Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Trail running; skyrunning; mountain running; modality structure; administrative bilaterality
Online: 18 January 2021 (09:17:14 CET)
The purpose of this research has been to analyze the organizational structures of the different federations and entities representing the modalities of trail-running, skyrunning and mountain running and how they have settled in the current sports landscape. The main task of these entities is to act as hosts of the legally established modalities, both internationally and nationally, applying their respective regulations and statutes unilaterally. Through an in-depth review of the different regulations, statutes and current articles of all the organizations that represent the different disciplines, we can observe how a sport modality that seems to be the same is nevertheless distant in its execution (regulations, championships, classifications, systems of points, ...) and that has led to the international level being established in different sport modalities (trail-running and skyrunning) and at the level of the Spanish territory, it has led to an administrative dispute to know who has the powers to approve the sports competitions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Locomotion; Motor Control; Muscle Synergies; Physiology; Running
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:30:24 CEST)
Instep weights cause mechanical changes, modifying muscle activity and changing ground plantar support. 30 semi-professional sprinters, randomized in 3 groups [no-weight, Ascending (50, 100, 150 and 200g), Descending (200, 150, 100 and 50g)] run 6 consecutive 50-meter series at maximum speed (first and sixth without weights); partial, total times and speed were analyzed. Instep weights were safe and well tolerated. 6th series speed decreased except in men’s ascending group, who achieved a lower time in sixth compared to first series. Weights presented in ascending order in men during warm-up could improve running time. Instep weights neuromuscular effects could compensate men’s tiredness in last series; weights could be included in training methodologies. Men training weights presented in ascending order may provide better results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0260.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Feature Selection; Discrete Data; Heuristics; Running average
Online: 7 December 2021 (11:28:35 CET)
By applying a running average (with a window-size= d), we could transform Discrete data to broad-range, Continuous values. When we have more than 2 columns and one of them is containing data about the tags of classification (Class Column), we could compare and sort the features (Non-class Columns) based on the R2 coefficient of the regression for running averages. The parameters tuning could help us to select the best features (the non-class columns which have the best correlation with the Class Column). “Window size” and “Ordering” could be tuned to achieve the goal. this optimization problem is hard and we need an Algorithm (or Heuristics) for simplifying this tuning. We demonstrate a novel heuristics, Called Simulated Distillation (SimulaD), which could help us to gain a somehow good results with this optimization problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0310.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: physical activity; Alzheimer’s disease; 5xFAD; acute, wheel running
Online: 12 February 2021 (15:03:25 CET)
Physical activity is considered a promising preventive intervention to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the positive effect of exercise therapy has not been proven conclusively yet, likely due to confounding factors such as varying activity regimens and life or disease stages. To examine the impact of different routines of physical exercise in the early disease stages, we subjected young 5xFAD and wild-type mice to 1-day (acute) and 30-day (chronic) voluntary wheel running and compared them with age-matched sedentary controls. We observed a significant increase in brain lactate levels in acutely trained 5xFAD mice relative to all other experimental groups. Subsequent brain RNA-seq analysis did not reveal major differences in transcriptomic regulation between training durations in 5xFAD mice. In contrast, acute training yielded substantial gene expression changes in wild-type animals relative to their chronically trained and sedentary counterparts. The comparison of 5xFAD and wild-type mice showed the highest transcriptional differences in the chronic and sedentary groups, whereas acute training was associated with much fewer differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that different training durations did not affect the global transcriptome of 3-month-old 5xFAD mice, whereas acute running seemed to induce a similar transcriptional stress state in wild-type animals as already known for 5xFAD mice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0081.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Critical speed; exercise prescription; team sports; thresholds; shuttle running
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:05:08 CET)
The overarching purpose of this review was to highlight the utility of different aerobic field tests in terms of the parameters they provide, with a specific focus on shuttle running and all-out testing. Various field tests are discussed in detail and are categorised according to linear continuous running tests (e.g. 12-minute Cooper Test, University of Montreal Track Test [UMTT], 1200/1600 m time trials, 3-minute all-out test for running [3MT]), intermittent shuttle running tests (e.g. yo-yo inter-mittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1], 30-15 intermittent fitness test [IFT], and the intermittent all-out shuttle test [IAOST]), and continuous shuttle running tests (e.g. 1.2 km shuttle run test [1.2SRT], maximal multi-stage 20-m shuttle test [MSR], 25-m, 30 m and 50-m 3-minute all-out shuttle test [AOST]). Readers will be guided through the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the 3MT methodology, where the all-out testing methodology is stationed within the testing paradigm, and how to practically implement and interpret the results thereof.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: XTerra; trail running; W’; MTB; off-road cycling economy; cross triathlon
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:36:37 CEST)
(1) Background: This report examines the unique demands of off-road triathlon (XT) by presenting physiological, field, and race data from a national champion off-road triathlete using several years of laboratory and field data to detail training and race intensity. (2) Methods: Laboratory and field data were collected when the athlete was at near peak fitness and included oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), power output (W), and blood lactate (BLC) during cycling and running, while HR, cycling W, and running metrics were obtained from training and race data files over a period of seven years. Intensity was described using % HR max zones (Z) 1 < 75%, 2 = 75 - 87%, and Zone 3 > 87%, and W. An ordinary least squares analysis was used to model differences between event types. (3) Results: Weather conditions were not different across events. XT events had twice the elevation change (p<0.01) and two-three times greater W’ (p< 0.001) than road triathlon (ROAD), but similar HR intensity profiles (max, avg, and zones); both events are predominately performed at > Z2 or higher intensity. Championship XT events were longer (p<0.01) , with higher kJ expenditure (p<0.001). OLS modelling suggested three variables were strongly related (R2 = 0.84; p < 0.0001) to cycling performance: event type (XT vs ROAD), total meters climbed, and total bike duration. Championship XT runs were slower than either regional (p<0.05) or ROAD (p<0.01) runs, but HR intensity profiles similar. OLS modelling indicates that slower running is linked to either greater total bike kJ expenditure (R2 = 0.57; p<0.001), or total meters gained (R2 = 0.52; p<0.001). Race simulation data support these findings but failed to produce meaningful differences in running. Conclusions: XT race demands are unique and mirror MTB and trail running demands. XT athletes must be mindful of developing anaerobic fitness, technical ability, and aerobic fitness, all of which contribute to off-road cycling economy. It is unclear whether XT cycling affects subsequent running performance different from ROAD cycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: treadmill; curved; running gait; imbalance; step angle; stride length; step length
Online: 5 June 2018 (13:04:21 CEST)
Running on a non-motorized, curved-deck treadmill is thought to improve gait mechanics. It is not known, though, if the change in gait carries over to running on a motorized treadmill or level ground. To determine the effect of running on a curved non-motorized treadmill (CNT) on gait characteristics measured during a subsequent bout of running on a traditional motorized treadmill (TMT). Sixteen healthy college-aged participants, age (mean±SD) 20.4±1.6 years volunteered to have their gait analyzed while running on a TMT and CNT. After familiarization and warm-up on both treadmills, each subject completed five, 4-minute bouts of running alternating between traditional motorized and curved non-motorized treadmills: TMT-1, CNT-1, TMT-2, CNT-2, and TMT-3. Variables of interest included step length (m), stride length (m), imbalance score (%), and step angle (°) and were measured using Optogait gait analysis equipment. Differences in gait char acteristics among TMT-1, TMT-2, and TMT-3 can be attributed to running on the CNT. The results show that running on a CNT resulted in significant changes in gait characteristics. These findings suggest that running on a CNT can significantly alter gait characteristics may result in improvements in running gait that persist to subsequent running on a TMT.