ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: SAINT model; SiZer; local linear fitting; mortality data
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:35:40 CEST)
The main contribution of this paper is to develop a graphical tool to evaluate the suitability of a candidate parametric model to fit a data set. The practical motivation is to check the adequacy of the so called SAINT model proposed in Jarner and Kryger (2011). This model has been implemented in practice by an important European pension fund concerned with setting annuity reserves for all current or former employees of Denmark. So, one particular relevant question is whether this mortality model is actually fitting old-age. Our graphical test can be described as follows. First we transform the data by means of the parametric model which is being evaluated. Should the model be correct, the transformed data will be in accordance with an Exponential distribution with rate 1. Then we construct a family of local linear hazard estimates based on the data on the transformed scale. Finally we use the statistical tool SiZer to assess the goodness-of-fit of the Exponential distribution to the data on the transformed scale. If the model is correct the SiZer map should not reveal any significant feature in the family of kernel estimates. Our method allow us to establish a diagnostic regarding the validity of the SAINT model when describing mortality patterns in four different countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0719.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Saint-Venant’s identities; compatibility equations; relative coordinate system; general shell theory.
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:33:52 CET)
This paper presents a new analytical method for obtaining new deformations compatibility equations or, new Saint-Venant’s identities, into the relative coordinate system with projected deformations by applying the hypothesis of the lineal shell theory in general flexion state. The method proposed generalizes the compatibility conditions established by A.L. Goldenveizer for the shell theory. On the other hand, the new equations include the deformations compatibility equations by other authors: Flügge, Saint-Venant, Love-Kirchhoff, Timoshenko, Goldenveizer, and Reissner-Mindlin. The results showed an increase of knowledge in general shell theory, and provide inverse and semi-inverse solutions, whose systems solution correspond to the hyper-statics degrees of the physical model, and not to their degrees of freedom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1493.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: Middle Ages symbolism; Latin inscriptions; Tuscany monuments; Saint Michael; religious epigraphy; inscription decipherment
Online: 26 June 2023 (15:02:04 CEST)
At the entrance of some churches in Tuscany (Italy), the reproduction of an apparently undecipherable inscription can be found. At least from the 18th century, this epigraphic puzzle has originated a debate on its interpretation. This study proposes a hypothesis based on the Latin alphabet used in texts contemporary to the churches where the inscription is reproduced and a possible interpretation of the message consistent with the official religious doctrine. The proposed deciphering is extended to the full text, including some signs that were previously considered as geometric forms or a specific elaboration of letters not attested in other contemporary documents.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Saint Peter’s tomb; Catacombs of SS Marcellino and Pietro; Emperor Constantine; Tor Pignattara’s Basilica and Mausoleum
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:42:51 CET)
The purpose of our study is to research Peter’s memory ad catacumbas. According to the Depositio Martyrum ‒ a document of the late Emperor Constantine ‒, there was no memory of the first St Peter’s Basilica on the Vatican Hill. We start with a critical analysis on the Roman Basilicae attributed to Emperor Constantine in the Liber Pontificalis, then we deepen the search of Peter’s memory in the catacombs of the SS Marcellino and Pietro (ad Duos Lauros), also known as Tor Pignattara. Indeed, the Basilica and Mausoleum built in this cemeterial area are the only buildings attributable, with certainty, to Emperor Constantine, who wished to be buried in the Mausoleum, close to an apostle. Besides some striking archeological finds on Peter’s memory already discovered near a particular cubicle in these catacombs, a geometrical and mathematical study of the unusual architectonic characteristics of the Basilica and Mausoleum of Tor Pignattara shows that the buildings were part of a single architectonic plan, very likely designed for coding data useful to locate Peter’s burial site unambiguously, in the area of the cubicle mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Emerald ash borer; Fraxinus spp.; forest pests; invasive populations; north-west Russia; Saint Pe-tersburg; urban pests
Online: 15 September 2021 (09:46:17 CEST)
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle of East Asian origin that in North America and Russia killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). In September 2020, EAB was de-tected in Saint Petersburg, becoming resonant event for the metropolitan city. The aim of the present study was to investigate occurrence and ecology of EAB in Saint Petersburg. The presence of two distinct enclave populations of EAB was revealed, each of which has (very likely) been established by separate events of “hitchhiking” transport vehicles. Following the invasion, further spread of EAB in Saint Petersburg was slow and locally restricted, main explanation for which is climatic factor. Due to spread by “hitchhiking”, the possibility of EAB further long-distance ge-ographic spread of EAB in the Baltic Sea region (EU) is high, and not only by ground transport (120–130 km distance from EU borders), but also by ferries transporting cars (traditional means of transportation across the Baltic Sea). In certain cases, development of EAB on F. excelsior was more successful (stem portion colonized, larval densities, number of galleries, exit holes, viable larvae, emerged beetles) than in (adjacent) F. pennsylvanica trees. Observed relatively high EAB-sensitivity of F. excelsior therefore questions the efficacy and benefits of the currently ongoing selection and breeding projects against ash dieback (ADB), caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Inventory, mapping, and monitoring of surviving F. excelsior trees in areas infested by both ADB and EAB are necessary to acquire genetic resource for work on strategic long-term restoration of F. excelsior, tackling (inevitable) invasion of EAB to the EU.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Neotropical non-human primates; serology; sylvatic cycles; Flavivirus; Dengue Virus; Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus; West Nile Virus
Online: 5 November 2020 (18:35:56 CET)
Arthropod-borne viruses belonging to the flavivirus genus possess an enormous relevance in public health. Neotropical non-human primates (NPs) have been proposed to be infected more frequently with flaviviruses due to their arboreal and diurnal habits, their genetic similarity to humans and their relative closeness to humans. However, the only known flavivirus in America that is maintained by sylvatic cycles involving NPs is Yellow Fever virus (YFV), and the NPs role as potential hosts of flaviviruses is still unknown. Here, we examined flavivirus exposure in 86 free range and captive NPs of Costa Rica to evaluate their involvement in flavivirus transmission cycles and their potential as flavivirus hosts. We used a highly-specific micro plaque reduction neutralization test (micro-PRNT) to determine the presence of antibodies against YFV, Dengue virus 1-4 (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile Virus (WNV) and Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV). We found evidence of seropositive NPs to DENV-1 8.2% (homotypic –3/86, heterotypic – 4/86), SLEV 15.1% (homotypic – 10/86, heterotypic – 2/86), WNV 2.3% (homotypic – 2/86) and 8.1% (7/86) undetermined Flavivirus species. No antibodies against YFV or ZIKV were found. This work provides compelling serological evidence of exposure in NPs of flaviviruses associated with urban cycles, i.e. DENV, and confirms decades of circulation of SLEV in the same environments. Also, the range of years of sampling and the socioeconomic region was statistically significant for the presence of Dengue and Flavivirus undetermined seropositive individuals, respectively. Both the years and socioeconomic regions with greater seroprevalence coincide with the years and socioeconomic regions with high numbers of Dengue human cases for the country. Our work suggests bidirectional? circulation of different flaviviruses between humans and wildlife with public health importance and underscores the necessity of further surveillance for flaviviruses in the humans/wildlife interface in Central America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: tsunami; CFD; Saint Venant (SV) model; Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR); large scale propagation; 3D Navier-Stokes (NS) model; coastal impact
Online: 22 November 2018 (04:43:54 CET)
Into the frame of the French TANDEM project (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and the English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modelling) Principia has been working on the development and qualification of two in-house CFD software’s: the 2D EOLE-SV (Saint Venant) model for simulation of large scale tsunami propagation from the source up to coastal scale and the 3D EOLE-NS (Navier-Stokes) model dedicated to tsunami coastal impact modelling. This paper presents a large range of test cases carried out into the frame of the project and dedicated to the validation of numerical codes in various tsunami wave conditions. The main aspects of phenomena such as wave generation, propagation and coastal impact are investigated on academic situations. A real case simulation is concerned as well, the devastating 2011 Tohoku event which is compared with in-situ data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0410.v3
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Theory of elasticity; Saint-Venant torsion; Green’s theorem; finite difference method; additional nodes; thin-walled sections; stress concentration at reentrant corners; multiply connected cross-section; warping displacement
Online: 1 June 2022 (11:01:06 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the elastic analysis of beams subjected to Saint-Venant torsion using Green’s theorem and the finite difference method (FDM). The Saint-Venant torsion of beams, also called free torsion or unrestrained torsion, is characterized by the absence of axial stresses due to torsion; only shear stresses are developed. A solution to this torsion problem consists of finding a stress function that satisfies the governing equation and the boundary conditions. The FDM is an approximate method for solving problems described with differential equations; it does not involve solving differential equations, equations are formulated with values at selected nodes of the structure. In this paper, the beam’s cross-section was discretized using a two-dimensional grid and additional nodes were introduced on the boundaries. The introduction of additional nodes allowed us to apply the governing equations at boundary nodes and satisfy the boundary conditions. Beams with solid sections as well as multiply connected cross-sections were analyzed using this model; shear stresses and localized stresses at reentrant corners, torsion constant, and warping displacements were determined. Furthermore, beams with thin-walled closed sections, single-cell or multiple-cell, were analyzed using the Prandtl stress function whereby a linear distribution of the shear stresses over the thickness was considered; closed-form solutions for shear stresses and torsion constant were derived. The results obtained in this study showed good agreement with the exact results for rectangular cross-sections, and the accuracy was increased through a grid refinement. For thin-walled closed sections, the shear stresses obtained at the centerline using the closed-form solutions were in agreement with the values using Bredt’s analysis but the maximal values in the cross-section, which did not necessarily occur at the position with the smallest thickness, were higher; in addition, the results using the closed-form solutions were in good agreement with those using FDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis; high to ultra high spatial resolution; high to very high temporal resolution; NDVI; NIR; neural network modelling, Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:35:50 CET)
The salt marshes, lying at the land-sea temperate interface, furnish a plethora of ecosystems services such as biodiversity niche support, ocean-climate change regulation, ornithology recreo-tourism or plant gathering by hand. They undergo significant worldwide losses due to their conversion into crop fields and to their spatial compression between the rising sea-level and the armoring shoreline. Their monitoring however requires to use a suite of remote sensing sensors to embrace the regional scale while capturing the plant details. This research innovatively adopts a multiscale approach using a cascading spaceborne and airborne process, from the 10-m Sentinel-2, through the 3-m Dove, to the 0.03-m unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) imageries. The high to very high temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 and Dove enabled to cover twenties and tens of km2 over five and four years, respectively, in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes, associated with microphytobenthos, low, medium and high salt marsh vegetation, including the opportunistic Elyma genus. The NDVI was then modelled at the UAV scale (a few km2) using a three-layered NN prediction, providing the final near-infrared (NIR), and the intermediate red, green and blue reflectance imageries, calibrated/validated/tested with the Dove reflectance imageries (R2NIR=0.98, R2red=0.88, R2green=0.84, and R2blue=0.90). The 100fold increase in pixel size allowed to detect the decimeter-scale objects of the tidal flats and salt marshes, to enlarge the NDVI class ranges, and hold great promise to model other spectral bands at the UAV scale for further deeply enhancing the salt marsh mapping.