ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0311.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: optical networks; jamming attacks; machine learning; detection and prevention; routing and spectrum assignment; security
Online: 18 June 2019 (07:26:54 CEST)
Optical networks are prone to power jamming attacks intending service disruption. This paper presents a Machine Learning (ML) framework for detection and prevention of jamming attacks in optical networks. We evaluate various ML classifiers for detecting out-of-band jamming attacks with varying intensities. Numerical results show that artificial neural network is the fastest ($10^6$ detection per second) for inference and most accurate ($\approx 100 \%$) in detecting power jamming attacks as well as identifying the optical channels attacked. We also discuss and study a novel prevention mechanism when the system is under active jamming attacks. For this scenario, we propose a novel resource reallocation scheme that utilizes the statistical information of attack detection accuracy to lower the probability of successful jamming of lightpaths while minimizing lightpaths' reallocations. Simulation results show that the likelihood of jamming a lightpath reduces with increasing detection accuracy, and localization reduces the number of reallocations required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0281.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fiber-wireless networks; edge (fog) computing; sensors; machine learning, ZigBee.
Online: 30 August 2018 (11:18:04 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate an animal-human cohabitation problem with the help of machine learning and fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks integrating cloud and edge (fog) computing. We propose an early warning system which detects wild animals nearby road/rail with the help of wireless sensor networks and alerts passing vehicles of possible animal crossing. Additionally, we show that animals' detection at the earliest and the related processing, if possible, at sensors would reduce the energy consumption of edge devices and the end-to-end delay in notifying vehicles, as compared to the scenarios where raw sensed data needs to be transferred up the base stations or the cloud. At the same time, machine learning helps in classification of captured images at edge devices, and in predicting different time-varying traffic profiles-- distinguished by latency and bandwidth requirements-- at base stations, including animal appearance events at sensors, and allocating bandwidth in FiWi access networks accordingly. We compare three scenarios of processing data at sensor nodes, base stations and a hybrid case of processing sensed data at either sensors or at base stations, and showed that dynamic allocation of bandwidth in FiWi access networks and processing data at its origin leads to lowering the congestion of network traffic at base stations and reducing the average end-to-end delay.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: aging; amino acids; antioxidant; arginine; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; protein; peptide
Online: 1 September 2023 (16:25:31 CEST)
The master molecular regulators and mechanisms determining longevity and health span include nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion radicals (SOR). L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) substrate, can restore a healthy ratio between the dangerous SOR and the protective NO radical to promote healthy aging. Antioxidant supplementation orchestrates protection against oxidative stress and damage—L-arginine and antioxidants such as vitamin C increase NO production and bioavailability. Uncoupling of NO generation with the appearance of SOR can be induced by asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). L-arginine can displace ADMA from the site of NO formation if sufficient amounts of the amino acid are available. Antioxidants such as ascorbic acids can scavenge SOR and increase the bioavailability of NO. The topics of this review are the complex interactions of antioxidant agents with L-arginine, which determine NO bioactivity and protection against age-related degeneration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: flavonoids; cellular stress response; neurodegenerative disorders; ER stress proteotoxicity; oxidative stress; neuroinflammation
Online: 19 January 2021 (14:02:03 CET)
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyloidal lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD) are the most concerned disorders due to the lack of effective therapeutics and dramatic rise in affected cases. Although these disorders have diverse clinical manifestations, yet they all share a common cellular stress response. These cellular stress responses including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, proteotoxicity, and ER-stress, which combats with stress conditions, but the overwhelming cellular stress response induces cell damage. Small molecules such as flavonoids could reduce cellular stress and have gained much attention in recent years. Evidence has shown the potential use of flavonoids in several ways such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic, yet their mechanism is still elusive. This review provides an insight into the mechanistic ways of flavonoids against cellular stress response that prevent the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Biosurfactants; Critical micelle concentration (C.M.C.); Antioxidant; Microorganism; Soil quality; Plant disease management
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:34:43 CEST)
In the current scenario of changing climatic conditions and rising global population, there is always a need to explore novel, efficient, and economical natural products for the benefit of human kind. Biosurfactant is one of the latest explored microbial biomolecules that have been used in numerous fields, including agriculture, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food processing, and environment-cleaning industries as raw material, lubrication, wetting, foaming softening, making emulsions, and stabilizing dispersions. The amphiphilic nature of biosurfactant biomolecules showed great advantage, distributing themselves into two immiscible surfaces by reducing interfacial surface tension and increasing the solubility of hydrophobic compounds. Furthermore, their eco-friendly nature, low or even no toxic nature, durability at higher temperatures, and wide range of pH fluctuations making the microbial surfactants preferable compared to their chemical counterparts. Additionally, the biosurfactants can obviate the oxidation flow by eliciting the antioxidant property, antimicrobial, anticancer activity, and drug delivery system, further broadening their applicability in the food, pharmaceutical, and pharma industries. Nowadays, biosurfactant has been broadly utilized to improve the soil quality by improving the concentration of trace elements and mixed with pesticides or applied singly on the plant surfaces for plant disease management. In the present review, we summarise the latest aspect of microbial synthesized biosurfactant compounds, limiting factors of biosurfactant production, and their application in improving soil quality, plant disease management.