ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0088.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: YOLOv2; transfer learning; pig farming; object detection
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:59:03 CEST)
Generic object detection is one of the most important and flourishing branches of computer vision and has real-life applications in our day to day life. With the exponential development of deep learning-based techniques for object detection, the performance has enhanced considerably over the last 2 decades. However, due to the data-hungry nature of deep models, they don't perform well on tasks which have very limited labeled dataset available. To handle this problem, we proposed a transfer learning-based deep learning approach for detecting multiple pigs in the indoor farm setting. The approach is based on YOLO-v2 and the initial parameters are used as the optimal starting values for train-ing the network. Compared to the original YOLO-v2, we transformed the detector to detect only one class of objects i.e. pigs and the back-ground. For training the network, the farm-specific data is annotated with the bounding boxes enclosing pigs in the top view. Experiments are performed on a different configuration of the pen in the farm and convincing results have been achieved while using a few hundred annotated frames for fine-tuning the network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0208.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: pig; behavior analysis; hourglass; stacked dense-net; K-mean sampler
Online: 19 January 2020 (04:40:15 CET)
Animal behavior analysis is a crucial tasks for the industrial farming. In an indoor farm setting, extracting Key joints of animal is essential for tracking the animal for longer period of time. In this paper, we proposed a deep network that exploit transfer learning to trained the network for the pig skeleton extraction in an end to end fashion. The backbone of the architecture is based on hourglass stacked dense-net. In order to train the network, key frames are selected from the test data using K-mean sampler. In total, 9 Keypoints are annotated that gives a brief detailed behavior analysis in the farm setting. Extensive experiments are conducted and the quantitative results show that the network has the potential of increasing the tracking performance by a substantial margin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: serious games; science education; games in education; augmented reality
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:29:49 CET)
Keeping in mind the increasing trend and need for serious games in science education, we have done a systematic literature review. These papers show the trends and patterns of research carried out in this field from the year 2011 to 2020. Specifically, we investigated country-wise concentration and the most common evaluation methods. Literature is reviewed from IEEEexplore, Springer, and Scopus. Moreover, we discussed the role of Augmented Reality(AR) games in teaching physics. Lastly, we have discussed the positive and negative aspects of serious games in science education in particular, and the trend of using serious games in the past decade in education in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Neuroprosthetics; Brain Computer Interface; Neural Implants; Deep Brain Stimulation
Online: 3 February 2022 (11:06:15 CET)
Recent progress in microfabrication technique allowed the rapid development of neural implants. They are getting categorized as effective tools for clinical practice, especially to treat traumatic and neurodegenerative disorders. Microelectrode arrays already have been used in numerous neural interface devices. Basically, almost all neural implants have been developed based on BCI (Brain Computer Interface) system. When BCI system falls under invasive technique, it is referred as BMI or Brain Machine Interface. BMIs hold promises for neurorehabilitation of motor and sensory function, cognitive state evaluation and treatment of neurological chaos. A directed overview of the field of neural implants is discussed in this article. The aim of this review is to give a brief introduction of neural prosthetics as well as their exciting applications in treating neurological disorders and a deep discussion on their functionality are mentioned. BCI system and their different types, their functionality, their pros and cons, how other neural implants developed, and their present status have been covered. Different possibilities and possible future of deep brain stimulation (DBS), Neuralink, motor and sensory neural prosthetics are further discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cancer cachexia, muscle atrophy, tissue regeneration, 3D bioprinting
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:20:17 CEST)
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is identified by ongoing muscle atrophy, along with functional impairment, anorexia, weakness, fatigue, anemia, reduced tolerance to antitumor treatments. Thus, reducing the patients’ quality of life. Cachexia alone causes about 22-25% of cancer deaths. This review covers the symptoms, mediators, available treatment, and prospects of 3D bioprinting for cancer cachexia. Studies about cachexia have shown several factors that drive this disease – protein breakdown, inflammatory cytokines activation, and mitochondrial alteration. Even with proper nutrition, physical exercises, anti-inflammatory agents, chemotherapy, and grafting attempts, standard treatment has been unsuccessful for cachexia. But the use of 3D bioprinting shows much promise compared to conventional methods by attempting to fabricate 3D constructs mimicking the native muscle tissues. In this review, some 3D bioprinting techniques with their advantages and drawbacks, along with their achievements and challenges in in-vivo applications have been discussed. Constructs with neural integration or muscle-tendon units aim to repair muscle atrophy. But it is still difficult to properly bio-print these complex muscles. Although progress can be made by developing new bio-inks or 3D printers to fabricate high-resolution constructs. Using secondary data, this review study shows prospects of why 3D bioprinting can be a good alternate approach to fight cachexia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Bioprinting; Bioinks; Tissue engineering
Online: 29 October 2020 (14:50:51 CET)
Bioprinting is a relatively new yet evolving technique predominantly used in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. 3D bioprinting techniques combine the advantages of creating Extracellular Matrix (ECM) like environments for cells and computer-aided tailoring of predetermined tissue shapes and structures. The essential application of bioprinting is for the regeneration or restoration of damaged and injured tissues by producing implantable tissues and organs. The capability of bioprinting is yet to be fully scrutinized in sectors like the patient-specific spatial distribution of cells, bio-robotics, etc. In this review, currently developed experimental systems and strategies for the bioprinting of different types of tissues as well as for drug delivery and cancer research are explored for potential applications. This review also digs into the most recent opportunities and future possibilities for the efficient implementation of bioprinting to restructure medical and technological practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1060.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Pakistan; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Elimination; Prevalence; Screening; Refugees
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:31:50 CEST)
Hepatitis B and C are major health issues in developing countries such as Pakistan and Afghan-istan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and effectiveness of a screening program for hepatitis B and C in a region with no existing programs, and to estimate their prev-alence in the general population in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, as well as in Afghan refugees or migrants. A retrospective cohort study was done in the general population of Peshawar and its adjacent districts, as well as migrants from neighboring provinces of Afghani-stan, who presented to our tertiary-care health facility. A Microsoft Excel registry was created for data collection, which were analyzed using IBM SPSS via descriptive analysis, normal distribution curve histograms, and chi-squared tests. A total of 9563 individuals were screened for hepatitis (5894 males and 3669 females), including Afghan migrants in Peshawar and surrounding districts. 876 individuals tested positive for hepatitis, with 538 positive for hepatitis B (383 males and 155 females) and 330 positive for hepatitis C (198 males and 134 females). Eight individuals had a hepatitis B and C co-infection. Among the study population, the prevalence rates were 2.2% for hepatitis B and 2.3% for hepatitis C, of which the Afghan migrants accounted for 2.7% and 0.5%, respectively. According to the gender-based distribution, hepatitis B was more prevalent in males, whereas there was no significant gender-based difference for hepatitis C. Our results highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to control hepatitis B and C in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Increased awareness, improved healthcare, and preventive measures such as screening and elimination programs to prevent severe liver diseases and eradicate hepatitis are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: ECN; neuropathic pain; oxidative stress; apoptosis; myelin sheath; spectroscopy
Online: 18 August 2020 (12:00:15 CEST)
7β-(3-ethyl-cis-crotonoyloxy)-1α-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-3,14-dehydro-Z-notonipetranone (ECN), a sesquiterpenoid obtained from a natural origin (Tussilago farfara)has proved to be effective in minimizing various side effects associated with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The current study focused on investigating the effects of ECN on neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) by mainly focusing on oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic proteins expression in mice. Neuropathic pain was induced in mice by PSNL surgery performed on day 1 and ECN (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered once daily for 11 days, starting from the third day after surgery. ECN post-treatment was found to reduce hyperalgesia and allodynia in a dose dependent manner. ECN significantly reversed the severity of neuropathic pain by improving distress symptoms and survival rate. ECN remarkably reversed the histopathological abnormalities associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. Furthermore, ECN prevented the suppression of antioxidants (glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), hemeoxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase) by PSNL. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrotic factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) expression was reduced by ECN administration. Treatment with ECN was successful in reducing caspase-3 level consistent with the observed modulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, ECN showed protective effect on the lipid content of myelin sheath as evident from FTIR spectroscopy which showed the shift of lipid component bands to higher values. Thus, anti-neuropathic potential of ECN might be due to inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators and pro-apoptotic proteins.