ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Olefin metathesis; ethyl linoleate; ruthenium
Online: 5 April 2017 (18:22:30 CEST)
Olefin metathesis of ethyl linoleate (EL) was investigated under different conditions of substrate amount, temperature, and catalyst. Second-generation Grubbs catalyst (G2) was used in experiments at 20 and 50 ºC for 24 and 48h, whereas first-generation Grubbs catalyst (G1) and [RuCl2(PPh3)2perhydroazepine] (LN) were used in experiments at 50 ºC for 24h, with the latter also being investigated in the presence or absence of SnCl2 as co-catalyst. Catalytic products were analyzed for GC-MS and discussed in terms of relative percent of the metathesis products. With G2 as catalyst, GC-MS chromatograms were similar in all the amounts of EL investigated at 50 ºC for 24h, except for ethyl hexadec-9-enoate (compound K), which was obtained with different percentage as a function of EL amount (55% for 2 and 5 mL and 65% for 8 mL). An α,ω-dicarboxylic acid with m/z = 444.00 (compound L) was produced from the experiments at 50 ºC for 24h with similar percentage as a function of EL amount. However, the relative percentage of L changed with the increase of EL volume in the experiments at 20 ºC (ca. 18, 27, and 28%, with 2, 5, and 8 mL of EL, respectively). The olefin metathesis of EL conducted by G1 reached lower selectivity than that conducted by G2 for 24h at 50 ºC. Several intense peaks reached with G1 were similar to those obtained with G2, in addition to new peaks of medium intensity. Compound L showed higher m/z, similar to that presented with G2, but with lower relative proportion in the mixture. LN was inert for olefin metathesis of EL; however, it was activated in the presence of SnCl2 at 50 ºC for 24h. Different compounds and selectivity as a function of the catalyst type and reaction conditions were obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0262.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ruthenium complex; Carbon monoxide releasing molecule; Hydrophilicity, PEGylation
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:38:19 CET)
The poor water-solubility and instability of Ru(II) carbonyl complex hamper the therapeutic application as CO releasing materials (CO-RMs). To enhance the hydrophilicity and bio-utility of CO, a robust Ru(I) carbonyl sawhorse skeleton were grafted with water-soluble PEGlyated sidearms. Twelve PEGlyted sawhorse Ru2(CO)4 complexes were prepared with satisfactory yields and characterized by IR and 1H- and 13C- NMR. X-ray diffraction analysis of CO-RM 8, 13 and 14 revealed the featured diruthenium sawhorse skeleton and PEGylated axial ligands. The ﬂask-shaking method measures the hydrophilicity of CO-RMs, indicating that both bridging carboxylate ligand and PEGlyated axial ligands regulate the hydrophilicity of these CO-RMs. Under photolysis conditions, CO-RM 4-13 sustainable released therapeutic amounts of CO in myoglobin assay. The correlation of the CO release kinetics and hydrophilicity of CO-RMs demonstrated that the more hydrophilic CO-RM released CO faster. The biological test found the low cytotoxic CO-RM 4 showed a specific anticancer activity toward HT-29 tumour cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: MCrAlX coatings; Ruthenium; Cerium; Oxidation; Simulation
Online: 14 March 2018 (13:44:22 CET)
MCrAlX (M: Ni or Co or both, X: minor elements) coatings have been widely used to protect hot components in gas turbines against oxidation and hot corrosion at high temperatures. Understanding the influence of the X-elements on oxidation behaviour is important in the design of durable MCrAlX coatings. In this study, NiCoCrAlX coatings doped with Y+Ru and Ce, respectively, were deposited on Inconel-792 substrate by HVOF. The samples were subjected to isothermal oxidation test in laboratory air at 9000, 1000, 1100 ºC and cyclic oxidation test between 100 ºC and 1100 ºC with 1 hour dwell time at 1100 ºC. It was observed that the coating with Ce shows a much higher oxidation rate than the coating with Y+Ru under both isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests. Besides, β-depletion due to interdiffusion between coating and substrate was significantly lower with Ru addition. Simulations results using both a moving phase boundary model and an established oxidation-diffusion model show that Ru stabilize β grains which reduces β-depletion of coating due to substrate interdiffusion. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the influence of Ce and Ru on oxidation behaviour including investigation of the microstructure evolution influenced by oxidation time at coating surface and coating-substrate interface combining experiment and simulation results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0301.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ruthenium; Heterogeneous; Levulinic acid; hydrogenation; γ-valerolactone.
Online: 10 November 2020 (10:36:07 CET)
Catalytic hydrogenation of a biomass-derived molecule, levulinic acid (LA) to γ-valerolactone (GVL) has been getting a lot of attention from researchers across the globe recently. This is because GVL has been identified as one of the potential molecules for the replacement of fossil fuels. For instance, GVL can be catalytically converted into liquid alkenes in the molecular weight range close to that found in transportation fuels via a process that does not require an external hydrogen source. Noble and non-noble metals have been used as catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of LA to GVL. Of these, Ru has been reported to be the most active metal for this reaction. The type of metal supports and solvents has been proved to affect the activity, selectivity, and yields of GVL. Water has been identified as a potential, effective “green” solvent for the hydrogenation of LA to GVL. The use of different sources of H2 other than molecular hydrogen (such as formic acid) has also been explored. In a few instances, the product, GVL, is hydrogenated further to other useful products such as 1,4-pentanediol (PD) and methyl tetrahydrofuran (MTHF). This review selectively focuses on the potential of immobilized Ru catalysts as a potential superior catalyst for selective hydrogenation of LA to GVL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0045.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: fuel cell; carbon nanotube; catalyst; platinum-ruthenium
Online: 29 December 2019 (07:06:08 CET)
Due to low working temperature, high energy density and low pollution, proton exchange fuel cells have been investigated under different operating conditions in different applications. Using platinum catalysts in methanol fuel cells leads to increasing the cost of this kind of fuel cell which is considered as a barrier to the commercialism of this technology. For this reason, a lot of efforts have been made to reduce the loading of the catalyst required on different supports. In this study, carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been used as catalyst supports of the fuel cell as well as using the double-metal combination of platinum-ruthenium (PtRu) as anode electrode catalyst and platinum (Pt) as cathode electrode catalyst. The performance of these two types of electro-catalyst in the oxidation reaction of methanol has been compared based on electrochemical tests. Results showed that the carbon nanotubes increase the performance of the micro-fuel cell by 37% at maximum power density, compared to the carbon black. Based on thee-electrode tests of chronoamperometry and voltammetry, it was found that the oxidation onset potential of methanol for CNT has been around 20% less than CB, leading to the kinetic improvement of the oxidation reaction. The current density of methanol oxidation reaction increased up to 62% in CNT sample compared to CB supported one, therefore the active electrochemical surface area of the catalyst has been increased up to 90% by using CNT compared to CB which shows the significant rise of the electrocatalytic activity in CNT supported catalyst. Moreover, the resistance of the CNT supported sample to poisonous intermediate species has been found 3% more than CB supported one. According to the chronoamperometry test results, it was concluded that the performance and sustainability of the CNT electro-catalyst show remarkable improvement compared to CB electro-catalyst in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0312.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene oxide; nano composite; ruthenium oxide; supercapacitor; XRD; XPS
Online: 20 March 2020 (09:27:19 CET)
Graphene-oxide (G) was prepared by the Hummers’ method. A G-COOH layer was synthesised using chloroacetic acid and G. To fabricate carboxylated graphene-RuO2 (G-COORu) nano¬¬-composites, RuO2 nano particles were grown on graphene layers using a one-step thermal method, -COOH(G-COOH), and RuCl3. All materials were characterised using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance as well as X-ray photoelectron, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman. The electrochemical characteristics of the G-COORu supercapacitors were analysed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge tests, and Nyquist impedance plots. The supercapacitors exhibit a specific capacitance of ~125 F g-1 at 100 mA cm-2 within the potential range of 0–1.0 V. The method used here provides a simple approach for the deposition of RuO2 nano particles on graphene layers and can be widened to the fabrication of other classes of hybrids based on G layers for specific technical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0217.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Ruthenium; crystal structures; ferromagnetic coupling; molecular magnetism; single-ion magnet.
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:41:41 CEST)
Two mononuclear Ru(III) complexes of formula trans-[RuCl4(Hgua)(dmso)]·2H2O (1) and trans-[RuCl4(Hgua)(gua)]·3H2O (2) [Hgua = protonated guanine (gua), dmso = dimethyl sulfoxide] have been synthesized and characterized magnetostructurally. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic system with space groups P21/n and Pc, respectively. Each Ru(III) ion in 1 and 2 is six-coordinate and bonded to four chloride ions and one (1) or two (2) nitrogen atoms from guanine molecules and one sulfur atom (1) of a dmso solvent molecule, generating quasi regular octahedral geometries in both cases. In their crystal packing, the Ru(III) complexes are self-assembled mainly through an extended network of N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and π⋯Cl type intermolecular interactions, forming novel supramolecular structures based on this paramagnetic 4d metal ion. Variable-temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on microcrystalline samples of 1 and 2 show a different magnetic behavior. While 1 is a ferromagnetic compound at low temperature, 2 exhibits a behavior typical of noninteracting mononuclear Ru(III) complexes with S = 1/2. Ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal slow relaxation of the magnetization in the presence of external dc fields only for 2, hence indicating the occurrence of field-induced single-ion magnet (SIM) phenomenon in this mononuclear guanine-based Ru(III) complex.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0495.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: ruthenium (Ru); N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs); homogeneous catalysis; in situ; amide bonds; synthesis.
Online: 29 August 2018 (11:48:42 CEST)
Transition-metal-catalyzed amide bond formation from alcohols and amines is an atom-economic and eco-friendly route. Herein, we identified a highly active in situ N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)/ruthenium (Ru) catalytic system for this amide synthesis. Various substrates, including sterically hindered ones, could be directly transformed into the corresponding amides with the catalyst loading as low as 0.25 mol%. In this system, we replaced the p-cymene ligand of the Ru source with a relatively labile cyclooctadiene (cod) ligand so as to more efficiently obtain the corresponding poly-carbene Ru species. Expectedly, the weaker cod ligand could be more easily substituted with multiple mono-NHC ligands. Further HR-MS analyses revealed that two tetra-carbene complexes were probably generated from the in situ catalytic system.