists a weak fermion of rest energy 585 GeV and strong coupling constant is the squared ratio of electromagnetic charge and nuclear charge. The aim of this paper is associated with understanding the mystery of quantum of magnetic flux, Planck’s quantum radiation constant and Reduced Planck’s constant. Proceeding further, quark charges, strong coupling constant, nuclear stability, nuclear binding energy, medium and heavy atomic X-ray levels and celestial magnetic moments can be understood in a unified approach. It may also be noted that, by considering integral nature of elementary particle masses, it seems possible to understand the discreteness of angular momentum. Considering our proposed en=2.95e=3e as a characteristic nuclear charge, it seems possible to understand the integral nature of quarks electromagnetic charge. With this idea, neutron, proton and pions decay can be understood very easily. In all the cases, up quark of charge (±2e) seems to play a crucial role with the internal transformation of down quark of charge (±e) and external observable elementary basic elementary particles. It needs further study at fundamental level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0143.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Cold nuclear fusion; Iron-56 as a fuel; Eco friendly Thermal energy; Power plant
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:46:39 CET)
In this contribution, we make an attempt to write a theoretical proposal for designing an eco friendly thermal power plant which runs with cold nuclear fusion technology at a temperature of (1500 to 2000) deg.C. In our recently published papers, we have proposed a clear cut mechanism for understanding and implementing cold nuclear fusion technique pertaining to fusion of hydrogen with metals of mass numbers starting from 50. In this context, we would like to stress the point that, fusion of hydrogen under controllable temperature and pressure can be understood as a phenomenon of fusing neutron to the nucleus of the base atom. Part of isotopic nuclear binding energy difference of final and base atomic nuclides can be seen in the form of safe thermal energy of the order of (1 to 3) MeV per atom against 200 MeV released in nuclear fission of one Uranium atom. Due to increased heaviness and weak interaction, sometimes fused neutron splits into proton and electron. Proton seems to be retained by the base atom’s nuclear core and electron seems to join with the electronic orbits of the base atom. In this way, increased mass of base atomic nuclide helps in eco friendly production of thermal energy in large quantity. For this purpose we consider Iron-56 as a fuel. In a simplified view, under strong nuclear attractive forces, Iron-56 absorbs hydrogen atom as a neutron and by emitting 1MeV equivalent thermal energy transforms to Iron-57. Thus, one gram of Iron-56 can generate 1000MJ of heat with 50% efficiency. In a shortcut approach, by bombarding powder and semi-liquid forms of Iron-56 with direct neutrons coming from neutron source, our proposal can be tried, understood and verified experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0173.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Dark matter; Weak interaction; Super gravity of baryonic matter; flat rotation speed; Hubble mass; Hubble radius
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:58:06 CEST)
In our recently published papers, considering Planck mass based light speed growing black hole universe and scaled Hawking’s black hole temperature formula, we have developed a simple procedure for estimating the current Hubble parameter and current cosmic mass. In addition to that, without considering galactic dark matter, starting from 10 km/sec to 500 km/sec, we have tried to fit the observed galactic flat rotation speeds with a concept of super gravity of galactic baryonic mass. To estimate the equivalent mass of currently hypothecated galactic dark matter, we have introduced a timely increasing cosmological reference mass unit. Its current magnitude seems to be around 200 million solar masses. In this paper, considering 200 million solar masses as a characteristic representation of cosmic weak interaction mass unit, we have developed a simple formula for its estimation. We would like to appeal that, weak interaction boosts the gravity of galaxies in proportion with their virtual dark mass as (galactic baryonic mass)3/2 / (200 million solar masses)1/2. With further study- dark matter existence and physical properties can be understood in a theoretical approach.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: cold nuclear fusion; maximum binding energy per nucleon; nuclear experiment
Online: 11 March 2021 (14:15:22 CET)
Following the concept of strong interaction, theoretically, fusion of proton seems to increase the binding energy of final atom by 8.8 MeV. Due to Coulombic repulsion, asymmetry effect, pairing effect and other nuclear effects, final atom is forced to choose a little bit of binding energy less than 8.8 MeV and thus it is able to release left over binding energy in the form of internal kinetic energy or external thermal energy. Thus, in cold fusion, heat release to occur, binding energy difference of final atom and base atom seems to be less than 8.8 MeV. Qualitatively, energy released during cold fusion seems to be approximately equal to 8.8 MeV minus the difference of binding energy of final and base atoms. Based on this idea, under normal conditions, for the case of 2He4, fusion of four protons can liberate (35.2-28.3)=6.9 MeV and it is 3.5 times less than the current estimates. Point to be understood is that, lesser the binding energy of final atom, higher the liberated thermal energy and vice versa. With a suitable catalyst and sufficient hydrogen under suitable pressure, if reactor’s temperature is maintained at (1000 to 1500) 0C, there seems a lot of scope for a chain reaction of cold fusion in which light isotopes transform to their next stage with increased proton number or mass number and liberate safe and clean heat energy continuously. By arranging 4 to 6 reactors and charging them periodically in tandem, required thermal energy can be produced continuously. In this new direction, by carefully selecting the base isotope and its corresponding catalyst, experiments can be conducted and ground reality of cold fusion can be understood at various temperature and pressure conditions.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0499.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Mach's Universe; Planck scale; Cosmic Angular velocity; Galactic applications; shortened radius; shortened age;
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:46:20 CET)
Unification point of view, quantum cosmology must be given a priority and one should make a note that, Spin is a basic property of quantum physics and rotation is a very common experience. In this context, we have developed a quantum model of cosmology associated with Machian universe having Planck scale origin, total dark matter, light speed rotation and equality of gravitational self energy density and thermal energy density. We would like to appeal that, observed cosmic radius and age seem to be shortened by 146.3 times their actual magnitudes.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: 4G model of final unification; Four gravitational constants; Unified nuclear binding energy scheme; Free or unbound nucleons; Strong interaction; Electroweak interaction
Online: 25 December 2020 (17:29:44 CET)
An attempt is made to model the atomic nucleus as a combination of bound and free or unbound nucleons. Due to strong interaction, bound nucleons help in increasing nuclear binding energy and due to electroweak interaction, free or unbound nucleons help in decreasing nuclear binding energy. In this context, with reference to proposed 4G model of final unification and strong interaction, recently we have developed a unified nuclear binding energy scheme with four simple terms, one energy coefficient of 10.1 MeV and two small numbers 0.0016 and 0.0019. In this paper, by eliminating the number 0.0019, we try to fine tune the estimation procedure of number of free or unbound nucleons pertaining to the second term with an energy coefficient of 11.9 MeV. It seems that, some kind of electroweak interaction is playing a strange role in maintaining free or unbound nucleons within the nucleus. It is possible to say that, strong interaction plays a vital role in increasing nuclear binding energy and electroweak interaction plays a vital role in reducing nuclear binding energy. Interesting observation is that, Z can be considered as a characteristic representation of range of number of bound isotopes of Z. For medium, heavy and super heavy atoms, beginning and ending mass numbers pertaining to bound states can be understood with 2Z+0.004Z^2 and 3Z+0.004Z^2 respectively. With further study, neutron drip lines can be understood. Based on this kind of data fitting procedure and by considering the mass ratio of pions and electroweak bosons, existence of our 4G model of electroweak fermion of rest energy 584.725 GeV can be confirmed confidently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0732.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: String theory; Three atomic gravitational constants; 3+1 dimensions; 4G model of final unification; Microscopic Quantum Gravity;
Online: 31 July 2020 (05:17:14 CEST)
Within the scope of observed materialistic physical systems, without addressing the roots of H-Bar and big G, it is impossible to construct a workable model of final unification. With reference to our earlier proposed three large atomic gravitational constants, it is possible to reform and compactify the 10 dimensional String theory to 3+1 dimensions
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0127.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: three atomic gravitational constants; strong coupling constant; nuclear stability; binding energy
Online: 13 June 2019 (13:40:18 CEST)
We present simple relations for nuclear stability and nuclear binding energy with respect to three gravitational constants associated with electroweak, strong and electromagnetic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0189.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Planck scale; Mach’s relation; quantum cosmology; critical density; ordinary matter; dark matter; expansion velocity; angular velocity; Hubble’s law
Online: 5 March 2019 (06:43:15 CET)
With reference to Planck scale, Mach’s relation, increasing support for large scale cosmic anisotropy and preferred directions and by introducing two new parameters Gamma and Beta, right from the beginning of Planck scale, we make an attempt to estimate ordinary matter density ratio, dark matter density ratio, mass, radius, temperature, age and expansion velocity (from and about the baby universe in all directions). We would like suggest that, from the beginning of Planck scale, 1) Dark matter can be considered as a kind of cosmic foam responsible for formation of galaxies. 2) Cosmic angular velocity is directly proportional to squared cosmic temperature. 3) Ratio of critical temperature to actual temperature plays a heuristic role in understanding ordinary and dark matter density ratios. 4) Cosmic expansion velocity increases with decreasing total matter density ratio. 5) There is no need to consider dark energy for understanding cosmic acceleration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0271.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Materialistic atoms, three atomic gravitational constants, Newtonian gravitational constant, materialistic quantum gravity
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:22:16 CET)
Even though materialistic atoms are having independent existence in this current accelerating universe, they are not allowing scientists and engineers to explore the secrets of gravity at atomic scale. This may be due to incomplete unification paradigm, inadequacy of known physics and technological difficulties etc. In this challenging scenario, one fundamental question to be answered is: Is Newtonian gravitational constant having a physical existence? We would like to suggest that, it’s a man created empirical constant and is having no physical existence. Clearly speaking, it’s not real but virtual. For understanding the secrets of large scale gravitational effects, scientists consider it as a physical constant. In the same way, each atomic interaction can be allowed to have its own gravitational constant. With further study, their magnitudes can be refined for a better understanding of the nature. Thinking in this way, we tried to fit the Newtonian gravitational constant. It’s estimated value seems to be 6.679855x10^(-11) m3/kg/sec2. Proceeding further, the famous radiation constants can be shown to be complex or secondary physical constants. By considering proton neutron stability, nuclear binding energy, nuclear charge radii, neutron life time, Fermi’s weak coupling constant and strong coupling constant, we are trying to understand the validity of the proposed three atomic gravitational constants. It needs further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0355.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: strong (nuclear) gravity; nuclear elementary charge; strong coupling constant; nuclear charge radius; beta stability line; nuclear binding energy; nucleon mass difference; Fermi’s weak coupling constant; Newtonian gravitational constant; deuteron; interaction range; super heavy elements
Online: 8 January 2019 (10:57:41 CET)
With reference to electromagnetic interaction and Abdus Salam’s strong (nuclear) gravity, 1) Square root of ‘reciprocal’ of the strong coupling constant can be considered as the strength of nuclear elementary charge. 2) ‘Reciprocal’ of the strong coupling constant can be considered as the maximum strength of nuclear binding energy. 3) In deuteron, strength of nuclear binding energy is around unity and there exists no strong interaction in between neutron and proton. being the nuclear gravitational constant, nuclear charge radius can be shown to be, being the nuclear elementary charge, proton magnetic moment can be shown to be, being the strong coupling constant, strong interaction range can be shown to be proportional to Interesting points to be noted are: An increase in the value of helps in decreasing the interaction range indicating a more strongly bound nuclear system. A decrease in the value of helps in increasing the interaction range indicating a more weakly bound nuclear system. From onwards, close to stable mass numbers, nuclear binding energy can be addressed with, With further study, magnitude of the Newtonian gravitational constant can be estimated with nuclear elementary physical constants. One sample relation is, where represents the Newtonian gravitational constant and represents the Fermi’s weak coupling constant. Two interesting coincidences are, and
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0407.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Planck scale; Mach’s relation; quantum cosmology; critical density; ordinary matter; dark matter; thermal redshift; expansion velocity; rotational kinetic energy; dark energy; Hubble’s law
Online: 2 November 2018 (02:30:57 CET)
With reference to Planck scale, Mach's relation and by introducing two new parameters Gamma and Beta, right from the beginning of Planck scale, we make an attempt to estimate ordinary matter density ratio, dark matter density ratio, mass, radius, temperature, age and expansion velocity (from and about the Planck mass in all directions). In analogy with currently believed cosmic acceleration, with a decreasing trend of total matter density ratio, cosmic expansion velocity can be shown to be increasing. By considering km/sec/Mpc, estimated current cosmic mass, radius, total matter density, expansion velocity, temperature and age are: and respectively. Point to be noted is that, with reference to Planck scale, cosmic temperature seems to be redshifted by a factor where represent Planck scale and time dependent Hubble parameters respectively. As a peculiar case, considering the equality of current Hubble parameter and current angular velocity, current cosmic rotational kinetic energy can be estimated to be 0.667 times the current critical energy. It needs further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0053.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Strong nuclear gravity, nuclear elementary charge, strong coupling constant, nuclear stability range, binding energy of isotopes, magic proton numbers.
Online: 16 October 2018 (15:28:20 CEST)
With reference to our earlier published views on large nuclear gravitational constant , nuclear elementary charge and strong coupling constant , in this paper, we present simple relations for nuclear stability range, binding energy of isotopes and magic proton numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0096.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Strong coupling constant, strong elementary charge, nuclear binding energy.
Online: 5 July 2018 (14:27:40 CEST)
We review the basics of nuclear binding energy scheme assumed to be associated with the existence of a new strong elementary charge associated with square root of reciprocal of the strong coupling constant.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Flat space cosmology; dark matter; visible matter; galactic radii; galactic angular velocity; cosmic angular velocity
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:19:27 CET)
We emphasize the point that, standard model of cosmology is basically a model of classical general relativity and it seems inevitable to have a revision with reference to quantum model of cosmology. Utmost important point to be noted is that, ‘Spin’ is a basic property of quantum mechanics and ‘rotation’ is a very common experience. In this context, we propose five assumptions in line with Planck mass as the baby universe. We appeal that, 1) Universe can be modeled as a time-reversed black hole (a white hole) with rotation and light speed expansion, and 2) ‘Light speed expanding cosmic space’ can be called as ‘Flat space’. With reference to light speed expansion, if one is willing to re-define cosmic red shift as [z/(1+z)], without considering Lambda cosmology model of matter density fractions, light travel distances can be reproduced with a marginal error of +8.6% at z =1.2, (i.e. traditional light travel distance is 8.6% higher than our estimate), 0% at z = 11.5 and -5.5% at z = 1200.( i.e. traditional light travel distance is 5.5% lower than our estimate). Advantages of our model are, 1) A quantum model of cosmology can be developed with unification of general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. 2) Tension in estimating the current Hubble parameter can be eliminated via scaled Hawking’s black hole temperature formula with great confidence. 3) Galactic dark matter and visible matter can be studied in a unified manner. 4) Galactic light travel distances can be estimated very easily without matter density fractions. 5) Big Bang and Inflation like non-general relativistic concepts can be relinquished with further study.