ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0696.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Help Seeking; Same-age Peer Tutoring; Revealed Preferences; Data analytics
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:36:26 CEST)
When in doubt, asking a peer can be very helpful. Students learn a lot of social strategies from peers. However, stated preference studies [Newman, 1993] have found that for elementary school students with math questions they prefer to ask the teacher. In this paper, we study revealed preferences instead of stated preferences. We analyze the behavior of fourth-grade students seeking face-to-face assistance while working on an online math platform. Students start by working independently on the platform before the teacher selects two or three tutors from among those who have answered 10 questions correctly. Each student is then able to choose between the teacher or one of these tutors when requesting assistance. We study the students’ preferences over 3 years, involving 88 fourth-grade classes, 2,700 students, 1,209 sessions with classmate tutors, and a total of 16,485 requests for help when there was an option to choose between a teacher or a classmate. We found that students prefer asking classmates for help 3 times more than asking their teachers when given the choice. Furthermore, this gap increases from the first to the second semester. We also found that students prefer to request help from classmates of the same sex and of higher academic performance. In this sense, students from the two highest tertiles sought help from classmates in the same two tertiles, and students from the medium tertile prefer to seek help from students of the highest tertile. However, students in the two lowest tertiles do not prefer asking for help from students from the top tertile more than from their own tertiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0465.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: beliefs about the aetiology of sexual orientation; sexual prejudice; same-sex couples; same-sex parenting; gay fathers; lesbian mothers
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:34:39 CET)
Research found that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn have generally positive attitudes towards gay men and lesbians. However, other studies have also found that these beliefs could include negative eugenic ideas. This study aims to investigate the role of people’s beliefs about the aetiology of sexual orientation on attitudes towards adoption for both gay and lesbian couples. We hypothesized that this relationship would be mediated by sexual prejudice. To test the predictions, 256 Italian heterosexual participants were asked to answer to a scale about their beliefs regarding the aetiology of sexual orientation, sexual prejudice, and attitudes towards adoption by same-sex couples. Results confirmed that the relationship between aetiology beliefs and adoption support was fully mediated by sexual prejudice. These investigation results suggest that the belief that sexual orientation is controllable may serve to justify one’s prejudice and, in turn, result in a lower support for same-sex couples’ adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1696.v1
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:15:19 CEST)
In contemporary sociological discourse, social trust emerges as a fundamental determinant in catalyzing positive socio-economic interactions. The nexus between social relationships and the inherent trust within them is quintessential for the holistic well-being of individuals. The current research undertook a rigorous examination of the variations in generalized trust levels across distinct age cohorts. For this empirical investigation, a dataset comprising 2,232 observations, exclusively from the United States, was meticulously sourced from the World Value Survey.The empirical findings elucidated a significant disparity in generalized trust levels across age cohorts. Notably, the geriatric demographic manifested elevated levels of generalized trust in juxtaposition to their younger counterparts. Such an observation posits the hypothesis that the construct of trust may indeed possess an age-related dimensionality. Furthermore, a robust statistical analysis accentuated the significance of these observed disparities. The divergences in trust levels across age cohorts retained their statistical significance even post the incorporation of confounding variables such as gender, socio-economic status, educational attainment, ethnic lineage, and religious affiliations. This seminal finding underscores the imperative for further academic explorations into the intricate dynamics of trust within the socio-cultural fabric of our society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0215.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Modified Archie model; Water-flooded layers; Oil saturation; “Double ratio” model; the same sedimentary layer
Online: 15 March 2022 (12:38:53 CET)
Archie model is the basis of calculating oil saturation, but there are some limitations when using this model to calculate oil saturation in water-flooded layer. The main reason is that the main parameters, such as rock resistivity and formation water resistivity, are constantly changing dynamic parameters in the underground with the influence of injected water. Considering that water-flooded layers changes with injection waters, influence factors of rock resistivity and formation water resistivity of primary parameters are analyzed. Considering the dynamic data of water cut is the most reactive underground fluid characteristics of real information, combined with dynamic and static, and the “double ratio” model of later development by the same sedimentary layer is established, which realizes the inversion of rock resistivity and formation water resistivity, then modified Archie model relating to water-flooded layers of the same sedimentary explaining formation. The explanation of actual data indicates that the “double ratio” model well considers the dynamic variation of production data, which makes the inversion of the flooded rock resistivity relatively accurate, besides, the modified Archie model can accurately calculate the oil saturation of water-flooded layers with a reasonable result, which offers scientific basis for the predicting of remaining oil distribution rules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1387.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: ageing; age-related disease; antagonistic pleiotropy; biological constraint; hyperfunction; hypofunction; programmatic ageing; trade-off
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:05:44 CET)
The evolutionary theory of aging, particularly antagonistic pleiotropy (AP), provides an account of the ultimate origins of aging. What remains unclear is the nature of the proximate mechanisms by which AP gives rise to diseases of aging, like cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Damage-centric theories focusing on loss of genetic and cellular function have been proposed, as well as programmatic theories focusing on unwanted gene and cellular function. The latter include the hyperfunction and developmental theory that view aging as the futile continuation, or run-on, of growth and developmental programmes into later life. Yet neither type of theory has performed well in explaining late-life disease aetiology, particularly with respect to disease onset, presentation and progression. What is proposed here in this review is a new programmatic theory of aging. We argue that the emergence of many specific diseases may involve quasi-programmes that are not the result of run-on, but rather are triggered by other factors in late life. Such triggers may be non-programmatic (e.g. infection, mechanical injury) or programmatic. Moreover, the consequent pre-pathological and pathological changes may in some cases trigger further changes, leading to futile and destructive cascades of quasi-programmes and pathology. The origins of triggered quasi-programmes can be traced to biological constraint i.e. the inability of organisms to optimise all functions at once. And, to some extent, the new theory presented here revises the understanding of AP. That is, because any gene can be triggered in an erroneous manner, every gene is potentially an AP gene that risks pathology, though level of risk varies according to constraint. To help validate the theory, we test it against several complex diseases of aging. The new model in this review attempts to provide a blueprint understanding that, to a certain extent, closes the gap in the causal chain of events between evolutionary causes of aging and the aetiology of age-related diseases. It also helps to explain why certain disorders mimic accelerated aging and how interventions, such as the suppression of IIS and mTOR retard many aspects of aging; notably, though, unlike prior programmatic theories, the new theory is not mTOR-centric. Finally, it provides new perspectives on possible treatment of aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0081.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: age at first marriage; age at first birth; completed family size; fertility
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:17:28 CEST)
Background The link between age at marriage and first birth in explaining completed family size is not always direct, due to heterogeneity in circumstances, that compel individual women to marry or initiate childbearing at a particular age. We analyzed data for 1020 women aged 45-49 in 2014 of the 1965-1969 birth cohort from the 2013-14 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS). Methods We fitted a bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression to establish the relationship between a mother’s age at first marriage and at first birth on completed family size (CFS). Chi-square test of proportions measuring differences in proportions and relative risk ratios (RRR) with confidence intervals at 95% are reported. Results Our results show that the average CFS was 6.7 (95% CI: 6.5 – 6.9) among women completing their reproductive span in 2014 with mean age at first marriage and birth being 18.3 years (95% CI: 18.0 – 18.5) and 18.9 years (95% CI: 18.7 – 19.1) respectively. Women marrying at younger ages and having their first birth at younger ages were more likely (RRR: 1.187; 95% CI: 1.138-1.239 and RRR: 0.195; 95% CI: 0.074-0.511 respectively) to have higher CFS than their compatriots that initiated both marriage and childbearing at or after age 22 controlling for covariates as presented in the controlled model. The independent effects model shows that the risk of having 1-3 children compared to 6 or more children was lower (RRR: 0.073; 95% CI: 0.009-0.611; RRR: 0.136; 95% CI: 0,046-0.402 and RRR: 0.421; 05% CI: 0.135-1.312) for women whose ages at first marriage were <15, 15-18 and 19-21 respectively relative to 22+. Women with 1-3 children were 2.5 times more likely to use contraception than women with 6 or more children. Conclusion Having no education, being a rural resident and having a medium household wealth all increase the risk of having higher CFS. Women that marry before age 19 have a higher likelihood of having 6 or more children by the end of their reproductive period. The study concludes that apart from a woman’s age at first marriage and first birth, a complex network of factors interact to determined CFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; gender; age; correlation
Online: 28 February 2023 (10:39:45 CET)
Objectives: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels play an important role in the diagnosis, screening, and monitoring of treatment in diabetes. The aim of our study is to determine whether there is a relationship between HbA1c levels and age and gender in Turkish adults who have not been diagnosed with diabetes.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 6776 Turkish adults without diabetes. Cross-sectional analyzes of A1C levels were performed between different age and gender categories. In statistical analysis, t-test, linear regression analysis, one-way ANOVA analysis, and LSD post hoc were used.Results: HbA1c levels in the individuals examined by dividing into different age groups increased with age in all groups. In our study, HbA1c levels were significantly higher in males than females (p < 0.001) in all groups, especially between the ages of 30-49, and were positively associated with age for males and females. There was a positive correlation between HbA1c and age in both men and women aged 30-49 years (P < 0.05). In the HbA1c ≥ 6.5 group, HbA1c levels gradually decreased with age in both genders, and no significant effect of age on Hb1Ac level was detected (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that it is important to evaluate the effects of age and gender when using HbA1c levels in the diagnosis, screening, and treatment of diabetes, especially in the young and middle-aged population. Applying this situation to daily practice may reduce the misdiagnosis of diabetes in elderly patients, overtreatment of diabetes, and its associated risks.K
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Atelectasis; Hypoxia; Old age; Spontaneous respiration
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:36:47 CEST)
There are several causes of hypoxia during and after surgery, and atelectasis is a common symptom that occurs during surgery. In particular, elderly patients are more vulnerable to hypoxia due to their existing lung diseases or respiratory muscle weakness. This study presents the cases of two elderly patients who developed hypoxia during total hip arthroplasty under general anesthesia. Positive end expiratory pressure, recruitment maneuver, and increased fraction of inspired oxygen improved hypoxia only temporarily, and patients’ oxygen saturation level again dropped to 79%–80%. We suspected that hypoxia was caused by atelectasis and, therefore, re-sumed spontaneous respiration. Thereafter, both the patients showed an improvement in hypoxia. Intraopera-tive hypoxia that is suspected to be caused by atelectasis can be improved by securing sufficient lung volume for respiration through increased muscle tone with spontaneous respiration
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Age; Antibody titers; Diphtheria; Immunosenescence; Vaccine
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:33:20 CEST)
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antibody responses in two adult age groups after diphtheria vaccination. Study Design: An observational analytic study was carried out to determine the difference in serum titer of anti-diphtheria antibody. Methods: Serum antibody titers were measured just before and 3 months after injection of Diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Vaccine was given to two adult age groups of health care personnel in hospital: the young (< 40 years) and the middle-aged (≥ 40 years). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Significant increase in serum anti-diphtheria antibody titers were recorded after vaccination in both age group (p < 0.001 in young adult and p = 0.001 in middle-aged adult, respectively). There were no substantial differences between the two groups in terms of antibody titer before vaccination (p = 0.741), 3 months after vaccination (p = 0.317) and in the increase of antibody titer (p = 0.479). Conclusions: This study showed that there was no significant difference in the increase of anti-diphtheria antibody titers between the two age groups, proving that both young and middle-aged adults had an equal immune response to a given diphtheria vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: age; glioma; mutation; TCGA; transcriptomic analysis
Online: 23 February 2021 (08:16:52 CET)
Glioma accounts for 80% of all malignant brain tumors and is the most common adult primary brain tumor. Age is an important factor affecting the development of cancer as somatic mutations accumulate with age. In this study, we aimed to analyze the significance of age-related non-silent somatic mutations in glioma prognosis. Histological tumor grade depends on age at diagnosis in patients with IDH1, TP53, ATRX, and EGFR mutations. The hierarchical clustering of patients was dominantly separated by IDH1 and EGFR mutations. Furthermore, patients with IDH1 mutation were dominantly separated by TP53 and ATRX double mutation and its double wildtype counterpart. Patients with the double mutation showed poorer prognosis than those with the double wild type genotype. In conclusion, among the many somatic mutations, those in IDH1, TP53, ATRX, and EGFR are important for glioma classification based on histological grade. Patients with EGFR mutation had the poorest prognosis, whereas those with only IDH1 mutation showed the best prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0029.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:58:08 CET)
Background: The passage through university, as a complex experience, can heighten personal susceptibility to eating disorders. The objective of this research is to determine how gender, age, year of course, and center or faculty can influence the risk of an eating disorder among university students. Method: A transversal and descriptive study with a probabilistic sample of 516 Spanish students from 26 university degrees is performed, by administering the Inventory Eating Disorder-Reference criterion (EDI-3-RF) to the students. Results: It was found that the female students enrolled in second-year grades presented a greater obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction, that the male students did more physical exercise to control their weight, and that those under 20 years and the students from both the Health and Law Faculties presented greater bulimic behavior. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement preventive measures adapted to the university students.
EDITORIAL | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: carcinogenesis; cancer; age distribution of cancer
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:40:40 CEST)
Tobacco use, most people would say. Smoking tobacco increases the risk of developing many types of cancer and is responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. The association between tobacco use and lung cancer is well known; lung cancer occurs about 20 times more often in heavy smokers than in nonsmokers . However, many lung cancers are diagnosed in never smokers , and most smokers do not develop lung cancer [3,4].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: extinct lauxaniid flies; age of Acalyptratae; Paleogene
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:57:05 CEST)
Hemilauxania parvula sp. nov., a new fossil species of the family Lauxaniidae (Diptera: Acalyptratae), is described and illustrated from Oise amber, France (Eocene, lower Ypresian, ca 53 Ma) and its relationship is discussed. Inasmuch as this first finding of a member of Schizophora in Oise amber probably represents the oldest known record of this group of Diptera, the age of Schizophora, based on the known fossil records, is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1739.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: giant pandas; seasonal; age; blood Indices; hemorheology
Online: 24 August 2023 (10:10:44 CEST)
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered species of land mammals and has significant academic research value worldwide. The evaluation of hematological parameters in giant pandas is important for assessing the physiological status of animals. This study collected blood samples from 12 healthy giant pandas from September 2018 to August 2020 under non-anesthetic conditions. The samples were then analyzed for basic blood indices and blood rheology, and normal values for hematological parameters and blood rheology under non-anesthetic conditions in giant pandas in Beijing area were obtained. The study confirmed the influence of age and season on hematological and biochemical parameters in captive giant pandas: hematological morphology, blood rheology, and serum enzymes showed seasonal variations, while age affected the changes in serum enzymes, serum protein content, and serum metabolite content. There are significant differences in blood indicators among different age groups of giant pandas, indicating variations in the overall metabolic processes and differences among pandas of different age groups. Seasonal variations showed a regulatory effect on blood rheology parameters and a negative effect on blood viscosity. Further research should be conducted to investigate whether factors such as season and climate cause environmental stress in captive giant pandas. The results obtained in this study aim to better protect the stability of the giant panda population and provide references for the appropriate feeding and medical care of captive giant pandas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Gestational Age; Fetal Brain; MRI
Online: 31 July 2023 (03:07:23 CEST)
Abstract: Accurately predicting a fetus's gestational age (GA) is of utmost importance in prenatal care. This study aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) model that can automatically predict GA using biometric measurements derived from fetal brain mag-netic resonance imaging (MRI). Additionally, we aimed to assess the significance of con-sidering different references when interpreting GA predictions. To achieve this, we obtained measurements such as Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Fron-to-occipital Diameter (FOD), and Head Circumference (HC) from a dataset comprising 52 normal fetal MRI cases with T2 Haste sequences from Rush University. Both manual and AI-based methods were utilized to acquire these measurements. We also employed three reference papers (Garel, Freq, and Bio) for comparison purposes. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between manual and AI measure-ments, indicating consistency between the two methods. The AI-based measurement of HC exhibited a higher correlation with actual values compared to BPD, FOD, and correct-ed BPD (BPDC). When comparing these measurements with GA in the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), the differences varied depending on the reference used. Specifically, the differences ranged from 0.47 to 2.17 weeks for BPD, 0.46 to 2.26 weeks for FOD, and 0.75 to 1.74 weeks for HC. Furthermore, the Pearson correlation coeffi-cient analysis revealed that all correlation coefficients between PACS records and GA pre-dictions using different references were greater than 0.97. In conclusion, the AI model based on fetal brain MRI accurately predicts GA by uti-lizing BPD, FOD, and HC measurements. The AI approach, which involves combining line segments to calculate fetal head circumference, offers improved accuracy and con-venience compared to manual estimation. This study underscores the potential of AI models in accurately estimating gestational age and highlights their utility in prenatal care. By integrating AI as a valuable tool in prenatal care, we can enhance the accuracy, ef-ficiency, and decision-making involved in assessing fetal development and monitoring pregnancies using MRI measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1956.v1
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:04:50 CEST)
Assessing the development of skills that ensure personal mental toughness in adolescence is important because the increasing autonomy and socialization of adolescents during adolescence inevitably creates the conditions for the emergence of an increasing number of external stressors. Paradoxically, adolescents' confidence in their ability to cope with external stressors decreases during adolescence, which may lead to poorer sport performance in adolescent athletes. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze mental toughness skills in the cadet and junior age groups of young basketball players. An additional aim is to reveal how general (total) mental toughness and age predict each of the athletic mental toughness skills. The analysis of the results of the study revealed that players in the junior age group scored statistically significantly higher on the challenge, commitment, emotional control, life control, overall control, self-confidence in one's abilities, self-confidence in interpersonal interactions, overall self-confidence, total mental toughness, determination and visualization scales. Statistically significant correlations were found between mental toughness skills and the different age groups in all scales except positive cogni-tion and self-belief. Total mental toughness was a strong predictor of the athletic mental tough-ness skills, but age did not predict determination and self-beliefs skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0685.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Kidney cancer; Metabolic syndrome; Age; Young adults
Online: 10 May 2023 (04:38:19 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with kidney cancer and the impact of age and gender on such association. Using Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 9,932,670 subjects who had check-up in 2009 were followed up until the diagnosis of kidney cancer or death or until 2019. Kidney cancer was significantly associated with MetS (HR 1.56). This association was higher in the younger age group (HR: 1.82, 1.5, and 1.37 in 20-39 years, 40-64 years, and ≥65 years, respectively). In terms of the association of kidney cancer with obesity and central obesity, young-aged males showed higher HR for kidney cancer than old-aged ones (HR of obesity: 1.96, 1.52, and 1.25; HR of central obesity: 1.94, 1.53, and 1.3 in 20-39 years, 40-64 years, ≥65 years, respectively), while young-aged females showed lower HR. Kidney cancer was associated with obesity and MetS. The association was higher in younger aged population than in older ones. Regarding gender, MetS, obesity, and central obesity showed higher associations with kidney cancer in younger aged male population, while there was no significant difference in such association according to age in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0868.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: IVF; blastocyst transfer; cryopreservation; live birth; age
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:01:55 CEST)
The ability to predict the likelihood of a live birth after single fresh embryo transfer is important for treatment planning and managing patient expectation, particularly in their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Cryopreservation of supernumerary embryos is often regarded as an important prognostic variable and a surrogate marker of success for several reasons. While previous large studies have examined the association between the number of oocytes retrieved and cleavage-stage embryos available, and the odds of a live birth following a fresh embryo transfer, the relationship between the number of supernumerary blastocysts cryopreserved following a fresh embryo transfer has not been rigorously studied. We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected between 2006 and 2018 for all first time IVF patients with a fresh autologous day 5 single blastocyst transfer. The relationship between the likelihood of a live birth and number of supernumerary blastocysts cryopreserved was assessed according to patient age group. In patients aged <35 years and 35-39 years old, the likelihood of a live birth increased linearly from 0.33 (95%CI:0.31–0.34) to 0.80 (95%CI:0.74–0.86; P<.0001) and 0.30 (95%CI:0.28–0.32) to 0.82 (95%CI:0.73–0.91;P<.0001) between 1-6 blastocysts cryopreserved and then non-linearly to 0.95 (95% CI 0.92–0.97; P<.0001) and 0.96 (95%CI:0.93–0.99; P<.0001) if 10 or more blastocysts were cryopreserved, respectively. When aged 40 years and above, the likelihood of a live birth increased linearly from 0.26 (95%CI:0.19–0.32) to 0.83 (95%CI:0.68–0.97; P<.0001) between 1-4 blastocysts cryopreserved and then non-linearly to 0.99 (95%CI:0.98–0.99; P<.0001) if 10 or more blastocysts were cryopreserved. The present study demonstrated a non-linear relationship between the number of supernumerary blastocysts cryopreserved and the likelihood of a live birth after single blastocyst transfer in the first autologous fresh IVF/ICSI cycle across different age groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0019.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: glaciers; Little Ice Age; reconstruction; retreat; Altai
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:30:31 CET)
The recent glaciation of the southern part of the Altai is estimated (1256 glaciers with the total area of 559.15±31.13 km2), the area of the glaciers of the whole Altai mountains is evaluated by 1096.55 km2. In the southern part of Altai 2276 glaciers with the total area of 1348.43±56.16 km2 were reconstructed, the first estimate of the LIA glacial area for the whole Altai mountain system is given (2288.04 km2). Since the LIA the glaciers decrease by 59% in the southern part of Altai and by 47.9% for the whole Altai. The ELA in the southern part of Altai increased averagely by 106 m. The higher changes of ELA in relatively humid areas is probably caused by decrease of precipitation. Glaciers of Tavan Bogd glacial center degraded with higher rates after 1968 relative to the interval between 1850-1968. One of the intervals of the fastest shrinkage of the glaciers in 2000-2010 was caused by unfavorable for the glaciers dry and warm interval 1989-2004. However, the fast decrease of the glaciers in 2000-2010 was mainly caused by the shrinkage or disappearance of the smaller glaciers, large valley glaciers started fast retreat after 2010.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: olive; xylem sap; metabolomics; plant age; genotype
Online: 8 March 2021 (10:56:37 CET)
Vascular pathogens are the causal agents of main diseases threatening the health and growth of olive crops worldwide. The use of endophytic microorganisms represents a challenging and promising strategy for management of vascular diseases in olive. Although current research has been focused on analyzing the structure and diversity of the endophytic microbial communities inhabiting the olive xylem, the characterization of this ecological niche has been overlooked and to date remain unexplored, despite that the characterization of the xylem sap composition is essential to unravel the nutritional requirements of xylem-limited microorganisms. In this study, branches from plantlets and adult olive trees of cultivars ‘Picual’ and ‘Arbequina' were selected to characterize the chemical composition of olive xylem sap extracted using a Scholander pressure chamber. Metabolome and ionome analyses of xylem sap were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based and by inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Olive xylem sap metabolites included a higher relative percentage of sugars (54.35%), followed by alcohols (28.85%), amino acids (8.01%), organic acids (7.68%) and osmolytes (1.12%). Within each of these groups, the main metabolites in the olive xylem sap were mannitol, ethanol, glutamine, acetate and trigonelline, whereas K and Cl- were the main element and inorganic anion, respectively. Metabolomic profile varied when comparing olive plant age and genotype. The levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose and mannitol, choline, B and PO43 were significantly higher in adult trees than in plantlets for both olive genotypes, whereas NO3- and Rb content showed the opposite behavior. On the other hand, levels of aspartate, phenylalanine and Na were significantly higher in ‘Picual’ than in ‘Arbequina’ whereas Fe showed the opposite behavior but only for adult trees. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering analysis separated xylem sap composition firstly according to the plant age and then by the olive cultivar. Supervised PLS-DA analysis revealed that B, ethanol, Fe, Fructose, glucose, mannitol, sucrose and Sr were the most significative compounds discriminating adult trees from plantlets, whereas asparagine, aspartate, glutamate and phenylalanine or aspartate, arginine, ethanol and Sr were the most contributory compounds in the discrimination of both olive genotypes for adult trees or plantlets, respectively. Knowledge of the chemical composition of xylem sap will lead to a better understanding of the complex nutritional requirements of olive xylem-inhabiting microorganisms, including its vascular pathogens, and would allow the design of artificial growing media to improve culturing the olive microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: terminology, health, aging, biological age, wellbeing, biomarker
Online: 1 August 2018 (15:00:47 CEST)
Despite increasing research efforts, there is a lack of consensus on defining aging or health. To understand the underlying processes, and to foster the development of targeted interventions towards increasing one’s health, there is an urgent need: (1) to find a broadly acceptable and useful definition of health, based on a list of features (which may or may not be molecular); (2) to operationalize features of health so that it can be measured; (3) to identify predictive biomarkers and (molecular) pathways of health, and (4) to suggest interventions, such as nutrition and exercise, targeted at putative causal pathways and processes. Based on a survey of the literature, we propose to define health as a state of an individual characterized by the core features of (a) physiological function, (b) cognitive function and (c) physical function, amended, specifically in case of humans, by (d) lack of disease, and by (e) reproductive function. Often used concepts such as lack of frailty, allostatic load, or self-reported health (in case of human), and indices such as the Healthy Aging Index can be viewed as projections or surrogates of our definition. We further define aging as the set of all processes in an individual that reduce its “wellbeing”, that is, its health or survival or both. We define biomarkers of health by their attribute of predicting future health better than chronological age. We define healthspan pathways as molecular features of health that relate to each other, specifically by belonging to the same molecular pathway. Our conceptual framework may integrate diverse operationalizations of health and guide precision prevention efforts that are a key to reducing the need for medical and nursing care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1771.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: forensic dentistry; age estimation; dental maturation; umbrella review
Online: 27 October 2023 (09:26:27 CEST)
Age estimation is an important tool when dealing with human remains or undocumented minors. Although the skull, the skeleton or the hand-wrist are used on age estimation as maturity indicators, they often present lack of good conditions for a correct identification or estimation. Few systematic reviews (SRs) have been recently published; therefore, this umbrella review critically assesses their level of evidence and provides a general comprehensive view. An electronic database search was conducted in four databases (PubMed, Cochrane, WoS, LILACS) up to December 2022, focusing on SRs of age estimation through forensic dentistry procedures. The methodological quality was analyzed using the measurement tool to assess SRs criteria (AMSTAR2). Eighteen SRs were included, five of critically low quality, six of low quality, three of moderate quality and four of high quality. The SRs posited that Willems’ method is more accurate and less prone to overestimation; most methods seem to be geographically sensitive; and 3D-Imaging and artificial intelligence tools demonstrate high potential. The quality of evidence on age estimation using dental approaches was rated as low to moderate. Well-designed clinical trials and high standard systematic reviews are essential to corroborate the accuracy of the different procedures of age estimation in forensic dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: MethylRAD-Seq; A. japonicus; body wall; age identification
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:21:09 CEST)
The A. japonicus industry has expanded significantly, but no research has focused on how to de-termine the age of A. japonicus during farming. Correctly estimating the age of A. japonicus can provide a decision-making basis for the breeding process, and data for the protection of A. japonicus aquatic germplasm resources. DNA methylation levels in the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus at 4 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years old were determined by MethylRAD-Seq, and differentially methylated genes related to age were screened. The results of the study found that 441 and 966 differentially methylated genes were detected at CCGG and CCWGG sites, respectively. As-partate aminotransferase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, the histone H2AX, heat shock protein Hsp90, aminopeptidase N, cell division cycle CDC6, Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), slit guidance ligand slit 1, integrin linked kinase ILK, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase Mtor, protein kinase A Pka, and autophagy-related 3 atg3 these genes may play key roles in the growth and aging process of A. japonicus. This study provided data for identifying the age of A. japonicus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: children; lipid profile; cholesterol; small for gestational age
Online: 14 September 2023 (14:05:20 CEST)
Background: Lipid disorders are one of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the lipid profile in early childhood in the group of Polish children born small for gestational age (SGA). Materials and Methods: The study included 140 children (93 SGA and 47 controls) aged 5 to 11 years. All children underwent a physical examination and blood tests for the glucose and lipid profile. SGA group was divided in subgroups: symmetrical and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Results: Blood sample analysis revealed higher levels of total cholesterol levels (SGA group 190.61 +/- 24.66 mg/dl vs control 143.23 +/- 23.90; p<0.001). The analysis of particular fractions of cholesterol showed significantly higher mean values of triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol as well as lower mean values of HDL-cholesterol in children born as SGA. Children in both groups did not differ significantly according to weight and body mass index. A statistically significantly higher glucose concentration was obtained in the group of children with IUGR with symmetrical type of IUGR. Conclusions: Children born SGA even in their early childhood, without overweight or obesity, have abnormal lipid profile, which may be a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0524.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immunosenescence; biological age; biomarker; flow cytometry; longitudinal study
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:05:00 CEST)
Immunological aging type definition requires establishing reference intervals from the distribution of immunosenescence biomarkers conditional on age. For 1,605 individuals (18–97 years), we determined the comprehensive IMMmune Age indeX IMMAX from flow cytometry-based blood cell sub-populations, and identified age-specific centiles by fitting generalized additive models for location, scale and shape. The centiles were uncorrelated with age, and facilitated the categorization of individuals as immunologically slow or fast aging types. Using its 50th percentile as reference, we rescaled IMMAX to equivalent years-of-life (EYOL), and computed the immunological age gap as difference between EYOL and chronological age. Applied to preliminary baseline and follow-up measurements from 53 participants of the Dortmund Vital Study (Clinical-Trials.gov Identifier: NCT05155397), the averaged changes in IMMAX and EYOL conformed to the 5-year follow-up period, whereas no significant changes occurred concerning IMMAX centiles and age gap. This suggested that the participants immunologically adapted to aging, and kept their relative positions within the cohort. Sex was non-significant. Methodical comparisons indicated that future confirmatory analyses with the completed follow-up examinations could rely on percentile curves estimated by simple linear quantile regression, while the selection of the immunosenescence biomarker will greatly influence the outcome, with IMMAX representing the preferable choice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1115.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Film, Radio And Television Keywords: media; digital media; entertainment; paradigm shift; digital age
Online: 15 June 2023 (09:40:35 CEST)
The advent of the digital age has brought about significant transformations in the entertainment industry, challenging traditional paradigms and redefining the ways in which content is created, distributed, and consumed. This research paper critically reviews the paradigm shift occurring in the entertainment industry, focusing on the implications of digital technologies, the rise of online platforms, changing consumer behavior, and the impact on various stakeholders. By analyzing relevant literature, industry reports, and case studies, this paper aims to comprehensively understand the challenges and opportunities presented by the digital age and assess its impact on the entertainment industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0738.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: age; obesity; gait; physical activity; neuromuscular system; sarcopenia
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:02:19 CEST)
The potential impact of a specific physical activity program on biomechanical gait parameters and neuromuscular strategies around the ankle joint in older adults with sarcopenic obesity (SO) remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 24-week Posture, Strengthening, and Motricity (PSM) program in improving neuromuscular strategies and biomechanical gait parameters in older adults with SO. 40 Participants were randomly assigned to either the trained group (TG) and the control group (CG). Only the TG received the PSM program. Standardized evaluations were performed before and after the intervention, including walking tests on an instrumented gait analysis treadmill to evaluate biomechanical gait parameters and EMG activity of ankle muscles. After the PSM program, TG exhibited an increase in comfortable walking speed (+80%, p<0.001) and step length (+38%, p<0.05). Moreover, TG demonstrated a reduction in CoP velocity (-26%, p<0.01). These gait modifications were associated with a decreased muscle activity during the different gait phases (p<0.05). The PSM program effectively improved gait, and neuromuscular capacities in older adults with SO. Notably, Results sheds light on the remarkable trainability of neuromuscular capacities in older adults with SO, despite the adverse effects of aging and obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Population dynamics; age structure; entropy; Maximum Entropy Principle
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:20:58 CEST)
Models with age as a variable but actual dynamics invariant under age structure allow use of MaxEnt to predict uniform age structure. Interpretations include a major role for accepting randomness as a causal principle in ecology (in the face of ignorance, in a further interpretative stance).
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: DNA methylation; epigenetic aging; bottlenose dolphin; chronological age
Online: 5 July 2021 (07:59:15 CEST)
Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, allows for estimation of animal age from blood or remotely sampled skin. This multi tissue epigenetic aging clock uses 110 longitudinal samples from 34 Navy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), identifying 195 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites associated with chronological aging via leave-one-individual-out-cross-validation (R2=0.95). With a median absolute error of 2.5 years this clock improves age estimation capacity in wild dolphins, expanding conservation efforts, enabling better understanding of population demographics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Confirmed cases, case fatality rate, province, age, gender.
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:24:55 CEST)
The initial outbreak of COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan (China) during the latter part of December 2019. Indonesia has the fourth-largest population globally and reported the country’s first case of the virus on 2nd March 2020. The World Health Organisation (WHO) in addition to several neighbouring provinces and educational institutions within the region began questioning the Indonesian government upon the initial case reported. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia during March 2020. The data were collected from Indonesian government databases and non-government organisations (NGOs). The data were analysed using Microsoft Office 2019 (Excel) and Adobe Illustrator 2017 software, was used in drawing the map depicting the distribution of COVID-19 in Indonesia. As at 31st March 2020, a total of 1,528 people in Indonesia have been infected by COVID-19, in addition to 136 mortalities (CFR of 8.9%). Jakarta, as the principal capital of Indonesia, quickly has become the epicentre of the virus since this period. Most patient cases were attributed to those aged between 31 and 70 years (72.64%), with male patients (64.93%) representing the highest incidence of cases compared to female patients (35.07%). The number of ventilating machines was 3,326, with hospital numbers at 859. The distribution of cases depicting COVID-19 was mainly seen in urban areas compared to rural areas. Males compared to females, are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, including those aged below 30, between 30 and 60 or above. Indonesia also has the highest case fatality rate (CFR) with respect to mortalities in Southeast Asia and has the second-highest CFR globally. Similarly, while the number of ventilator machines as at 31st March 2020 were sufficient in meeting the growing number of COVID-19 cases in the country, it is possible that the government may need to increase the number of ventilators if the cases continue to escalate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social and moral education; preschool age; communitarian approach
Online: 27 November 2019 (08:46:55 CET)
The article deals with issues related to social and moral education and development of preschool children. The theoretical understanding of the current state of this field is reflected in the modern normative documents "On education in the Russian Federation", the state educational standards. Analysis of theoretical and practice-oriented research in this area shows that the phrase "moral education" today is gradually replaced by "social and moral education", "social and moral development". This trend is found in preschool pedagogy (work L. V. Abramova, R. S. Bure, S. M. Zyryanova, N.A. Karataeva, G. M. Kiseleva, I. F. Sleptsova, etc.). It is the study of social and moral representations of preschool children that many relevant diagnostic methods are aimed at: to explain the actions of children, their relationship with each other and adults, to assess these actions (i.e. to correlate the situation with the moral norm). The presented research was based on the method of research of moral representations of children of senior preschool age, developed by G. A. Uruntaeva and Yu.A. Afon'kina. The analysis of the results showed that children of senior preschool age willingly included in the retelling of the actions described in the situation, but find it difficult to assess what is happening from a moral point of view. It is obvious that psychological and pedagogical work is necessary in this direction, taking into account the age characteristics of children, as well as social and moral guidelines relevant to the current situation of development of society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Ghana; lagoon; tilapia; fish growth; otoliths; age; food
Online: 12 February 2019 (17:14:54 CET)
The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is the most abundant fish species in the Nakwa (a closed lagoon) and Brenu (an open lagoon) in the Central region of Ghana. Aspects of the life history characteristics and the ecology of the fish populations in both lagoons were studied to assess the bio-ecological status of this important resource. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞ = 12.04 cm; K =2.76 year-1 for the Nakwa Lagoon samples and L∞ = 13.44 cm; K = 3.27 years-1 for Brenu Lagoon samples. Daily otolith incremental rate ranged from 0.01-0.03mm per day and 0.01-0.02mm per day for Nakwa and Brenu lagoons respectively. Stomach content analysis of the fish samples revealed that the species are planktivorous and the range of food varied between the lagoons. Green algae was the most prevalent food item in the stomachs of the fish samples from Nakwa with frequency of 69% while diatoms (80.5%) were most prevalent phytoplanktonic food item in for the fish in Brenu lagoon. The results of this study of Sarotherodon melanotheron from the two lagoons and can be used to improve on management policies, maximize yield and to sustain the fishery resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0187.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: remote sensing; multi-temporal; Landsat; age; canopy; FCD
Online: 9 October 2018 (11:33:18 CEST)
In the oil palm industry, stands age is an important parameter to monitor the sustainability of cultivation, to develop the growth yield model, to identify the disease or stressed area, and to estimate the carbon storage capacity. This research is focused to estimate and distinguish oil palm stands age based on crown/ canopy density obtained using Forest Canopy Density (FCD) model derived from four indices as follows; Advanced Vegetation Index, Bare Soil Index, Shadow Index, and Thermal Index. FCD model employs multi temporal image analysis resulting four classes of oil palm stands age categorized as seed with FCD value of 29–56% (0 years), young with FCD value of 56–63% (1–9 years), teen with FCD value of 63–80% (10–15 years), and mature with FCD value of >80% (>15 years). Minimum canopy density value is 29% even in the zero years old indicates incomplete land clearance or the type of seed planted in the land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0122.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: spatial; age-related; phytochemical; bamboo; rhizome; GC-MS
Online: 7 September 2018 (03:01:53 CEST)
This study was designed to assess variation of possible phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic extracts of Gigantochloa scortechinii rhizome. Destructive sampling was done by using selective random sampling method on four consecutive rhizomes from healthy clumps and was conducted at two natural forests and one secondary forest (planted). Homogenized sample were extracted using solvent extraction (70% ethanol) method. Ethanolic extracts of G. scortechinii rhizome were qualitatively analyzed using GC/MS GC2010 Plus, Shimadzu to determine the composition of phytochemical compounds and identified using FFNSC 1.3, NIST11, PMW_tox2, and Wiley229 spectral library. A qualitative variation was observed with a total of 56 compounds were identified and differentiated between study site and rhizome age. Results revealed that G. scortechinii rhizome contains various phytochemical compounds with potential as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. This is the first finding on the spatial and age-related effects of phytochemical compounds in a consecutive rhizome and of G. scortechinii rhizome specifically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0137.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeology; Archaeogenetic Model; Neolithic; Chalcolithic; Bronze Age; Migration
Online: 19 December 2017 (15:49:22 CET)
Migrations are much more important than currently recognised, for explaining important patterns observed in the European archaeology record – according to this archaeology led model. At a high level, they explain the introduction of different farming, monument building, the spread of metalworking and patterns of trade and exchange. This paper presents an archaeogenetic model based on a strategic review of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeology of Europe, alongside a review of recently published ancient DNA data. The model is archaeology led. It takes archaeology themes and proposes migratory events to explain them. Ancient DNA data and further archaeology evidence is then used to test these proposed migrations- to reject or refine them. The model introduces a new and more strategic way of looking at archaeological cultures - that updates early 20th century approaches to studying archaeology cultures, and integrates with the detailed ‘post processual’ studies of the late 20th Century. The model consists of seven maps – each showing multiple migration events – with key evidence to support each migration map. It proposes a new category of a ‘Black Sea’ related population that makes a major genetic contribution to the Middle Neolithic of Europe. The proposed migrations provide an explanation for the observed patterns of archaeology, for example: • multiple Neolithic migrations that introduced, farming and metalworking into Europe; • a major ‘Black Sea’ related ‘Middle Neolithic’ migration that carried advanced knowledge of astronomy that can be recognised in a variety of types of monument from the Neolithic through to Bronze Age Europe; and, • migrations of related cultures (‘supercultures’) that explain patterns of trade and exchange in Bronze Age western Europe. The model also provides ancient DNA and archaeology based support for the key aspects of Childe’s ‘dawn of civilisation’ in Europe and Egypt and Gimbutas’ ‘Old Europe’ and “three waves of migration from the Steppe”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: soil; Robinia pseudoacacia; PLFA; stand age; microbial community
Online: 5 September 2017 (15:28:05 CEST)
Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) can be used as biomarkers for qualitative and quantitative analyses of soil microbial community diversity. In this study, we collected soil samples at 10-cm intervals to a depth of 1 m from Robinia pseudoacacia plantations of four different ages (10, 15, 25 and 40 years) in a loess area and analysed the soil microbial community structure by PLFA analysis. A total of 97 PLFAs were detected in soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations of different ages. The individual PLFA contents gradually decreased in the 0- to 40-cm soil layers, with little variation in the 40- to 100-cm soil layers. The individual PLFAs were similarly distributed in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations of different ages, and there was a clear variation with stand age and soil depth. The individual PLFA contents in the 0- to 20-cm soil layers were highest for the 25-year-old plantation, while those in the 20- to 40-cm soil layers were relatively high for the 25- and 40-year-old plantations; the 16:0 content was the highest among individual PLFAs. The total PLFA content and the PLFA contents of different microbial groups [bacteria, fungi, Gram-positive bacteria (G+), Gram-negative bacteria (G-) and actinomycetes] initially increased before decreasing in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations with increasing stand age, whereas these contents gradually decreased with increasing soil depth; the highest PLFA contents was found in the 25-year-old plantation. The total PLFA content and the contents of fungal, G- and actinomycete PLFAs in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations differed significantly among stands of different ages in the 0- to 10-cm, 10- to 20-cm and 30- to 40-cm soil layers, while no significant differences were found in the 20- to 30-cm soil layers; the G+ and bacterial PLFAs contents in each of the 0- to 40-cm soil layers were significantly different. The PLFA ratios between different microbial groups differed among the stands of different ages. The fungi/bacteria ratio showed a “decrease-increase-decrease” trend with stand age, while the G+/G- ratio showed an “increase-decrease” trend. The saturated/monounsaturated PLFA ratio initially decreased before plateauing, while the opposite trend was observed for the cyclopropyl/precursor ratio. The PLFA contents of different microbial groups were ranked as follows: bacteria > G- > G+ > actinomycetes > fungi. In the principle component analysis, 18:1ω9c, 10Me18:0, i17:0, a17:0, 18:1ω7c, 18:1ω5c and 18:0 made the greatest contribution to principal component 1, and a14:0, i14:0 3OH, i14:0, i14:1ω7c and 14:0 made the greatest contribution to principal component 2. In conclusion, soil nutrient status and other soil eco-environmental stress factors should be considered in 10- to 25-year-old (particularly ~15-year-old) plots for the management of R. pseudoacacia plantations to prevent forest soil degradation and improve forest stand quality, thereby achieving better soil and water conservation and environmental improvement in R. pseudoacacia plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0166.v1
Subject: Immunology And Allergy, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Immunosenescence; Knowledge representation; Formal concept Analysis; Age-related diseases
Online: 4 December 2023 (11:27:43 CET)
Aging is a major risk factor for the higher incidence and prevalence of chronic conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Closely linked with the onset of all these age-related diseases is immunosenescence, a condition defined as progressive reconfiguration of the immune functions leading to an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, poorer response to vaccination, increased prevalence of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and other chronic diseases characterized by a pro-inflammatory state named inflammaging. Given that immunosenescence frames age-related diseases, it is natural to ask how these illnesses are related under the context of innate and adaptative components of the immune system. Knowledge processing by Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) of age-related diseases framed in an immunosenescence multivalued context shows that a hierarchy among these diseases emerges with a subconcept-superconcept nested structure, with two clusters, first made of metabolic diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Second metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Metabolic diseases seem to be a pivot illness and they must be a primary target given their global incidence and prevalence and their cost-effective treatments like regular physical activity, weight loss, healthy diet, stopping smoking, and reducing or managing stress. Another implication of the ontological analysis of age-related diseases is about the nature of immunosenescence, suggesting that initial symptoms of age-related diseases are mainly related to innate immune mechanisms, and developing of severe symptoms of age-related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases depends on the activation of acquired immunity processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1534.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: predictive policing; algorithms; fairness; age bias; strategic subject list
Online: 24 November 2023 (02:42:46 CET)
This study addressed algorithmic bias in predictive policing, focusing on the Chicago Police Department's Strategic Subject List (SSL) dataset. We specifically focused on identifying and mitigating age-related biases, a notably underexplored area in prior research. Our research introduced Conditional Score Recalibration as a bias mitigation strategy alongside the well-established Class Balancing technique. Conditional Score Recalibration involved reassessing and adjusting risk scores for individuals initially assigned moderately high-risk scores in the dataset. This recalibration marked such individuals as low risk if they met three conditions, namely: no prior arrests for violent offenses, no previous arrests for narcotic offenses, and having never been involved in shooting incidents. These fairness strategies were implemented on the Random Forest model, and the fairness metrics employed included Equality of Opportunity Difference, Average Odds Difference, and Demographic Parity. The results showed a significant improvement in model fairness, particularly for age biases, without compromising the model's accuracy. These findings challenged the often-assumed trade-off between fairness and accuracy, underscoring the feasibility of achieving fairness without compromising accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1581.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: renal age-related decline; kidney disease (KD); eGFR; mGPS
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:35:43 CEST)
Assessment of renal function is critical to diagnose and manage renal age-related decline, disease (KD), and failure, which are prevalent in the elderly population. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely used as an indicator of kidney function, but its direct measurement is challenging, as are its age and gender caveats. This makes difficult the differential diagnosis, between age-related physiological decline and KD and/or failure. Currently, the inflammation-based modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) is emerging as promising biomarker of several inflammatory acute/chronic diseases. In this study, the large variability of eGFR with age and gender was evaluated, as the association of eGFR values with mGPS levels. A population of 57449 adult participants (age ≥18 years) was enrolled. Appropriate circulating biomarkers were measured to detect eGFR and mGPS values. The data obtained demonstrated a significant decrease of eGFR in men vs. women across the four selected age classes (18-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100 years), eGFR classes were significantly associated with mGPS (p<0.001), as age-classes and gender with mGPS categories. Accordingly, the percentage of people having a mGPS score= 2 significantly increased across the eGFR classes: with a 11% in the G1/eGFR class to achieve the 44% in G5/eGFR. Thus, the combination of mGPS with eGFR could represent the best benchmark risk model for differentiating age-related renal decline from a very KD, and for a better identification of different degrees of KD severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1249.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: jealousy; partner retention strategies; romantic relationship; age; relationship length
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:06:42 CEST)
Jealousy and mate retention have received attention in the research over the last decades. Despite this, most of the research examined male jealousy and male mate retention, emphasizing cost-inflicting behavior due to its role in relationship and domestic violence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between jealousy and all mate retention strategies in romantic relationship among women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 772 Croatian women aged 19 to 40 who were in a heterosexual relationship at the time. The study was conducted online, and the participants completed the Multidimensional jealousy scale and Mate Retention Inventory. The results showed that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral jealousy are positively correlated with all mate retention strategies which indicate that a stronger experience of jealousy can be expected to result in more frequent use of all partner retention strategies. We also found that all three dimensions of jealousy and relationship length positively predicted both cost-inflicting and benefit-provisioning mate retention behavior, whereas age was a negative predictor of benefit-provisioning behavior only. Findings of this study suggest that although jealousy can substantially explain interpersonally risky and damaging behavior in relationships, it can also explain affectionate and attentive behavior to some extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0658.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Knowledge; Attitude; Women of Reproductive Age; Cervical Cancer Prevention
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:47:57 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer among women worldwide between 14 and 49 years of age including Nigeria. Figures have greatly reduced in developed countries after the introduction and implementation of effective screening and vaccination programs which is greatly undeveloped and inefficient in Nigeria and other developing countries at large. OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the knowledge and attitude of reproductive age women towards cervical cancer prevention in selected tertiary institutions in Osun State. METHODOLOGY: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among reproductive age women in selected tertiary institutions in Osun State, Nigeria. A probability based multistage sampling technique was adopted as the sampling technique for the study. Data was collected using a semi-structured, self-administered and interviewer guided questionnaire. RESULTS: Age of respondents was 25.305±8.195. 313(79.0%) of the total respondents were Christians, and 83(21.0%) of the respondents were Muslims. For the overall knowledge score, only 52.0% of the respondents had good knowledge while 48.0% of the respondents had poor knowledge. 52.0% exhibited negative attitude towards cervical cancer prevention while 48% exhibited positive attitude towards cervical cancer prevention. Only 23% of the respondents had taken part in screening and vaccination towards cervical cancer prevention while 77% of the respondents had not. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of reproductive age women towards cervical cancer prevention was above average while their attitude towards cervical cancer prevention was low. This issue could be addressed by increasing the awareness of the effects of cervical cancer among reproductive age women in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: hymenoptera; olfaction; odor coding; task allocation; age polyethism; aging
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:03:17 CEST)
Age-related changes in behavior and sensory perception have been observed in a wide variety of animal species. In ants and other eusocial insects, workers often progress through an ordered sequence of olfactory-driven behavioral tasks. Notably, these behaviors are plastic, and workers adapt and rapidly switch tasks in response to changing environmental conditions. In the Florida carpenter ant, smaller minors typically perform most of the work needed to maintain the colony while the larger majors are specialized for nest defense and rarely engage in these routine tasks. Here, we investigate the effects of age and task group on olfactory responses to a series of odorant blends in minor and major worker castes. Consistent with their respective roles within the colony, we observed significant age-associated shifts in the olfactory responses of minors as they transitioned between behavioral states, whereas the responses of majors remained consistently low regardless of age. Furthermore, we identified a unitary compound, 3-methylindole, which elicited significantly higher responses and behavioral aversion in minor nurses than in similarly aged foragers suggesting that this compound may play an important role in brood care. Taken together, our results suggest that age- and task-associated shifts in olfactory physiology may play a critical role in the social organization of ant colonies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0469.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: SVEIR model; latent age; imperfect vaccine; Lyapunov functions; stability
Online: 7 June 2023 (02:32:37 CEST)
This paper proposes an imperfectly vaccinated SVEIR model for latent age. We calculate the equilibrium points and basic reproduction number of the model. The asymptotic smoothness, uniform persistence and the existence of the attractor of the semi-flow generated by the solutions of the system are addressed. Moreover, using LaSalle’s invariance set principle and constructing Volterra-type Lyapunov functions, we can prove the global asymptotic stability of both the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium of the model. The conclusion is that if the basic reproduction number R0 is less than one, the disease will gradually disappear. On the other hand, if the number is greater than one, the disease will become endemic and persist. Finally, measures that can effectively control the ongoing transmission of the disease have been obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0832.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; age of onset; TAOC; cognitive function; oxidative stress
Online: 24 April 2023 (06:22:23 CEST)
Schizophrenia patients with an earlier age of onset have been found to have more serious negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. Oxidative stress is thought to be implicated in cognitive impair-ment in schizophrenia. Total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) is an essential indicator of oxidative stress. However, the association between age of onset, TAOC, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia is still unexplored. In this study, 201 patients (age: 26.5±9.6 years, male: 53.2%) with drug naïve schizophrenia were recruited. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Plasma TAOC levels were an-alyzed using established procedures. Results showed that early-onset (EO) patients had higher TAOC levels, more severe negative symptoms and performed worse on Visuospatial/Constructional, Language and RBANS total score compared with non-EO patients. After Bonferroni correction, only non-EO patients showed a significant inverse relationship between TAOC levels and RBANS language, attention, and total scores. Our findings suggest that early /late age of onset may be correlated with psychopathological symptoms, cognitive impairment and oxidative responses in schizophrenia. Furthermore, the age of onset may moderate the relationship between TAOC and cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that improving oxidative stress status in non-EO schizophrenia patients may enhance their cognitive function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: chronic limb-threatening ischemia; outcome; sex; age; limb salvage
Online: 8 December 2022 (09:39:30 CET)
Background: Identifying sex-related differences/variables associated with 30-day/1-year mortality in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Multicenter/retrospective/observational study. Database sent to all-the-Italian vascular surgeries to collect all-the¬-patients operated for CLTI in 2019. Acute lower-limb ischemia and neuropathic-diabetic foot not included. Follow-up: 1-year. Data on demographics/comorbidities, treatments/outcome, and 30-day/1-year mortality investigated. Results: Information on 2399 cases (69.8% men) from 36/143 (25.2%) centers. Median (IQR) age: 73 (66-80) and 79 (71-85) yrs for men/women, respectively (p<.0001). Women more over-75 (63.2%vs40.1%, p=.0001). More men smokers (73.7%vs42.2%, p<.0001), on hemodialysis (10.1%vs6.7%, p=.006), affected by diabetes (61.9%vs52.8%, p<.0001), dyslipidemia (69.3%vs61.3%, p<.0001), hypertension (91.8%vs88.5%, p=.011), coronaropathy (43.9%vs29.4%, p<.0001), bronchopneumopathy (37.1%vs25.6%, p<.0001), underwent more open/hybrid surgeries (37.9%vs28.8%, p<.0001), and minor amputations (22%vs13.7%, p<.0001). More women underwent endovascular revascularizations (61.6%vs55.2%, p=.004), major amputations (9.6%vs6.9%, p=.024), and obtained limb-salvage if with limited gangrene (50.8%vs44.9%, p=.017). Age >75 (HR3.63, p=.003) associated with 30-day mortality. Age >75 (HR2.14, p<.0001), nephropathy (HR1.54, p<.0001), coronaropathy (HR1.26, p=.036), infection/necrosis of the foot (dry, HR1.42, p=.040; wet, HR2.04, p<.0001) associated with 1-year mortality. No sex-linked difference in mortality statistics. Conclusion: Women exhibit fewer comorbidities, but are struck by CLTI when over-75, a factor associated with short/mid-term mortality, explaining why mortality doesn’t statistically differ between the sexes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0350.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Proteomics, Age-related macular degeneration, inflammation, biomarker, oxidative stress.
Online: 21 November 2022 (02:35:09 CET)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common ocular disease characterized by the de-generation of the central area of the retina in elderly population. Progression and response to treatment is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Proteomics is a powerful tool to study, at the molecular level, the mechanisms underlaying the progression of the diseases, to identify new therapeutical targets and to establish biomarkers to monitor progression and treatment ef-fectiveness. In this work we pursue to systematically review the use of proteomic-based ap-proaches for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of AMD, as well as the progression of the disease and the on-treatment patient monitoring. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines were followed. Proteomic approaches have identified key players on the onset of the disease, such as proteins involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, but also in the progression to advanced stages, including factors related to extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. Although an-ti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF)-based therapy has been crucial in the treatment of neovascular AMD it is necessary to get deeper into the underlying disease mechanisms to move forward to next-generation therapies of the later-stage forms of this multifactorial disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: knowledge; food consumption behaviors; hematocrit level; school-age children
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
Anemia is a significant public health problem among children, especially school-age children because their body quickly produces red blood cells to provide sufficient blood volume with plasma expansion to maintain blood concentration. This research aimed to study the anemia situation, knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and the association between knowledge, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit level among school-age children in primary school, in Thasala district, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This is a descriptive study among 408 students, Grades 4 to 6, aged 9-12 years. Research instruments included the demographic data of the children and their knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression statistics. The results revealed that 23.2% of the samples had anemia, whereas 22.22% had mild anemia and 0.98% had moderate anemia. The children knew about anemia, where the mean score was at a moderate level (Mean= 6.63; SD= 2.51) out of 10. The mean score on food consumption behaviors was in the moderate level (Mean= 17.49; SD= 3.68) out of 24. There were significantly positive correlations between the knowledge about anemia and the hematocrit level at a moderate level (r= 0.45, p< 0.001). Correlation analysis revealed moderate food consumption behaviors with the hematocrit level (r= 0.40, p< 0.001). When confirm with Logistic regression found that knowledge about anemia (OR = 9.15, 95% CI: 4.57-18.34), and food consumption behaviors (OR = 19.09, 95% CI: 9.71-37.53) were significantly associated with the hematocrit level. Conclusions: This study showed that knowledge and appropriate food consumption behaviors are associated with hematocrit levels. Enhancing knowledge about anemia and food consumption behaviors may be reduced the prevalence of anemia in school-age children. The health care providers in primary care should be encouraged children to have health education and eat sufficient food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0091.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: tobacco age of sale; tobacco policy; youth; young adults
Online: 7 June 2022 (03:44:33 CEST)
Background: Prior to the federal law passed in late 2019, many states passed an increased age of sale law prohibiting youth under age 21 (or Tobacco 21) from purchasing tobacco products and e-cigarettes. Although previous research has documented tobacco retail sales violations, fewer studies have examined age verification and illegal tobacco sales in the context of Tobacco 21 or in repeated purchase attempts in various settings. Methods: In this study conducted between 2019 and 2022, buyers aged 18 to 20 years made repeated unsupervised purchase attempts of cigarettes, cigars, e-cigarettes, tobacco-free nicotine pouches and/or smokeless tobacco in store visits to over 180 tobacco or vape retailers in New Jersey, New York City, and Pitt County, North Carolina. Buyers documented whether they were asked for identification and whether they were able to successfully purchase a tobacco or nicotine product at each visit. Results: The primary outcome will be the percent of retailers that checked buyers’ identification at store visits and the precent of visits that resulted in a successful underage tobacco product purchase. We will aim to compare the results across time periods and study sites while controlling for other factors (including repeated visits). Conclusion: These results will be beneficial to designing compliance check inspections and/or interventions that reduce youth access to tobacco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Citation patterns; Age groups of researchers; Types of publications.
Online: 17 August 2021 (15:09:37 CEST)
The evaluation of research proposals and academic careers is subject to indicators of scientific productivity. Citations are critical signs of impact for researchers, and many indicators are based on these data. The literature shows that there are differences in citation patterns between areas. The scope and depth that these differences may have to motivate the extension of these studies considering types of articles and age groups of researchers. In this work, we conducted an exploratory study to elucidate what evidence there is about the existence of these differences in citation patterns. To perform this study, we collected historical data from Scopus. Analyzing these data, we evaluate if there are measurable differences in citation patterns. This study shows that there are evident differences in citation patterns between areas, types of publications, and age groups of researchers that may be relevant when carrying out researchers’ academic evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease; histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis; prognosis; children; age
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:37:36 CEST)
Background: Little information exists regarding the differences in the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) according to age. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of KFD according to age. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients diagnosed with KFD at Pusan National University Hospital between 2010 and 2020. Results: Eighty patients (46 children and 34 adults) with a mean age of 21.5 ± 11.8 years (range, 3–49 years) were included in the study. Among children, the male sex ratio was higher, in adults, the female sex ratio was higher. Fever, tenderness in the lymph node, and skin rashes were more common in children, while myalgia and weight loss were more common in adults. In children, the recurrence rate was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.8% vs 0.0%, P=0.001). EBV and ANA positivity rates were higher in boys than in girls. In adults, the recurrence rate was significantly higher in women than in men (18.2% vs 0.0%, P=0.005). ANA positivity rates were higher in women than in men. Conclusion: The clinical features, laboratory findings, and recurrence of KFD may differ depending on age and sex. Clinicians should be aware of this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0729.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: age; behaviour; open field; physical activity; anxiety; Wistar rat.
Online: 30 June 2021 (10:57:00 CEST)
The aim of this work was to study age-related changes in the behaviour of adult Wistar rats using the open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Behavioural changes related to motor activity and anxiety were of particular interest. Results showed that as male and female rats progressed from 2 to 5 months of age there was a decrease in the level of motor and exploratory activities, and an increase in the level of anxiety. Age-related changes were dependent upon initial individual characteristics of behaviour. For example, animals that demonstrated high motor activity at 2 months become significantly less active by 5 months, and animals that showed a low level of anxiety at 2 months become more anxious by 5 months. Low-activity and high-anxiety rats did not show any significant age-related changes in OF and EPM tests from 2 to 5 months of age, except for a decrease in the number of rearings in EPM. Significant individual differences in the behaviour of rats in OF and EPM tests observed at 2 months were not apparent by 5 months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: playable city; age-friendly environments; games; mobility; active ageing
Online: 23 October 2018 (10:11:15 CEST)
A key concern in an ageing society is citizens’ mobility. As populations age, disability impairments can affect active ageing, health-related wellbeing and quality of life. In this paper, we present the on-going research project SeriousGiggle—Game-based learning for triggering active ageing. Its goal is to assess the potential of game-based learning for active ageing and contribute to a sense of wellbeing and quality of life. It also seeks to improve the mobility of older adults by creating a set of journey plans with route guidance that are rated in terms of safety, community support, environment and age-friendliness. Drawn on our field work with 33 co-designers, 40 end users and 10 semi-structured interviews with Subject Matter Experts, we identify a set of necessary design requirements to an Age-friendly Playable City. This study recommends the use of gamification and playful techniques to engage the end-users to provide information about local traffic signs, pavement conditions, wayfinding and, therefore, help to create route guidance and walking assistance that are personalized to older adults’ context in terms of location, travel fitness, mobility impairments and motivations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: hypertension; GWAS; precision medicine; rural population; SNP-age interaction
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:34:37 CET)
Background: As part of the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, we developed a practice level intervention to improve blood pressure control. The goal of this study was: i) determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that associate with blood pressure variation, identified in large case-control studies, are applicable to blood pressure control in subjects from a rural population; ii) measure the association of these SNPs with subjects’ responsiveness to the hypertension intervention; and iii) identify other SNPs that may help understand patient-specific responses to an intervention. Methods and Results: We used a combination of candidate SNPs and genome-wide analyses to test associations with either baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) or change in systolic blood pressure one year after the intervention in two genetically defined ancestral groups: African Americans (AA) or Caucasian Americans (CAU). Of the 48 candidate SNPs, 13 SNPs associated with baseline SBP in our study; however, one candidate SNP, rs592582, also associated with a change in SBP after one year. Using our study data, we identified 4 and 15 additional loci that associated with a change in SBP in the AA and CAU groups, respectively. Our analysis of gene-age interactions identified genotypes associated with SBP improvement within different age groups of our populations. Moreover, our integrative analysis identified AQP4-AS1 and PADI2 as genes whose expression levels may contribute to the pleiotropy of complex traits involved in cardiovascular health and blood pressure regulation in response to an intervention targeting hypertension. Conclusions: Identification of SNPs associated with the success of a hypertension treatment intervention suggests that genetic factors in combination with age may contribute to an individual’s success in lowering SBP. If these findings prove to be applicable to other populations, the use of this genetic variation in making patient-specific interventions may help providers with making decisions to improve patient outcomes. Further investigation is required to determine the role of this genetic variance with respect to the management of hypertension such that more precise treatment recommendations may be made in the future as part of personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: calorie restriction; PUFA; meal replacement; metabolic syndrome; middle age
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:39:38 CEST)
The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide. In Taiwan, middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men are because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared to men with equal visceral fat levels. This study investigated the effects of calorie restriction supplemented with fish oil (CRF) in middle-aged women with MetS. For 12 weeks, 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned either calorie restriction (CR) or CRF. Both dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. The changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. Seventy-one participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants’ inflammatory status. CR significantly increased total iron binding capacity, whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. In conclusion, CR and CRF improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics of early-middle aged women, including body weight, blood glucose levels, triglyceride levels, as well as the scores for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity cheque index. Dietary intervention was more effective in >45-year-old women than ≤45-year-old women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0189.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; Global Burden of Disease Study; dietary risk factors; Age- Standardized Mortality Rate; Age-Standardized DALY Rate; Socio-Demographic Index
Online: 4 October 2023 (04:55:59 CEST)
The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 reveals an increasing prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) from 1990 to 2019. This study delves into the role of dietary risk factors across different demographic and socioeconomic groups. Utilizing data from the GBD 2019, it analyzes age-adjusted T2DM metrics—death counts, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), and Age-Standardized Rates (ASR)—stratified by age, sex, and region. The study employed Estimated Annual Percentage Changes (EAPCs) to track trends over time. Results show that in 2019, 26.07% of T2DM mortality and 27.08% of T2DM DALYs were attributable to poor diets, particularly those low in fruits and high in red and processed meats. Geographic variations in T2DM trends were significant, with regions like Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Central Asia experiencing the most substantial increases in Age-Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) and Age-Standardized DALY Rate (ASDR). A positive correlation was noted between Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) and T2DM burden due to dietary risk factors. The study concludes that targeted public health initiatives promoting dietary changes could substantially reduce the global T2DM burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: 3 tesla magnetic resonance; age, healty volunteers; elastography; splenic stiffness
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:20:56 CEST)
Background: We aimed to determine the splenic stiffness (SS) values in healthy individuals as measured by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance elastography (3T MRE) and to investigate the possible effects of parameters such as age, sex, spleen volume, diameter, and parenchyma thickness on SS.Methods: A total of 54 healthy volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants' age and sex information were recorded, in addition to spleen craniocaudal and anteroposterior diameter, cortical thickness, spleen volume, and SS, which were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging and MRE. Results: Twenty-nine male and 25 female subjects with a mean age of 54.78±15.40 years were included in the study. Mean cradiocaudal diameter was 10.46±1.16 cm, anteroposterior diameter was 9.88±1.29 cm, parenchyma thickness was 4.08±0.67 cm, SS was 3721.94±709.69 Pascal (Pa), and median spleen volume was 292.54 (239.40-311.00) cm3. A significant positive correlation was observed between age and SS (r=0.779, p<0.001). The SS values were not associated with sex, craniocaudal diameter, anteroposterior diameter, parenchymal thickness, or volume.Conclusion:Age should be considered when using SS in the diagnosis and staging of relevant diseases such as portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Our results should be confirmed by future studies using 3T MRE in larger populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: 3 tesla magnetic resonance; age; healty volunteers; elastography; splenic stiffness
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:11:32 CEST)
Background: We aimed to determine the splenic stiffness (SS) values in healthy individuals as measured by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance elastography (3T MRE) and to investigate the possible effects of parameters such as age, sex, spleen volume, diameter, and parenchyma thickness on SS. Methods: A total of 54 healthy volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants' age and sex information were recorded, in addition to spleen craniocaudal and anteroposterior diameter, cortical thickness, spleen volume, and SS, which were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging and MRE. Results: Twenty-nine male and 25 female subjects with a mean age of 54.78±15.40 years were included in the study. Mean cradiocaudal diameter was 10.46±1.16 cm, anteroposterior diameter was 9.88±1.29 cm, parenchyma thickness was 4.08±0.67 cm, SS was 3721.94±709.69 Pascal (Pa), and median spleen volume was 292.54 (239.40-311.00) cm3. A significant positive correlation was observed between age and SS (r=0.779, p<0.001). The SS values were not associated with sex, craniocaudal diameter, anteroposterior diameter, parenchymal thickness, or volume Conclusion:Age should be considered when using SS in the diagnosis and staging of relevant diseases such as portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Our results should be confirmed by future studies using 3T MRE in larger populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0861.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Myocardial infarction; risk factors; smoking; diabetes; arterial hypertension; age; gender
Online: 14 September 2023 (02:34:12 CEST)
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Its presentation as ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) is influence by atherosclerosis risk factors. Aim: To assess the patterns of presentation and predicting risk factors of acute MI in Kosovo. Methods: This is a cross sectional study from the Clinic of Cardiology of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo, which included all patients hospitalized with acute MI over a period of 7 years (January 1st, 2014 to December 31st, 2020). Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and epidemiological patterns and risk factors were analyzed. Results: Among 7353 patients admitted with acute MI (age 63 ± 12 years, 29% female), 4366 (59.4%) patients had STEMI, and 2987 (40.6%) NSTEMI. Patients age was not different between the two groups (p=0.077). NSTEMI patients smoked less (48.3% vs. 54%, p<0.001), but were more diabetics (37.8% vs. 33.6%, p<0.001), more hypertensives (69.6% vs. 63%, p<0.001), frequently had family history for coronary artery disease (CAD) (40% vs 38%, p=0.009), and included more females compared to STEMI patients (32% vs 27%, p<0.001). The two groups of patients, did not differ in the prevalence of significant CAD on angiography (66.8% vs. 67.8%, p = 0.396), but NSTEMI patients underwent less primary percutaneous interventions compared with STEMI patients (43.6% vs. 55.2%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: In Kosovo, STEMI is commoner than NSTEMI, who were mostly males, more likely to have diabetes, hypertension and family history for CAD compared to those with NSTEMI. Smoking and arterial hypertension proved the strongest predictors of acute MI, in Kosovo, thus highlighting the urgent need for better atherosclerosis risk control and education strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0670.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: diagnostic imaging; radiography; age determination by skeleton; racial group; children
Online: 11 September 2023 (11:11:23 CEST)
Introduction: Determination of radiological bone age (BA) is a diagnostic method that consists of estimating chronological age (CA) from the bone maturation of children. Although environmental and hormonal factors can interfere with bone ossification, the process is essentially dependent on ancestral inheritance. These ethnic backgrounds are not usually considered, which can lead to biased interpretations and inadequate decision-making by pediatricians or forensic experts. The objective of this study was to determine the precision and accuracy of these radiological procedures among different ethnic groups. Methods: A qualitative systematic review carried out following MOOSE statement and previously registered in the International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42023449512). Search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed) (n=561), Cochrane Library (n=261), CINAHL (n=103), Web of Science (WOS) (n=181) and public institutional repositories (n=37) from inception to 31st December 2022 using Mesh as “Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures”, “Diagnostic imaging”, “Radiography”, “Age Determination by Skeleton” and free terms combining with booleans “AND” and “OR”. PEDro scale, and Risk of Bias in non-randomized Studies of Exposure (ROBINS-E) were used to assess methodological quality and risk of bias of included studies respectively. Results: 51 articles (n=19,531) were included according to the inclusion criteria previously established. There was a good to moderate methodological quality and a high to very high risk of bias. Skeletal methods for determining BA were precised in terms of intra-observer and inter-observer reliability in all ethnic groups. Regarding to accuracy of Skeletal methods in Caucasians and Hispanic children, GPA was accurate at all ages, but in youths, TW3 RUS could be a consistent alternative. In Asian and Arab, GPA and TW3 overestimated BA in adolescents near adulthood. In African youths, GPA overestimated BA while TW3 was more accurate in estimating CA. Dental and Cervical radiographic methods are equally precise but lesser accurate than Skeletal BA determination. Conclusion: Skeletal radiographic methods GPA and TW3 are both precise for BA determination among all ethnical groups, but their accuracy in estimating CA can be altered by racial bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0653.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Scheduled tribe; Children; Nutritional status; Under 5years age; Determinant factors
Online: 9 June 2023 (03:04:37 CEST)
Malnutrition is the main cause of child mortality in developing nations, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian countries. This undernutrition status is predominantly higher among primitive tribal (ST) children under 5 years of age. The nutritional status of tribal children is a serious concern in India. For this, there should be intends to examine the prevalence and determinants of primitive tribal children's nutritional status. To investigate the effect of household, child’s & maternal characteristics on biological children under 5 years of age. The study aims to find out the association between some selected determinants on scheduled tribe child’s nutritional status. The study used some selected variable of scheduled tribe mothers, household characteristics and their children anthropometric indices from DHS datasets of India, which was published by the NFHS datasets of India. In this study People datasets and Children (Under 5 years of age) of interviewed women file datasets of NFHS-IV & V is taken. The datasets of West Bengal, ST mothers, and their child into consideration as per the research interest. Then to analyze the determinants of ST children (U5 age) nutritional status, some determinant factors are taken from mothers, children and household characteristics. Children’s stunting, wasting and underweight as dependent variable and the mothers, child’s and household’s characteristics as independent variable. The statistical analysis was done by using Pearson Chi square test used to analyze the association between dependent and independent variables. The study results shows that the mother’s educational status, child’s age, birth order, size of child at birth, type of residence had significant associations with stunting. Mother's anemia status and mother age had significant associations with wasting. Mother education, currently breastfeeding, child age, sex of the child, birth order, size of child at birth, type of residence, wealth, toilet facility, and cooking fuel shows a significant association with underweight. The results found that many determinant factors had a significant role among ST children's (U5 age) nutritional status. Thus, the findings will help to achieve tentative resource allocation, and utilization through various programs and policies to improve the ST children (U5 age) nutritional status. There is a need to take a multisectoral and multidimensional approach to develop for those primitive tribal children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1011.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Vitamin B12 deficiency; Folate deficiency; School-age children; Adolescents; CNNS
Online: 15 May 2023 (09:45:12 CEST)
Deficiencies of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) are of particular interest due to their pleiotropic role in 1-carbon metabolism. In addition to adverse birth outcomes, deficiencies of B12 and FA, or an imbalance in FA/B12 status, are linked to metabolic disorders. Indian diets that are predominantly plant food-based could be deficient in these vitamins, but there are no national estimates of the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency in Indian children and adolescents, nor of their associations with age, sex, and growth indicators. The recent Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS-2016-18) provided estimates of the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency at the national and state level among preschool (1-4y: 9,976 and 11,004 children respectively), school-age children (5-9y: 12,156 and 14,125) and adolescents (10-19y: 11,748 and 13,621). Serum B12 and erythrocyte FA were measured by the direct chemiluminescence method and their deficiency was defined using WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency was high among adolescents (31.0%, CI: 28.7-33.5 and 35.6%, CI: 33.1-8.2), compared to school-age (17.3%, CI: 15.4-19.3 and 27.6%, CI: 25.5-29.9) and preschool children (13.8%, CI: 11.7-16.2 and 22.8%, CI: 20.5-25.2, respectively). The prevalence of both B12 and FA deficiency was significantly higher by 8 and 5% points respectively, in adolescent boys compared to girls. The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in moderately stunted school children (by 18.9% points) than in normal children, but no such difference was observed for FA deficiency. There was wide regional variation in the prevalence of B12 and FA deficiency, but no rural-urban differences were observed across all age groups. The national prevalence of B12 deficiency among preschool or school-age children was <20% (the cut-off that indicates a public health problem). However, FA deficiency in these age groups and both FA and B12 deficiencies in adolescents were >20%, which warrants further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0165.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Computed tomography, Thymus Gland, Dog, Age, Gender, Breed, Body Fat
Online: 4 May 2023 (02:59:54 CEST)
: Background: The thymus gland is the first lymphoid organ formed to regulate a newborn's immunity. It reaches its maximum size during puberty, after which it undergoes an atrophic procedure called involution, but its ability to grow again in response to some stresses, such as infections, neoplasia, surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is maintained. There is not any comprehensive study on computed tomographic features of thymus gland in dogs. So, the goal of the present study is to achieve some information about thymus gland using computed tomography as a non-invasive method. Methods: One hundred and fifty dogs classified in 5 age groups and 2 breed groups were entered to this study and the thymus gland was evaluated using 2-slice computed tomography machine. The inclusion criteria for the present study were having normal complete blood count, plain and post-contrast CT scan examination of thoracic region and no history of neoplasia, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The visibility, density, enhancement, grade, size, volume, shape, borders and lateralization of the thymus were evaluated and statistical analysis were performed. The effect of obesity on thymic grade and volume were also investigated. Results: The visibility, density, dorsal length, volume and grade decreased with increasing age. The thymic shape and lateralization were mostly wedge-shaped and left sided respectively. The borders became concave with aging and increasing body fat content caused to increase fatty degeneration of thymus. Conclusions: Declining of thymic density, grade, size and volume with aging was related to thymic involution and fatty degeneration was accelerated by increasing body fat content. Females and Males were different only in thymic shape and small and large breeds were different only in thymic volume. The thymus was visible in some geriatric dogs with no underlying disease. We hope that the present work can be used by radiologists in reading thoracic computed tomography but investigation of thymic characteristics in dogs with neoplasia and history of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and thoracic surgeries can complete this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: childhood trauma; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; sex difference; age
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:39:57 CEST)
Background. We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report was investigated. Methods. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used the data documented in the electronic medical records of patients who were hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. The CM was assessed using the 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which evaluates emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. The linear and logistic regression models were used (α = 0.01). Results. Three hundred thirty five patients with MDD (255 women and 80 men) and 168 with BD (97 women and 71 men) were included. In both samples, considerable CM rates were identified, but no statistically significant sex differences were detected in the variety of CTQ-based CM aspects. There was a significant association, with no sex differences, between the increasing patients’ age and a decreasing burden of CM. Conclusion. Both women and men with MDD or BD experienced a similar and considerable CM burden. Our findings support the routine CM assessment in psychiatric clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: uterine cervical neoplasms; mortality; age-period-cohort analysis; forecasting; Brazil
Online: 16 February 2022 (05:03:16 CET)
Cervical cancer is a public health issue with high disease burden and mortality in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were analyzing age, period, and cohort effects on cervical cancer mortality in women 20 years old or older from 1980 to 2019 in the North, South, and Southeast Regions of Brazil; and evaluating whether the implementation of a national screening program and the expansion of access to public health services caused impacts over the examined period and reduced the risk of death over the past years and among younger cohorts. The effects were estimated by applying Poisson regression models with estimable functions. The highest mortality rate by 100,000 women was found in Amazonas (24.13), and the lowest in São Paulo (10.56). A positive gradient was obtained for death rates as women’s age increased. The states in the most developed regions (South and Southeast) showed a reduction in the risk of death in the period that followed the implementation of the screening program and in cohort from the 1960s onwards. The North Region showed a decreased risk of death only in Amapá (2000–2004) and Tocantins (1995–2004; 2010–2019). The findings indicated that health inequities remain in Brazil and suggested that the health system has limitations regarding decreasing mortality associated with this type of cancer in regions with lower socioeconomic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: endometrial cancer; fertility-sparing management; molecular classification; reproductive age; pregnancy
Online: 26 November 2021 (12:42:15 CET)
Conclusions: Molecular classification could provide reliable supplementary information for evaluating prognostic and contribute to treatment option decision-making in EEC patients. Fertility-sparing treatment is not recommended for EEC patients with CNH and MSI-H. Furthermore, fertility-sparing treatment can be attempted in EEC patients with CHL, but regular follow-up should be carried out to early detection of EC relapse and prevention of disease progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Age; Sex; Stroke Types; Outcomes; SEM; Tertiary Hospitals; Rivers State
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:45:13 CEST)
This study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the direct effect of sex and age on stroke types and outcomes in Tertiary Health Facilities in Rives State, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional retrospective hospital-based research that utilized specific stroke patients’ information between 2015-2019. The study obtained the sex and age, stroke type (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (No disability/disability/death) from the records. The retrieved data was Microsoft Excel (2016), then analyzed using SPSS (version 21, Amos) and STATGRAPHICS centurion (Stat Point Tech., Inc.). From the result, out of the recorded 1916 stroke patients, 1229 (64.1%) were female, while 687 (35.9%) were males. The older adults (>55 years) had more recorded cases (n=1289) than young adults (ages 18–35 years; n=77) and middle-aged adults (ages 36–55 years, n=550). The SEM results showed that age was significantly associated with stroke type (P<0.001) and outcomes (P=0.038), while sex was significantly associated with stroke outcomes (P<0.001). The likelihood of death was 1.3 times higher in hemorrhagic stroke than ischemic stroke. In conclusion, age and sex had direct effects on stroke type, while age had a direct effect on stroke outcome. Hemorrhagic stroke was more likely to cause death than ischemic stroke in the studied population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Age; adherence; anti-hypertensive; Controlled hypertension; clinic; hypertension; Prevalence; Systemic
Online: 17 May 2021 (15:57:01 CEST)
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of controlled systemic hypertension and its associated risk factors among the hypertensive patients who attended the clinic at Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital in Tanzania. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was used determine the prevalence of co to 252 hypertensive patients were recruited during clinic visit from September to November 2020 and participant was randomly selected interviews using structured self-administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using chi square test to find the risk factors associated with controlled hypertension. Results: Among 252 participants, 94(39.7%) individuals with controlled hypertension giving the prevalence of controlled hypertension. The proportion of females with controlled hypertension was slightly higher than male (49 females to 45 males). The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was 152(60.3%) participants. The prevalence of controlled hypertension was higher among patients who have regular clinic visit (p< .05) and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. A similar trend was observed among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic, short duration of illness, higher level of education and there was no association between age, sex, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having health insurance and having chronic illness. Conclusion: Prevalence of controlled hypertension is higher among patients who have regular clinic visit and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. Also, it is higher among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic so they can have regular clinic visit and checkup. Reinforcement on regular drug intake and clinic visit, good nutrition and reduced salt intake and modifying lifestyles of patient with hypertension is important.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: systematic review; cannabis; neuroimaging; age-of-onset psychosis; psychosis; schizophrenia
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:58:14 CEST)
Acute exposure to cannabis has been associated with an array of cognitive alterations, increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, and other neuropsychiatric sequelae including the emergence of acute psychotic symptoms. However, the brain alterations associating cannabis use and these behavioral and clinical phenotypes remains disputed. To this end, neuroimaging can be a powerful technique to non-invasively study the impact of cannabis exposure on brain structure and function in both humans and animal models. While chronic exposure studies provide insight into how use may be related to long-term outcomes, acute exposure may reveal interesting information regarding the immediate impact of use and abuse on brain circuits. Understanding these alterations could reveal the connection with symptom dimensions in neuropsychiatric disorders and, more specifically with psychosis. The purpose of the present review is to: 1) provide an update on the findings of pharmacological neuroimaging studies examining the effects of administered cannabinoids and 2) focus the discussion on studies that examine the sensitive window for the emergence of psychosis. Current literature indicates that cannabis exposure has varied effects on the brain, with the principal compounds in cannabis (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) altering activity across different brain regions. Importantly, we also discorvered critical gaps in the literature, particularly regarding sex-dependent responses and long-term effects of chronic exposure. Certain networks often characterized as dysregulated in psychosis, like the default mode network and limbic system, were also impacted by THC exposure, identifying areas of particular interest for future work investigating the potential relationship between the two.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0589.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Shale compaction; Geological age; Thailand shale; Compaction model; Standard curve
Online: 21 April 2021 (16:50:54 CEST)
Shales are well known for their strong anisotrophic properties. The classical Athy’s model on the exponential porosity reduction with the depth commonly uses based on localities only. Shale compaction curve affects the results of the basin modeling as it is important input data, thus the standard compaction curve of shales needs to be established. This study provided a new data and complies available data of Thailand shales to propose the new empirical relationship among porosity, burial depth, and geological age. The numerical data of the geological time were estimated by the application from the relationship of velocity and depth in each geological ages. The variation of the Thailand shale data due to the different geological ages was found in this study. Finally, the standard curve of shale compaction proposed by Puttiwongrak et al.  was examined and confirmed by this research findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Down's Syndrome; perception; quality of life; sport; age; gender; scale
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:17:41 CET)
The hypothesis posed was whether participation in LaLiga Genuine Santander (competitive football) influenced the quality of life (QL) of the people who participated in it, since their perception of themselves is enhanced by all the aformentioned factors (self-determination, social inclusion, emotional well-being, physical well-being, material well-being, rights, personal development, interpersonal relationships). The objective was to evaluate the QL of people with Down's Syndrome (DS) using their self-perception (n=39) and the perception of the informants (family members, teachers) (n=39). The KidsLife-Down Scale, with a few modifications was used. In general, differences of opinion between the subgroups of participants with DS and informants showed that results were higher in terms of perception for participants in the DS subgroup. Scores for all variables were higher for those participants with DS who said they did engage in practicing competitive football. Despite the perception of informants provides a great deal of information regarding the QL of participants with DS, the latter should be involved in the evaluation process and their self perceptions taken into account. Our research shows that participation in the league modifies the perceptions of the participants with Down's Syndrome regarding their quality of life. However, these perceptions are not shared by the informants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: age; coring sample; forest productivity; Nepal; P. roxburghii; stand structure
Online: 4 September 2020 (08:08:30 CEST)
Distinguishable annual growth rings produce in Pinus roxburghii are an asset to find out the age of individual tree. This paper aimed to determine the age of P. roxburghii through coring samples and test the relationship with forest production. The biomass estimated, girths measured at two different sections and heights measured which allowed to determine the rate of tapering of the stand. The regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between various variables. The mean age of the P. roxburghii stand was found to be 23.97 (~24 years). The result showed the significant (p<0.05) positive correlation coefficient has been seen between age with girth at breast height, biomass, volume and carbon stock. However, no significant (p>0.05) correlation (r = 0.08) was found between age and height of the stand. In contrast, a correlation between diameter at breast height (DBH) was significant (p<0.05) and positive with volume, biomass, but no significant (p>0.05) correlation (r = 0.14) found between DBH and height of the stand. However, height has a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation with biomass. The mean biomass was 375 kg and mean annual increment (MAI) was 15 kg per tree. Rate of tapering of the studied stand predicted to be 3 cm diameter decreased with trunk height running at 100 cm from base to upward of P. roxburghii stand and vice versa. Result suggests that height-age relation is very weak whereas age, DBH, biomass and carbon has a significant correlation signifies that time-based forests' production and potential production estimation can be obtained in a relatively accurate way by utilizing the age of stand. The time-based forest production analysis is pioneer work in Nepal. The study affirms the tree ring count in P. roxburghii would be a credible and accurate method to determine the age of standing trees.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: social intervention; COVID-19; health policy; public health; age; gender
Online: 2 May 2020 (12:04:58 CEST)
Many governments particularly in Europe are designing social interventions for the first post COVID-19 emergency phase. Definition of a ‘best practice’ for restriction release is urgent. Although data uncertainty generate difficulties, we believe near term analysis must shift from attempting to understand the numerous ‘unknowns’ to the clarification and interpretation of the few ‘knowns’, to create stepping stones towards rapid evidence-based decision making.Here, open access data on COVID-19 severity in three European countries were analyzed. Spain’s data were more comprehensive than those from Italy and Germany. Overall, COVID-19 severity shows a remarkable nonlinear growth with age that is significantly higher in adult males. Hence, age-adaptive and gender-balanced social interventions might represent efficient repopulation options for public health policymakers. Furthermore, we urge wider governmental effort for open access to relevant data. Their analysis will allow consolidation of existing trends, validation of key observations and thus facilitation of timely decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0051.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Wuhan 2019-nCov; ACE2; expression; susceptibility; race; age; gender; smoking; single cell
Online: 2 March 2020 (01:38:52 CET)
In current severe global emergency situation of 2019-nCov outbreak, it is imperative to identify vulnerable and susceptible groups for effective protection and care. Recently, studies found that 2019-nCov and SARS-nCov share the same receptor, ACE2. In this study, we analyzed five large-scale bulk transcriptomic datasets of normal lung tissue and two single-cell transcriptomic datasets to investigate the disparities related to race, age, gender and smoking status in ACE2 gene expression and its distribution among cell types. We didn’t find significant disparities in ACE2 gene expression between racial groups (Asian vs Caucasian), age groups (>60 vs <60) or gender groups (male vs female). However, we observed significantly higher ACE2 gene expression in former smoker’s lung compared to non-smoker’s lung. Also, we found higher ACE2 gene expression in Asian current smokers compared to non-smokers but not in Caucasian current smokers, which may indicate an existence of gene-smoking interaction. In addition, we found that ACE2 gene is expressed in specific cell types related to smoking history and location. In bronchial epithelium, ACE2 is actively expressed in goblet cells of current smokers and club cells of non-smokers. In alveoli, ACE2 is actively expressed in remodelled AT2 cells of former smokers. Together, this study indicates that smokers especially former smokers may be more susceptible to 2019-nCov and have infection paths different with non-smokers. Thus, smoking history may provide valuable information in identifying susceptible population and standardizing treatment regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: physical activity; kidney transplantation; elder age; vascular anomalies; marginal kidneys
Online: 29 December 2019 (11:06:25 CET)
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage disease. To expand the donor reserve, it is necessary to use marginal/sub optimal donors that provide marginal organs. We retrospectively evaluated the short and long-term outcome of elderly kidney transplantation using allografts with vascular abnormalities. Between January 1999 and December 2018, 740 transplants from cadaveric donors were performed. Thirty-four elderly patients received a kidney transplantation with vascular anatomical variants (Group 1) were compared with 34 patients who received a kidney transplantation with single renal artery (SRA) (Grroup2) pair-matched by age, dialysis age, donor age, comorbidity. All participants completed the Long Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks after transplantation. The overall rate of surgical complications was 17.6% in Group 1 and 20.6% in Group 2, indicating that kidney with vascular anatomical variant might be successfully transplanted. Our data also emphasizes the importance of individualized physical activity in kidney transplantation with multiple arteries. Physical activity should be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal-transplanted recipients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0236.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: earnings quality; growth opportunities; discretionary accruals; corporate age; corporate size
Online: 23 August 2019 (04:40:37 CEST)
We examined the causality between growth opportunities and earnings quality of the emerging economies. We develop an argument that growth opportunities should lead to high-quality earnings of the developing economies against the prior studies from developed economies which posit that growth opportunities result in a lower quality of earnings. The findings revealed that Growth Opportunities had a positive significant effect on Earnings Quality (EQ). Thus, the study concluded that growth opportunities are useful in determining the earnings quality of firms. The study recommends that managers should take advantage of their firms' growth opportunities to provide quality accounting information which will directly provide expanded opportunities for business growth. Though literature confirms that generally, earnings management might not be necessarily bad in business operational practice, managers are advised to avoid extreme aggressiveness in managing earnings as this may culminate in the negative manipulation of accounting information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: interior design; questionare; life situation; data evaluation; different age groups
Online: 23 April 2019 (13:12:57 CEST)
The role of the submission was to find out what changes people think they need to make in their home because of getting older. At advanced age, the likelihood of different limitations such as vision impairment, hearing impairment or physical inability is increased. Currently, tenants are often forced to leave their long-term living space, as these spaces cannot serve “new” individual needs. This transition from the privacy of their home to the new environment often appears to be a painful change. They will not have a well-known environment because their homes cannot be adapted to their new needs. The aim is a comprehensive approach to the design of such an exterior and interior space which could serve people at all stages of their life, including the terms of mobility. This means that even if there is an unexpected situation and changes in movement abilities and physiological limitations of man, not only by natural aging, but according to accidents or disabilities we can adapt the living space to the given conditions. The survey results are presented in Germany and Slovakia. In the survey, respondents expressed their opinion on what they considered important in creating an adaptive environment considering various life changes. Results are processed graphically with explanation. The results could be of an interest to architects and designers of the environment. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, studies of possible modifications of flats and houses were developed. The contribution brought these results to three age groups of respondents; people aged 35, 50 and over 50.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1738.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Sarcopenia; Zebrafish; Age-related muscle deficits; Aging; Biomarkers; Electrical Impedance Myography
Online: 26 September 2023 (13:38:16 CEST)
Abstract: Sarcopenia poses a significant challenge to public health and can severely impact the quality of life of aging populations. Despite extensive efforts to study muscle degeneration using traditional animal models, there is still a lack of effective diagnostic tools, precise biomarkers, and treatments for sarcopenia. Zebrafish models have emerged as powerful tools in biomedical research, providing unique insights into age-related muscle disorders like sarcopenia. The advantages of using zebrafish models include their rapid growth outside of the embryo, optical transparency during early developmental stages, high reproductive potential, ease of husbandry, compact size, and genetic tractability. By deepening our understanding of the molecular processes underlying sarcopenia, we may develop novel diagnostic tools and effective treatments that can improve the lives of aging individuals affected by this condition. This review aims to explore the unique advantages of zebrafish as a model for sarcopenia research, highlight recent breakthroughs, outline potential avenues for future investigations, and emphasize the distinctive contributions that zebrafish models offer. Our research endeavors to contribute significantly to addressing the urgent need for practical solutions to the impact of sarcopenia on aging populations, ultimately striving to enhance the quality of life for individuals affected by this condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0668.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Clubfoot; delayed presentation; walking age; neglected; immature; treatment; Ponseti; older child
Online: 9 August 2023 (05:04:19 CEST)
Treating clubfoot in walking age children is debated, despite studies showing that using Ponseti casting principles can correct the mid-foot effectively. We aimed to explore techniques and approaches for management of older children with clubfoot and identify areas of management consensus. A mixed-methods cross-sectional electronic survey on delayed presenting clubfoot (DPC) was sent to 88 clubfoot practitioners (response rate 56.8%). We collected data on decision-making, casting, imaging, orthotics, surgery, re-currence, rehabilitation, multidisciplinary care and contextual factors. The quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Many respondents used the Pirani score and some used the PAVER score to aid deformity severity assessment and correctability [1,2]. Ponseti casting principles were consistently applied with a stepwise approach. Con-textual factors influenced the timing of the treatment, the decision to treat a bilateral deformity simultaneously, and casting intervals. Differences were seen around orthotic usage and use of tibialis anterior tendon transfer following full correction. The survey identified consensus areas in overall principles of management for delayed presenting clubfoot and implementation of Ponseti principles, indicating these principles are well recognized as a multidisciplinary approach for older children with clubfoot. Some dif-ferences in approach may reflect different economic or social contexts. The principles can be adapted well for different geographical and healthcare contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration, Choroidal neovascularization, Retinal pigmented epithelium, Fluorescein isothiocyanate
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:24:37 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness world-wide. We recently reported that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can activate the alternative pathway of the complement system and induce choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. Currently, no other investigator has demonstrated CNV after PEG injection in the mouse eye. The aim of this article is twofold: we review the histologic changes in mouse retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) after treatment with PEG, and we summarize a model of wet and dry AMD pathogenesis in mice through subretinal PEG treatment of RPE cells and retinal layers. We injected (subretinal) male C57BL/6 mice with 2 μL of solution containing 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg of PEG or PBS in control groups. Eyes were harvested at day 1, 3 and 5 after injection and processed for analysis. Sections were immunohistochemically stained for complement component C3, mem-brane attack complex (MAC), and cytokeratin 18. Light and laser confocal microscopy was used for image capturing. PEG increased deposition of C3 and MAC on RPE cells and on all retinal layers after 1.0 mg injection. PEG induced loss of cellular contacts between RPE cells and migration of RPE cells in the subretinal space at day 1 after PEG injection. After 0.5 mg PEG injection, increased size of RPE cells was detected at day 3 and 5. Apoptotic bodies were observed in outer nuclear layer at day 3 and 5 after 0.5 mg PEG treatment. RPE cells with dark cytoplasm and condensed chromatin were observed. Higher doses of PEG induce CNV, encouraged RPE cell proliferation and death, and damage photoreceptors in mice. This simple and fast model may be useful to explore the pathogenesis of both dry and wet AMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0186.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: age estimation; AFDEI; CNN; human gait; neural networks; GEI; invariant moments
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:12:12 CEST)
Accurately estimating a person's age is crucial for identity verification at all critical checkpoints, including airports, land borders, and seaports. Human gait may be used as a biometric identifier and indicator of age, among other things. This study aims to develop methods for estimating a person's age by observing their walk. In this paper, a novel technique for preprocessing the proposed gait dataset has been used by utilizing a combination of the gait energy image (GEI), the accumulated frame difference energy image (AFDEI), and the invariant moment of the image. The proposed technique outperformed state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy. The proposed method was tested and evaluated using a convolutional neural network (CNN), and it achieved an average accuracy of 90.35% across 14 different view angles within 5 K-Fold, the proposed method resulted in 94.68% and 94.54% in 30º and 75º view degree respectively. concluding that the approach is effective and promising for estimating age using human gait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1968.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; deep learning; survival analysis; data dimension raising; age stratification
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:52:42 CEST)
(1) Background: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. The accurate prediction of survival intervals will help physicians make informed decisions on treatment strategies or the use of palliative care for patients; (2) Methods: The gene expression is predictive and correlates to patient prognosis. To establish a reliable prediction tool, we collected the RNA-seq data of breast cancer patients, a total of 1187 RNA-seq data (median age 58 years), in FPKM format from the TCGA database. Among them, 144 RNA-seq data with date of death information was selected to establish the SaBrcada-AD dataset. We first normalized the SaBrcada-AD dataset to transcripts per million (TPM) to build survival prediction model SaBrcada. After normalization and dimension raising, the differential gene expression data were used for testing eight different deep learning architectures. Among them, GoogLeNet performed the best. Considering the effect of age on prognosis, we examined all ages between the lower and upper quartiles of patient age for a stratified random sampling test; (3) Results: Stratifying by age based on a cut-off of 61 years of age improved the accuracy of SaBrcada compared to previous findings, resulting in an accuracy of 0.798. We also built a free website tool to provide 5 kinds of predicted survival period information for clinician reference; (4) Conclusions: We established a breast cancer survival analysis prediction model, SaBrcada, and a website tool with the same name. Through this highly reliable survival analysis model and website tool, information on survival intervals will be provided for clinicians as part of precision medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: age of information; cached files updating; stationary distribution; discrete time model
Online: 5 September 2020 (04:22:43 CEST)
In this paper, using the discrete time model, we consider the average age of all files for a cached-files-updating system where a server generates N files and transmits them to a local cache. In order that the cached files are fresh, in each time slot the server updates files with certain probabilities. The age of one file or its age of information (AoI) is defined as the time the file stays in cache since it was last time sent to cache. Assume that each file in cache has corresponding request popularity. In this paper, we obtain the distribution function of the popularity-weighted average age over all files, which gives a complete description of this average age. For the random age of single file, both the mean and its distribution have been derived before by establishing a simple Markov chain. Using the same idea, we show that an N dimensional stochastic process can be constituted to characterize the changes of N file ages simultaneously. By solving the steady-state of the resulting process, we obtain the explicit expression of stationary probability for an arbitrary state-vector. Then, the distribution function of the popularity-weighted average age can be derived by mergering a proper set of stationary probabilities. For the possible applications, the distribution function can be utilized to calculate the probability that the average age violates certain statistical guarantee.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Odds Ratio; Prevalence; Knee Joints; Osteoarthritis (OA); Age-related degeneration (ARD)
Online: 7 July 2020 (03:01:34 CEST)
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) and age-related degeneration (ARD) are stimulants for the development of the fabella in the knee joint. This meta-analysis updates previous studies and reviews on the prevalence of the fabella in OA or ARD knee joints. In addition, it provides a quantitative estimation of the fabellar prevalence in knees having OA and ARD. Methodology: Twenty studies comprising of data from 11,056 knee joints were included in the analysis, consisting of 6,819 Knees of OA subjects (including those with age more than 40 years) and 4,237 knees of non-OA subjects (including less than 40years) knees, respectively. 2,434 knees had fabellae present in OA subjects (including more than 40years), and 844 fabellae were present in non-OA subjects (including less than 40years). The Odds and Risk Ratios were calculated. Sensitivity analysis and cumulative analysis were conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Results: Prevalence of fabella was found to be higher in OA knees, where the Risk Ratio of developing fabella was 2.50 (2.07-3.01). Compared with this, the Risk Ratio for the incidence of fabella in OA with ARD knee was 1.84 (1.66-2.03). The bilateral occurrence of fabella was more common than unilateral. The risk of developing fabella in individuals aged less than forty-year was 63% less than individuals aged more than forty years. Conclusion: OA and ARD would increase the prevalence of fabella by 84%, thus acting as stimulants and risk factors for ossified fabella.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0383.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: child speech; speech production; speech perception; learning; consonant age of acquisition
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:07:44 CEST)
Purpose: Perceptual learning and production practice are basic mechanisms that children depend on to acquire adult levels of speech accuracy. In this study, we examined perceptual learning and production practice as they contributed to changes in speech accuracy in three- and four-year-old children. Our primary focus was manipulating the order of perceptual learning and baseline production practice to better understand when and how these learning mechanisms interact. Method: Sixty-five typically-developing children between the ages of three and four were included in the study. Children were asked to produce CVCCVC nonwords like /bozjəm/ and /tʌvtʃəp/ that were described as the names of make-believe animals. All children completed two separate experimental blocks: a baseline block in which participants heard each nonword once and repeated it, and a test block in which the perceptual input frequency of each nonword varied between 1 and 10. Half of the participants completed a baseline-test order; half completed a test-baseline order. Results: Greater accuracy was observed for nonwords produced in the second experimental block, reflecting a production practice effect. Perceptual learning resulted in greater accuracy during the test for nonwords that participants heard 3 or more times. However, perceptual learning did not carry over to baseline productions in the test-baseline design, suggesting that it reflects a kind of temporary priming. Finally, a post hoc analysis suggested that the size of the production practice effect depended on the age of acquisition of the consonants that comprised the nonwords. Conclusions: The study provides new details about how perceptual learning and production practice interact with each other and with phonological aspects of the nonwords, resulting in complex effects on speech accuracy and learning of form-referent pairs. These findings may ultimately help speech-language pathologists maximize their clients’ improvement in therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder; FDG-PET/CT; elder age; physical activity
Online: 29 December 2019 (10:37:20 CET)
The incidence of cancer in organ transplant patients is higher than in the non-transplanted population. The incidence increases with increasing age. The use of Fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) is sensitive and specific to detect PTLD LD compared with conventional CT imaging. We analyzed the medical data of 127 patients aged over 60 years, who underwent heart transplantation in the above period, who have been practicing early CT-PET for diagnostic purposes between February 2007 and October 2018. Of 127 consecutive patients who underwent CT-PET, SUVs up than 4, were found in 84 patients of which 20 were affected by PTLDs, seven patients were affected by chronic non neoplastic inflammatory diseases, the remainder were affected by other neoplasms. The favorable effect of physical activity programs on cardiorespiratory and psychomotor function occur in all patients. In conclusion, CT-PET at the first doubts about the possibility of the development of neoplasms has allowed a diagnosis and then a treatment more quickly. Education in behavioral norms that improve the patient's quality of life is necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: vegetable waste; phenolics; hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress; antioxidant activity; AGE inhibition
Online: 2 August 2019 (10:36:17 CEST)
Pomegranate peel is a natural source of phenolics, claimed to possess healing properties, among which antioxidant and antidiabetic. In line with this evidence, the ethyl acetate PGE extract, obtained by Soxhlet from the peel of Dente di cavallo DC2 variety and characterized by a 4% amount of ellagic acid, has been studied for its hypoglycemic, antiglycation and antioxidative cytoprotective properties, in order to support a possible further nutraceutical interest. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, interference with advanced glycation end-products (AGE) formation and metal chelating abilities were evaluated as hypoglycemic mechanisms. Also, considering that oxidative stress is associated with hyperglycemia complications, PGE antioxidant cytoprotective properties under hyperglycemic conditions were assayed. Phenolic profile was characterized by integrated chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Under our experimental conditions, PGE strongly inhibited the tested enzymes, especially α-glucosidase, and exerted chelating and antiglycation properties. Also, it reduced both ROS and GSH levels under hyperglycemic conditions, thus suggesting its ability to support cell functions by counteracting intracellular oxidative stress. Along with ellagic acid, rutin was the major identified flavonoid (about 4 %) of PGE. Present results suggest PGE to be a possible remedy for hyperglycemia management and encourage further studies to exploit its promising properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0347.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: choroidal neovascularization; neovascular age-related macular degeneration; calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain
Online: 18 September 2018 (06:27:47 CEST)
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a key pathological feature of several of the leading causes of vision loss including neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Here we show that a calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain (CAD)-like peptide 27, CAD27, inhibited in vitro angiogenic activities, including tube formation and migration of endothelial cells, and suppressed vascular sprouting from rat aortic ring explants. In rat model of laser-induced CNV, we demonstrate that intravitreal injection of CAD27 significantly attenuated the formation of CNV lesions as measured via fundus fluorescein angiography and choroid flat-mounts (19.5% and 22.4% reductions at 10μg and 20μg of CAD27 injected, respectively). Similarly, the reduction of CNV lesions was observed in the groups of rats that had received topical applications of CAD27 (choroid flat-mounts: 17.9% and 32.5% reductions at 10μg/mL and 20μg/mL of CAD27 installed, respectively). Retinal function was unaffected, as measured using electroretinography in both groups received interareal injection or topical applications of CAD27 at least for 9 days. These findings show that CAD27 can be used as a potential therapeutic alternative for targeting CNV in the diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0456.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Bronze Age settlement; modern soil; micromorphology; chemical properties; gypsum; anthropogenic impact
Online: 24 July 2018 (12:00:13 CEST)
In some cases, the human impact on ancient landscapes has been so profound that local soils still remain significantly affected even after hundreds and thousands of years after ending impact. We studied the Late Bronze Age Muradymovo settlement located in Urals, Russia, aiming to estimate the consequences of the ancient people activity for environment. Despite the present humid climate, the modern soils inside the cultural layer of the study site contain more than 27% of gypsum at a depth of just 10 cm from the surface, and a microrelief of the study site is typical of a gypsum desert. The nearby background Chernozems are gypsum-free to a depth of 2 meters. According to the archaeological data, the ancient people belonged to the ‘Srubno-Alakul’ archaeological culture (1750–1350 yrs BC cal) and had a tradition of building their houses from gypsum rocks. At the present time, this area is still unsuitable for human settlement. The properties of modern soils inside the cultural layer of the study site are directly affected by the Late Bronze Age human activities. It has been identified on soil morphology, micromorphology and chemical properties of soils developed inside the cultural layer of the settlement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: aging; age-related disease; mortality rate; positive feedback loop; vicious cycle
Online: 18 April 2017 (02:45:04 CEST)
Age-related diseases (ARDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide, and contribute to 90% of mortality in developed countries. Interestingly, the mortality rates of individual ARDs increase exponentially with age. Processes described by the exponential growth function typically involve a branching chain reaction or, more generally, a positive feedback loop. Here I propose that each ARD is mediated by one or several positive feedback loops (vicious cycles). I then identify critical vicious cycles in five major ARDs: atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. I also propose that the progression of ARDs can be halted by selectively interrupting the vicious cycles and suggest the most promising targets. An evolutionary perspective is also offered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0789.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Angiogenesis; Age-related macular degeneration; diabetic retinopathy; intravitreal injections; retinal vein occlusions
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:37:37 CET)
Pathologic angiogenesis is responsible for much of the vision loss that stems from several chorioretinal vascular diseases including neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Because vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serves as a pivotal angiogenic molecule, it has emerged as the primary target for therapeutic drugs. Current anti-VEGF therapy is dominated by bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept, all of which have been available for more than a decade, but new drugs, both biosimilars (Byooviz and Cimerli) and drugs whose primary aim is to decrease treatment burden (brolucizumab, faricimab, and the ranibizumab port delivery system), have been approved. Recent failures (conbercept, abicipar, and KSI-301) emphasize the complexity of drug development and the difficulties faced by innovators. Most therapies under development, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and gene therapy, include VEGF-A blockade as their primary function and aim to extend durability rather than increase peak efficacy. But even as many new drugs look to extend durability, cost containment with mandated use of biosimilars serves to balance the therapeutic landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration; Glaucoma; Gut microbiota; Mendelian randomization; Gut-retina axis
Online: 9 October 2023 (14:55:25 CEST)
Purpose The objective of this study was to eliminate any ambiguity by examining the correlation between gut microbiota and both AMD and glaucoma. Methods Mendelian randomization studies were conducted utilizing the data sourced from the GWAS database for the gut microbiome, AMD, and glaucoma. SNP estimates were summarized through five MR methods. We utilized Cochran's Q statistic to evaluate the heterogeneity of the instrumental variables. Additionally, we employed a "leave-one-out" approach to verify the stability of our findings. Results IVW suggests that Eubacterium (oxidoreducens group) and Parabacteroides had a protective effect on AMD. Both weighted median and IVW suggests that Lachnospiraceae (NK4A136 group) and Ruminococcaceae (UCG009) had a protective effect on AMD. However, both weighted median and IVW suggests that Dorea had a risk effect on AMD. Similarly, The IVW of Eubacterium (ventriosum group) showed a risk effect on AMD. The weighted median of Eubacterium (nodatum group), Lachnospiraceae (NC2004 group), and Roseburia had a risk effect on glaucoma. IVW suggested that Ruminococcaceae (UCG004) had a risk effect on glaucoma. Reverse MR analysis found a causal link between Eubacterium (nodatum group) and glaucoma. No causal relationships were found between AMD or glaucoma and the other mentioned bacterial groups. No significant heterogeneity or evidence of horizontal pleiotropy was detected. Conclusions This study found that certain gut bacteria had protective effects on AMD, while others may be risk factors for AMD or glaucoma. Besides, reverse MR found that glaucoma led to increased abundance of certain gut bacteria. Further trials are needed to clarify the specific mechanisms involved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: broiler chickens; parent flock age; hatching time; production traits; bacteriota composition; ceca
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:15:11 CEST)
This trial was carried out to find out the effects of the parent flocks and the hatching time of broiler chickens on the production traits and bacteriota development of animals. Two times 730 hatching eggs were collected from two different parent flocks with age of 22-23 and 65-66 weeks. In the hatchery both groups were divided into two subgroups, when the day-old chickens were separated according to their hatching time. A feeding trial was carried out afterwards, using the 4 treatments in 6 replicate floor pens, feeding commercial starter, grower, and finisher diets, that contained all the nutrients according to the breeder’s recommendations. The day-old chickens of the parent older flock and those hatched later were heavier and this advantage of the birds remained until end of the production period. The different age and origin of parent flocks failed to modify the microbiological parameters of the chicken’s ceca. However, the hatching time significantly influenced the different bacteriota diversity indices. The late hatched chickens showed higher Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria and lower Firmicutes abundances at day 11. These treatments resulted differences in the main families, Ruminococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae. These differences could not be found at day 39.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0495.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: landscape; Middle Age; Catalonia; cultivated lands; settlement; continuity; erosion; aerial photo-graphs
Online: 7 July 2023 (11:41:15 CEST)
The coombs (in Catalan comes) form an integral part of the landscape. These are small valleys, with the deepest and flattest part cultivated for agriculture. They are predominantly found in the most arid regions of Catalonia, particularly around the cities of Tarragona and Lleida. They are generally dry land areas. We propose that these coombs gained significance in the early centuries of the Middle Ages, a period marked by intense erosion. It is important to identify their locations and establish connections with medieval written documents, the settlements that thrived throughout the Middle Ages, archaeological sites such as necropolises, and the valuable data derived from to-ponymy studies. We think that understanding these coombs can greatly contribute to under-standing how the territory was organized in the Middle Ages, the extent of cultivated lands that were established, and the distribution of many settlements. Ultimately, this knowledge can aid in acquiring better understanding of the current landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: aortic stenosis; transcatheter aortic valve replacement; age; surgical risk; low-intermediate risk
Online: 29 May 2023 (14:36:38 CEST)
Background: Current European guidelines support transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-VI) in intermediate to low-risk patients ≥75 years-old but its prognostic relevance is unknown. Methods: Intermediate-to-low-risk (Society of Thoracic Surgeon score <8%) patients enrolled in the HORSE registry were included. We compared the population with less versus more than 75 years old. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 2685 patients were included, 280 (8.6%) <75 and 2405 ≥75 years. Through a mean follow-up of 437 ± 381 days, 198 (8.2%) and 23 (8.2%) patients died in the two arms, without statistically significant differences (log-rank p=0.925). At Cox regression analysis, age did not predict the occurrence of all-cause death, neither as a continuous variable (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.04, p=0.294) nor dichotomizing according to the prespecified cutoff of 75 years (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.63-1.51p=0.924). Time-to-event ROC curves showed low accuracy of age to predict all-cause mortality (area under the curve of 0.54 for both 1-year and 2-year outcomes). Conclusions: TAVI has comparable benefits across age strata in intermediate-to-low risk patients. The age cut-off suggested by current guidelines is not predictive of the risk of adverse events during hospital stay, neither of all-cause mortality through a mid-term follow-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Age; Digital Era; Evolution of Pen and Paper; Screens and Keyboards
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:39:28 CEST)
Delve into the ebb and flow of human ingenuity as the researcher traces the evolution of writing from papyrus to pixels. Discover how humble instruments like quill pens and typewriters have propelled human into the digital frontier, forever reshaping the art of expression in the modern age. This article examines the evolution of writing tools from traditional pen and paper to digital writing in the modern age. It explores the development of writing materials such as papyrus, parchment, and paper, as well as the invention of writing tools including quill pens, fountain pens, and typewriters. The rise of digital writing tools, including word processing software and smartphones, is also discussed, along with their benefits such as increased efficiency and productivity, enhanced collaboration and sharing capabilities, and greater accessibility and flexibility. However, the article also highlights the challenges of writing in the digital age, including the impact of digital distractions on writing focus and quality, the issue of online plagiarism and copyright infringement, and the potential loss of traditional writing skills. The article concludes with recommendations for educators, school administrators, students, and researchers to strike a balance between digital and traditional writing practices, to embrace digital writing tools while preserving traditional writing skills, and to understand the importance of the evolution of writing. The theoretical frameworks of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) Theory, Media Ecology Theory, and Activity Theory are also discussed in relation to the evolution of writing tools. Overall, this article provides valuable insights into the history, benefits, and challenges of writing in the digital age, as well as suggestions for navigating the future of writing and its tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0353.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: quality of life; COVID-19; pandemic; rectal cancer; radiochemotherapy; age; sex; stage
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:39:38 CEST)
Colorectal cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers. Advanced rectal cancer patients receive neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy as well as surgery and suffer under reduced health-related quality of life due to various side effects. We were interested in the role of the COVID-19 pandemic and how it affected those patients’ quality of life. A total of 489 advanced rectal cancer patients from the University Hospital Erlangen in Germany were surveyed between May 2010 and March 2022 and asked to fill out the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaire over eight different time points: in the beginning, during and after radiochemotherapy, right before surgery and in yearly intervals after surgery for up to four years. Answers were converted to scores to compare the COVID-19 period to the time before March 2020 focusing on the follow-ups, the developments over time – including by sex and age - and the influence of the TNM cT-stage. Overall, a trend of impaired functional and symptom scores was found across all surveys with few significances (body image -10.6 percentage points (pp) after one year; defecation problems +13.5 pp, insomnia +10.2 pp and weight loss +9.8 pp after three years; defecation problems +11.3 pp after four years). cT4-stage patients lost significantly more weight than their cT1-3-stage counterparts (+10.7 to 13.7 pp). Further studies should be conducted to find possible causes and develop countermeasures for future major infectious diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Ophthalmic imaging; Optical coherence tomography; Age-related macular degeneration; Glaucoma; Retinal conditions
Online: 8 February 2023 (11:28:28 CET)
OCTA is an imaging modality used in the assessment of the retinal vasculature. It operates on the principle of coherence tomography used in standard OCT with the addition of delineating the retinal vascular. This provides a modern non-invasive retinal vascular imaging method compared to conventional dye-based imaging. High quality depth resolution of the superficial and deep capillary networks is possible on OCTA whereas this was not possible prior. OCTA may be limited by image quality degradation from factors such as motion artefact or media opacities, and therefore may not be the investigation of choice for all patient groups. There are multiple potential clinical applications for OCTA in retinal and choroidal vascular disease. Ongoing research is necessary to substantiate the more widespread use of OCTA due to its significant cost burden compared to current modalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0218.v3
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeological survey; Inner Tian Shan Mountain region; Iron Age; Medieval period; agropastoralism
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:44:09 CET)
This paper discusses the preliminary results of archaeological surveys conducted in the Juuku Region of north-central Kyrgyzstan on the south side of Lake Issyk kul. Our goal was to document ancient and contemporary agropastoral systems over a four millenia time period. During the surveys about 350 loci were identified as settlements, burial mounds, graves, single artifact finds, and artifact scatters (ceramic). The areas of Juuku Valley survey included two discrete polygons: Polygon 1, Lower Juuku at 1750 to 1950 m asl in elevation and Polygon 2, Chak Juuku or Upper Eastern Branch Juuku Valley at 2060 to 2100 m asl in elevation. Three radiometric dates and preliminary archaeobotanical studies were conducted at three exposed profile cuts. The methods included here are: (1) pedestrian surveys; (2) use of digital maps (Google Earth, Encarta); (3) placing archaeological loci within known chronological time periods; (4) AMS dating of charcoal samples collected from profile deposits; and (5) preliminary identification of plant remains found from archaeobotanical samples. The results of our research represent the first step toward inventorying and interpreting archaeological data in the Juuku Valley derived from field studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: exercise; marriage; sedentary behavior; gender; age groups; behavioral risk factors surveillance system
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:44:23 CET)
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify the age and sex-related associations between marital status with PA and TV time. We used data from Vigitel, an annual telephone survey started in 2006 in Brazil. We applied a complex sample logistic regression model to estimate the odds for PA and TV time comparing marital statuses according to age and sex subgroups, independent of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, self-assessed poor health, and smoking. Our sample included 561,837 individuals with a TV time > 3 h/day (prevalence = 25.2%) and PA > 150 min/week (prevalence = 35%). Compared to single individuals, married men and women were less likely to watch TV more than 3 h/day in participants > 30 years old. When compared to single, married participants were less likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups. Married women older than 40 years were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week than the single ones, while there were no differences among married men by age group. In conclusion, married individuals are less likely to spend more than 3 hours a day watching TV than single individuals. Single men and women were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups and married women older than 40 years were more likely to do 150 min of PA/week than single women.