ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0698.v1
Subject: Keywords: Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Syntactic Pattern Recognition, Pattern Primitives and Heart Disease
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:44:07 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may sometimes unexpected loss of life. It affects the heart and blood vessels of body. CVD plays an important factor of life since it may cause death of human. It is necessary to detect early of this disease for securing patients life. In this chpter two exclusively different methods are proposed for detection of heart disease. The first one is Pattern Recognition Approach with grammatical concept and the second one is machine learning approach. In the syntactic pattern recognition approach initially ECG wave from different leads is decomposed into pattern primitive based on diagnostic criteria. These primitives are then used as terminals of the proposed grammar. Pattern primitives are then input to the grammar. The parsing table is created in a tabular form. It finally indicates the patient with any disease or normal. Here five diseases beside normal are considered. Different Machine Learning (ML) approaches may be used for detecting patients with CVD and assisting health care systems also. These are useful for learning and utilizing the patterns discovered from large databases. It applies to a set of information in order to recognize underlying relationship patterns from the information set. It is basically a learning stage. Unknown incoming set of patterns can be tested using these methods. Due to its self-adaptive structure Deep Learning (DL) can process information with minimal processing time. DL exemplifies the use of neural network. A predictive model follows DL techniques for analyzing and assessing patients with heart disease. A hybrid approach based on Convolutional Layer and Gated-Recurrent Unit (GRU) are used in the paper for diagnosing the heart disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0257.v1
Subject: Keywords: Face Detection; Kohonen Self-Organizing Feature Map(K-SOM); Skin Color Segmentation; K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) Classifier
Online: 11 September 2020 (12:10:28 CEST)
In today's world it is very much important to maintain the security of information and its risks. The biometric-based techniques are very much useful in these problems. Among the several kinds of biometric-based technique, face detection is much complex and much more important. Due to the age and several other problems, a human face structure changes over time, again a human has lots of expressions. Sometimes due to the lighting condition or the variation of the angle of an input device, the pattern of a human face structure also changed. As a result, the face cannot be detected properly. In this paper, a method is proposed that can detect the human faces both automatically and manually very efficiently. In manual mode, a user can select the input faces referred by the system according to their choice. In automated mode, the system detected all possible face areas using the Kohonen Self-Organizing Feature Map technique. This method reduced the complex color image into a vector quantized image with desired colors. Then a color segmentation technique is used to detect the possible face skin areas from the vector quantized image. Then the Histogram Oriented Gradient technique used to detect the feature from the faces and K-Nearest Neighbour Classifier is used to compare both face images detected by the two modes. The automated method prosed better accuracy than the manual method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0636.v1
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:27:39 CEST)
Coronavirus is believed to have originated from a wet market in Wuhan, China, and has spread all over the world, resulting in a large number of hospitalizations and deaths. Social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. Schools, Colleges and Universities across the country have now been shut down till now due to Covid-19. Some Governments in India impose lockdown to reduce the crises created by this unknown virus. It is now difficult to make final assessments by school, school leaving examinations and entrance tests for undergraduate and post-graduate courses. This disruption implies for students across the socio-economic spectrum, both in terms of learning outcomes , food and economic security. Here the aim is to discuss the implications of lockdown-induced in schools in both urban and rural areas in India.The whole world implemented a nationwide lockdown to curb the transmission of the virus. A survey was over Five hundred families to complete a questionnaire with questions around symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and family affluence. The humans who do not have enough supplies to sustain the lockdown were most affected Families with affluence were found to be negatively correlated with stress, anxiety, and depression. Stress, anxiety, and depression more than others are seen in students and healthcare professionals. The main aim of the paper is to find out how symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress on parents due to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0330.v1
Subject: Keywords: Skin Detection; Color Space Model; Aggregated Channel Features (ACF) Detector; Histogram Oriented Gradient (HOG) Features Detection; Bootstrap Aggregation Decision Tree Classifier; Spot Detection
Online: 15 August 2020 (03:28:51 CEST)
Human Face and facial parts are the most significant parts as it reveals a person’s true identity. It plays an important role in various biometric applications like crowd analysis, human tracking, photography, cosmetic surgery, etc. There are many techniques are available to detect a facial image. Among them, skin detection is the most popular one. The aim of this paper is to detect first the person's identity from facial image and finally check any spot present the the detected person. The first step is to detect the maximum skin region based on a combination method of RGB and HSV color space model. Next it is to verify the skin areas of human through machine learning approach. The Aggregated Channel Features (ACF) detector is used to identify the different facial parts like eye pairs, nose, and mouth. Bootstrap aggregation decision tree classifier is applied to classify the person’s identity based on Histogram Oriented Gradient (HOG) features value. The experimental results show that the proposed method gives the average 97% accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0303.v1
Online: 14 July 2020 (11:31:46 CEST)
Lower Back Pain (LBP) is a disease that needs immediate attention. Person with back pain shall go immediately to doctor for treatment. Injury, excessive works and some medical conditions are result of back pain. Back pain is common to any age of human for different reasons. Due to factors such as previous occupation and degenerative disk disease the chance of developing lower back pain increases for older people. It hampers the working condition of people common reason for seeking medical treatment. The result is absence from work and is unable to normal due to pain. It creates uncomfortable and debilitating situations. Hence, detecting this disease at an early stage will assist the medical field experts to suggest counter measures to the patients. Detection of lower back pain is implemented in this paper by applying ensemble machine learning technique. This paper proposes Stacking ensemble classifier as an automated tool that will predict lower back pain tendency of a patient. Experimental result implies that the proposed method reaches an accuracy of 76.34%, f1-score of 0.76 and MSE of 0.34.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0101.v1
Subject: Keywords: Term deposit subscription; Neural network; GRU; Convolutional layers; DT; MLP; k-NN
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:13:34 CEST)
Banks are normally offered two kinds of deposit accounts. It consists of deposits like current/saving account and term deposits like fixed or recurring deposits. For enhancing the maximized profit from bank as well as customer perspective, term deposit can accelerate uplifting of finance fields. This paper focuses on likelihood of term deposit subscription taken by the customers. Bank campaign efforts and customer detail analysis can influence term deposit subscription chances. An automated system is approached in this paper that works towards prediction of term deposit investment possibilities in advance. This paper proposes deep learning based hybrid model that stacks Convolutional layers and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) layers as predictive model. For RNN, Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) is employed. The proposed predictive model is later compared with other benchmark classifiers such as k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Decision tree classifier (DT), and Multi-layer perceptron classifier (MLP). Experimental study concludes that proposed model attains an accuracy of 89.59% and MSE of 0.1041 which outperform well other baseline models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0368.v1
Subject: Keywords: Fraud Detection; Recurrent Neural Network; PaySim; Financial Transactions; Deep Learning
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:34:34 CEST)
Online transactions are becoming more popular in present situation where the globe is facing an unknown disease COVID-19. Now authorities of Countries requested peoples to use cashless transaction as far as possible. Practically it is not always possible to use it in all transactions. Since number of such cashless transactions have been increasing during lockdown period due to COVID-19, fraudulent transactions are also increasing in a rapid way. Fraud can be analysed by viewing a series of customer transactions data that was done in his/her previous transactions. Normally banks or other transaction authorities warned their customers about the transaction If any deviation is noticed by them from available patterns. These authorities think that it is possibly of fraudulent transaction. For detection of fraud during COVID-19, banks and credit card companies are applying various methods such as data mining , decision tree, rule based mining, neural network, fuzzy clustering approach and machine learning methods. These approaches is try to find out normal usage pattern of customers based on their past activities. The objective of this paper is to find out such fraud transactions during such unmanageable situation.Digital payment schemes are often threatened by fraudulent activities. Detecting fraud transaction in during money transfer may save customers from financial loss. Mobile based money transactions are focused in this paper for fraud detection. A Deep Learning (DL) framework is suggested in this paper that monitors and detects fraudulent activities. Implementing and applying recurrent neural network on PaySim generated synthetic financial dataset, deceptive transactions are identified. The proposed method is capable to detect deceptive transactions with an accuracy of 99.87%, F1-Score of 0.99 and MSE of 0.01.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0351.v1
Subject: Keywords: Brain Tumor; Machine Learning; Ensemble techniques; AdaBoost; Cross-Validation; Stratified technique
Online: 29 June 2020 (07:27:38 CEST)
Brain Tumor is one of the severe diseases and occurrence of this disease threats human life. Detection of brain tumor in advance can secure patient’s life from unwanted loss. Well-timed and swift disease detection and treatment strategy can lead to improved quality of life in these patients. This paper attempts to use Machine Learning based ensemble approaches for recognising patients with brain tumor. Ensemble technique based AdaBoost classifier and 10-fold stratified cross-validation method are assembled in single platform is proposed in this paper for prediction of brain tumor. This prediction is compared against three baseline classifiers such as Gradient Boost, Random Forest and Extra Trees classifier. Experimental result implies the superiority of this model with an accuracy of 98.97%, f1-score of 0.99, kappa statistics score of 0.95 and MSE of 0.0103.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0333.v1
Subject: Keywords: Lung Cancer Prediction; Neural Network; Cross-validation; Gradient Boosting Classifier; Automated tool
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:56:30 CEST)
Lung cancer is known as lung carcinoma. It is a disease which is malignant tumor leading to the uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue. Lung Cancer disease is one of the most prominent cause of death in all over world. Early detection of this disease can assist medical care unit as well as physicians to provide counter measures to the patients. The objective of this paper is to approach an automated tool that takes influential causes of lung cancer as input and detect patients with higher probabilities of being affected by this disease. A neural network classifier accompanied by cross-validation technique is proposed in this paper as a predictive tool. Later, this proposed method is compared with another baseline classifier Gradient Boosting Classifier in order to justify the prediction performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0297.v1
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:02:03 CEST)
Breast Cancer diagnosis is one of the most studied problems in the medical domain. In the medical domain, cancer diagnosis has been studied extensively which instantiates the need of early prediction of cancer disease. For obtaining advance prediction, health records are exploited and given as input to an automated system. This paper focuses on constructing an automated system by employing deep learning based recurrent neural network models. A stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN is proposed in this paper that accepts health records of a patient for determining possibility of being affected by breast cancer. Proposed model is compared against other baseline classifiers such as stacked Simple-RNN model, stacked LSTM-RNN model, stacked GRU-RNN model. Comparative results obtained in this study indicate that stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN yield better classification performance for predictions related to breast cancer disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0243.v1
Online: 19 June 2020 (12:15:46 CEST)
All over the world, development of micro blog and other social platform indicate that Social Media is now the focus and trend of the Internet. Daily life, study and work are influenced by news in Social Medias . Micro blog is new emergent type of media and it spreads information rapidly in the crowd in recent years. Suppose an user searches for specific information about one topic on micro blog. He/she found easily plenty of information related to his/her search in social medias. The problem is to find out the correct information. Normally, multi-document summarization method deals with a collection of documents about one topic for extracting the valuable points and discards useless information. Actually, it needs to extract the topic content by adding topic factors and social patterns. Topic factor is the lexical information related to the topic. Social pattern relates to special interactive mode owned by online social network, such as comment and repost. People has been seen the fake news on mobile/internet during lockdown period. It is of no doubt that anyone with a social media account has seen at least one example of this.Humanity’s greatest challenges are to detect false information. Fake news are collected from 150 persons using social media The aim of the paper is to investigate the truthfulness of the news people share on social media using K-nearest Neighbour (KNN) based Classifier method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0242.v1
Online: 19 June 2020 (12:13:41 CEST)
Corona Virus Infectious Disease (COVID-19) is newly emerging infectious disease. This disease is known to the globe in early 2019. Poor status of mental health is often caused by unemployment, ongoing socio-economic condition. Poor mental health may even accelerate the process of panic attack. It has been happening rapidly during COVID-19. It has a great effect on human health. This paper utilizes multiple related factors those have impact on causing panic attack. Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based framework is utilized in this paper that assembles multiple RNN layers along with other parameters into a single platform. This method is implemented by capturing interfering factors and predicts panic attack tendency of people during COVID-19. Early prediction of panic attacks may assist in saving life from unwanted circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0209.v1
Subject: Keywords: Skin Disease Detection; Machine Learning (ML); Deep Learning(DL); Artificial Intelligence
Online: 13 September 2021 (11:54:04 CEST)
Skin disease is a very common disease for humans. In the medical industry detecting skin disease and recognizing its type is a very challenging task. Due to the complexity of human skin texture and the visual closeness effect of the diseases, sometimes it is really difficult to detect the exact type. Therefore, it is necessary to detect and recognize the skin disease at its very first observation. In today's era, artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly growing in medical fields. Different machine learning (ML) and deep learning(DL) algorithms are used for diagnostic purposes. These methods drastically improve the diagnosis process and also speed up the process. In this paper, a brief comparison between the machine learning process and the deep learning process was discussed. In both processes, three different and popular algorithms are used. For the machine Learning process Bagged Tree Ensemble, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Support Vector Machine(SVM) algorithms were used. For the deep learning process three pre-trained deep neural network models
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0533.v1
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:30:30 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created immense threats to public health on various levels around the globe. The unpredictable outbreak of this disease and the pandemic situation are causing severe depression, anxiety and other mental as physical health related problems among the human beings. To combat against this disease, vaccination is essential as it will boost the immune system of human beings while being in the contact with the infected people. The vaccination process is thus necessary to confront the outbreak of COVID-19. This deadly disease has put social, economic condition of the entire world into an enormous challenge. The worldwide vaccination progress should be tracked to identify how fast the entire economic as well as social life will be stabilized. The monitor ofthe vaccination progress, a machine learning based Regressor model is approached in this study. This tracking process has been applied on the data starting from 14th December, 2020 to 24th April, 2021. A couple of ensemble based machine learning Regressor models such as Random Forest, Extra Trees, Gradient Boosting, AdaBoost and Extreme Gradient Boosting are implemented and their predictive performance are compared. The comparative study reveals that the AdaBoostRegressor outperforms with minimized mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.968 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 11.133.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0144.v1
Subject: Keywords: Diabetic; Diabetic Mellitus; Diabetic Prediction; PIMA diabetic dataset; Female diabetic Patients; Machine Learning
Online: 4 June 2021 (15:25:16 CEST)
Diabetics or Diabetic Mellitus is a metabolic disorder of blood sugar levels in the human body. It is a major non-communicable disease and involved many serious health risk issues. This disease is rapidly increasing in India. It is a chronic condition and it occurs when a body doesn't produce enough insulin hormone to control the blood sugar level. In this study, different variables have been analyzed that cause the diabetics, and different machine learning algorithms are used to predict whether an unknown sample is diabetes or not. For this purpose, PIMA diabetic detection for Female patients was used. Here 10 different classification model is used for prediction. Finally, the detailed performance analysis of the different variables of the PIMA dataset and also the classification model are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0177.v1
Subject: Keywords: Overweight, obesity, deep learning, Convolutional layer, GRU, COVID-19, lifestyle.
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:22:56 CEST)
Obesity and overweight is a foremost concern around the globe for each group of age. This can be accelerated by the current imposed lockdown. However, excessive weight gain may result in other chronic diseases. This study has been considering the age group of 25 to 55 years as the sample populations and monitoring them from July, 2020 to November, 2020. The lifestyle of this population, food habit, mental health conditions are explored using deep learning based framework. All these parameters need to be monitored as these have close relation with currently imposed constraints due to COVID-19. A predictive model is constructed using deep learning techniques to predict the risk of gaining weight. The predictive model hybridizes the convolutional layer and gated recurrent neural networks as a unified entity for achieving the objective of early weight gain prediction. The result obtained by this model exhibits an encouraging predictive efficiency of 93.7%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0176.v1
Subject: Keywords: Video Steganography, Least Significant Bit (LSB) Coding, Double key Encryption, Decryption, Password Verification, Signature Verification
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:21:29 CEST)
In today’s digital media data communication over the internet increasing day by day. Therefore the data security becomes the most important issue over the internet. With the increase of data transmission, the number of intruders also increases. That’s the reason it is needed to transmit the data over the internet very securely. Steganography is a popular method in this field. This method hides the secret data with a cover medium in a way so that the intruders cannot predict the existence of the data. Here a steganography method is proposed which uses a video file as a cover medium. This method has five main steps. First, convert the video file into video frames. Then a particular frame is selected for embedded the secret data. Second, the Least Significant Bit (LSB) Coding technique is used with the double key security technique. Third, an 8 characters password verification process. Fourth, reverse the encrypted video. Fifth, signature verification process to verify the encryption and decryption process. These five steps are followed by both the encrypting and decrypting processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0403.v1
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:48:17 CEST)
This study has been taken during COVID-19. It describes the working scenario of all class of peoples and their mental anxieties are analysed based on their psychological behaviour patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0279.v1
Subject: Keywords: Glaucoma; Diabetic Retinopathy; Convolution Neural Network (CNN); Vision Loss; Blindness; Machine Learning
Online: 12 August 2021 (15:36:51 CEST)
In the last few decades, glaucoma became the second biggest leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because of its asymptotic growth, it is not properly diagnosed until the relatively late stage. To stop the severe damage by glaucoma it is needed to detect glaucoma in its early stages. Surprisingly diabetes also be the greatest cause of glaucoma. In the modern era, artificial intelligence makes great progress in the medical image processing field. Image analysis based on machine learning gives a huge success in diagnosis glaucoma without any misdiagnosis. The aim of this proposed paper is to create an automated process that can detect glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Here various Machine Learning models are used and results of these methods are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0028.v1
Subject: Keywords: Financial Analytics, Parametric and Non-parametric, Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:15:52 CEST)
The growth of regularly generated data from many financial activities has significant implications for every corner of financial modeling. This study has investigated the utilization of these continuous growing data by a means of an automated process. The automated process can be developed by using Machine learning based techniques that analyze the data and gain experience from the underlying data. Different important domains of financial fields such as Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction, investment prediction, marketing and many other financial models can be modeled by implementing machine learning models. Among several machine learning based techniques, the use of parametric and non-parametric based methods are approached by this research. Two parametric models namely Logistic Regression, Gaussian Naive Bayes models and two non-parametric methods such as Random Forest, Decision Tree are implemented in this paper. All the mentioned models are developed and implemented in the field of Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction. In each of the aforementioned cases, the comparative study among the classification techniques is drawn and the best model is identified. The performance of each classifier on each considered domain is evaluated by various performance metrics such as accuracy, recall, precision, F1-score and mean squared error. In the credit card fraud detection model the decision tree classifier performs the best with an accuracy of 99.1% and, in the loan default prediction and bankruptcy detection model, the random forest classifier gives the best accuracy of 97% and 96.84% respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0570.v1
Subject: Keywords: Face Detection; Euclidean Distance; Fast Fourier Transformation; Discrete Cosine Transformation; Facial Parts Detection; Frequency domain; Spatial domain
Online: 26 July 2021 (11:47:11 CEST)
In today’s world face detection is the most important task. Due to the chromosomes disorder sometimes a human face suffers from different abnormalities. For example, one eye is bigger than the other, cliff face, different chin-length, variation of nose length, length or width of lips are different, etc. For computer vision currently this is a challenging task to detect normal and abnormal face and facial parts from an input image. In this research paper a method is proposed that can detect normal or abnormal faces from a frontal input image. This method used Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Discrete Cosine Transformation of frequency domain and spatial domain analysis to detect those faces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0187.v1
Subject: Keywords: Intrusion Detection System; NSL-KDD Dataset; One Hot Encoding; Information Gain; Convolution Neural Network
Online: 9 July 2020 (12:14:10 CEST)
Cyber security plays an important role to protect our computer, network, program and data from unauthorized access. Intrusion detection system (IDS) and intrusion prevention system (IPS) are two main categories of cyber security, designed to identify any suspicious activities present in inbound and outbound network packets and restrict the suspicious incident. Deep neural network plays a significant role in the construction of IDS and IPS. This paper highlights a novel IDS using optimized convolution neural network (CNN-IDS). An optimized CNNIDS model is an improvement over CNN which selects the best weighted model by considering the loss in every epoch. All the experiments have been conducted on the well known NSL-KDD dataset. Information gain has been used for dimensionality reduction. The accuracy of the proposed model is evaluated through optimized CNN for both binary and multiclass categories. Finally, a critical comparison has been performed with other general classifiers like J48, Naive Bayes, NB tree, Random forest, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Convolution Neural Network(CNN). All the experimental results demonstrate that the optimized CNN-IDS model records the best recognition rate with minimum model construction time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0191.v1
Subject: Keywords: Intrusion Detection System; NSL-KDD Dataset; One Hot Encoding; Information Gain; Decision Tree
Online: 9 July 2020 (12:23:29 CEST)
. In today’s world, cyber attack is one of the major issues concerning the organizations that deal with technologies like cloud computing, big data, IoT etc. In the area of cyber security, intrusion detection system (IDS) plays a crucial role to identify suspicious activities in the network traffic. Over the past few years, a lot of research has been done in this area but in the current scenario, network attacks are diversifying in both volume and variety. In this regard, this research article proposes a novel IDS where a combination of information gain and decision tree algorithm has been used for the purpose of dimension reduction and classification. For experimental purpose the NSL-KDD dataset has been used. Initially out of 41 features present in the dataset only 5 high information gain valued features are selected for classification purpose. The applicability of the selected features are evaluated through various machine learning based algorithms. The experimental result shows that the decision tree based algorithm records highest recognition accuracy among all the classifiers. Based on the initial classification result a novel methodology based on decision tree has been further developed which is capable of identifying multiple attacks by analyzing the packets of various transactions in real time.