CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0542.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Health policies; Finance; Systems Thinking
Online: 20 November 2020 (12:15:32 CET)
The Coronavirus pandemic is a major challenge to human wellbeing; it directly affects health, and indirectly involves the economic, politic and social spheres. This, in turn, is going to have major systemic, worldwide health, social and environmental consequences. In this paper, I will briefly sum up the history of the pandemic, the worldwide diffusion, the major different political reactions, as well as health and political countermeasures, and the economic consequences / evaluations for the future. The aim of this paper is to show and address all the different spheres involved and their relationships. Emphasis will be placed on the paradoxical presence of a large amount of data and the big uncertainty for the future. The outcomes will be briefly analyzed on a healthcare, political and socio-economical level. The point of view is systemic with human beings, institutions and the environment seen as a whole. Systemic thinking allows interdisciplinary research to be decisive in understanding the worldwide reaction to the pandemic. The global response to this crisis is of historical significance, and therefore potentially decisive for the multi-layered future of the world.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0092.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: quantum network; quantum potential; complex system; Coherence Domains; Hopfield Networks; information
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:36:16 CET)
As a complex system, our body acts as a whole system connected to the environmental incitements. It is ordered, coherent, and tries to maintain the least possible entropy, saving the greatest amount of energy. In order to explain the dynamics of the systemic regulative network, a theoretical and speculative model is proposed, with a comprehensive approach that allows seeing the entire regulative system as a continuous unicuum. This paper covers two themes: 1) the connections between the quantum level and the classical one, through some principles of the QFT and through the Coherence Domains. The system is modeled as a field described by the wave function, with synchronous and consistent events, driven in a global computing by the quantum potential Q. The quantum potential implies the non-locality, and it needs only ultra-weak waves to occur, so it may explain how the rapid and global activation of the organism in response to perturbation/punctiform information works. The initial hypothesis is that some consistent quantum phenomena are amplified through the systemic regulative network until they become macroscopic observable. This is possible because of Coherence Domains. 2) The reactions of the different systemic networks to perturbations/punctiform information, with the attempt to model and measure information in biology, going beyond the Shannon and Turing theories. Hopfield Networks and an informational point of view are used to address the crucial informational and organizational role of proteins and nucleic acids.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cybernetics; complex systems; new drug development; human system
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:38:27 CET)
Specialized, reductionist, and linear approaches are applied in clinical research; they are based on linear logic and used towards therapeutic molecule-based targets. However, those approaches do not consider a systemic vision that describes the remote cause of the pathogenic activation. We propose new theoretical and practical methods for the next drug generation development. Self-organization, network structure, hierarchical organization, non-linearity, feedback circuits, reactions to information, and the view of drugs as information clarify the existing pharmacological methods. We suggest a perspective and hierarchical vision of the human organism based on six levels (mechanic and structural; metabolic; bodily dynamic; emotional, cognitive, spiritual). The therapy should restore the self-organization of every level using the “intelligent” modulation of the network responses. Multi-targeted drugs should act on the remote cause of the pathogenic cascade and be administered based on personal variability and networks. This approach may help the development of individualized, precise, and integrated medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Sars-CoV-2; Natural immunity; Cellular immunity; Vaccine-induced immunity; Hybrid immunity; Cross-reactivity; Omicron
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:38:36 CEST)
Background: Both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity to COVID-19 may be useful to reduce the mortality/morbidity of this disease, but still a lot of controversy exists. Aims: This narrative review analyzes the literature about: a) the duration of natural immunity; b) cellular immunity; c) cross-reactivity; d) the duration of post-vaccination immune protection; e) the probability of reinfection and its clinical manifestations in the recovered patients; f) comparisons between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the possible reinfections; g) the role of hybrid immunity; h) the effectiveness of natural and vaccine-induced immunity against Omicron variant; i) comparative incidence of adverse effects after vaccination in recovered individuals vs. COVID-19-naïve subjects. Material and Methods: through multiple search engines we investigated COVID-19 literature related to the aims of the review, published since April 2020 through July 2022, including also the previous articles pertinent to the investigated topics. Results: nearly 900 studies were collected and 238 pertinent articles were included. It was highlighted that the vast majority of individuals after COVID-19 develop a natural immunity both of cell-mediated and humoral type, which is effective over time and provides protection against both reinfection and serious illness. Vaccine-induced immunity was shown to decay faster than natural immunity. In general, the severity of the symptoms of reinfection is significantly lower than in the primary infection, with a lower degree of hospitalizations (0.06%) and an extremely low mortality. Conclusions: this narrative review regarding a vast number of articles highlighted the valuable protection induced by the natural immunity after COVID-19, which seems comparable or superior to the one induced by anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccination of the unvaccinated COVID-19-recovered subjects may not be indicated. Further research is needed in order to: a) measure the durability of immunity over time; b) evaluate both the impacts of Omicron-5 on vaccinated and healed subjects and of hybrid immunity.