ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0076.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; drug repurposing; long COVID; molecular docking; molecular dynamics; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 January 2023 (09:38:47 CET)
The novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has resulted in an estimated 20 million excess deaths and the recent resurgence of COVID-19 in China is predicted to result in up to 1 million deaths over the next few months. With vaccines unable to halt transmission it is important to continue our quest for safe, effective, affordable drugs that will be available to all countries. Drug repurposing is one of the strategies being explored in this context. Recently, out of 7,817 approved drugs, 214 candidates were systematically down-selected using a combination of 11 filters including approval status, assay data against SARS-CoV-2, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicity profiles. These drugs were subjected in this study to virtual screening against various targets of SARS-CoV-2 followed by molecular dynamic studies of the best scoring ligands against each target. The chosen molecular targets were Spike receptor binding domain, Nucleocapsid protein RNA binding domain, and key non-structural proteins 3, 5, 12, 13 and 14. Four drugs approved for other indications — alendronate, cromolyn, natamycin and treprostinil — look sufficiently promising from our in silicostudies to warrant further in vitro and in vivo investigations as appropriate to ascertain their extent of anti-viral activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; CoviRx.org; database; drugs; pandemic; repurposing; SARS-CoV-2; therapies; treatments; Variants of Concern (VOC)
Online: 20 September 2022 (15:00:48 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2, is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic which has claimed more than six million lives worldwide, devastating the economy and overwhelming healthcare systems globally. The development of new drug molecules and vaccines has played a critical role in managing the pandemic; however, new variants of concern still pose a significant threat as the current vaccines cannot prevent all infections. This situation calls for the collaboration of biomedical scientists and healthcare workers across the world. Repurposing approved drugs is an effective way of fast-tracking new treatments for recently emerged diseases. To this end, we have assembled and curated a database consisting of 7817 compounds from the Compounds Australia Open Drug collection. We developed a set of eight filters based on indicators of efficacy and safety that were applied sequentially to down-select drugs that showed promise for drug repurposing efforts against SARS-CoV-2. Considerable effort was made to evaluate approximately 14000 assay data points for SARS-CoV-2 FDA/TGA-approved drugs and provide an average activity score for 3539 compounds. The filtering process identified 12 FDA approved molecules with established safety profiles that have a plausible mechanism for treating COVID-19 disease. The methodology developed in our study provides a template for prioritising repurposable drug candidates that are safe, efficacious, and cost-effective for the treatment of COVID-19, long COVID, or any other future disease. We present our database in an easy-to-use interactive interface (CoviRx, https://www.covirx.org/) that was also developed to enable scientific community to access to the data of over 7000 potential drugs and to implement alternative prioritisation and down-selection strategies.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0323.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: COVID-19; Open-source dataset; Drug Repurposing; Database system; Web application devel-opment; software development; Drug fingerprints; Bulk upload
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:14:11 CEST)
Although various vaccines are now commercially available, they have not been able to stop the spread of COVID-19 infection completely. An excellent strategy to quickly get safe, effective, and affordable COVID-19 treatment is to repurpose drugs that are already approved for other diseases as adjuvants along with the ongoing vaccine regime. The process of developing an accurate and standardized drug repurposing dataset requires a considerable level of resources and expertise due to the commercial availability of an extensive array of drugs that could be potentially used to address the SARS-CoV-2 infection. To address this bottleneck, we created the CoviRx platform. CoviRx is a user-friendly interface that provides access to the data, which is manually curated for COVID-19 drug repurposing data. Through CoviRx, the data curated has been made open-source to help advance drug repurposing research. CoviRx also encourages users to submit their findings after thoroughly validating the data, followed by merging it by enforcing uniformity and integ-rity-preserving constraints. This article discusses the various features of CoviRx and its design principles. CoviRx has been designed so that its functionality is independent of the data it dis-plays. Thus, in the future, this platform can be extended to include any other disease X beyond COVID-19. CoviRx can be accessed at www.covirx.org.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0288.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Therapeutics; Drug Repurposing; 3D Tissue Models
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:24:22 CEST)
The repurposing of licenced drugs for use against COVID-19 is one of the most rapid ways to develop new and alternative therapeutic options to manage the ongoing pandemic. Given the approximately 8,000 licenced compounds available from Compounds Australia that can be screened, this paper demonstrates the utility of commercially-available ex vivo/3D airway and alveolar tissue models. These models are a closer representation of in vivo studies compared to in vitro models, but retain the benefits of rapid in vitro screening for drug efficacy. We demonstrate that several existing drugs appear to show anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity against both Delta and Omicron Variants of Concern in the airway model. In particular, fluvoxamine, as well as aprepitant, everolimus, and sirolimus have virus reduction efficacy comparable to the current standard of care (remdesivir, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir). Whilst these results are encouraging, further testing and efficacy studies are required before clinical use can be considered.