ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1811.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; sensitivity analysis; evaluation accuracy; hazard; year return period; overall accuracy
Online: 28 August 2023 (03:43:01 CEST)
Flood inundation causes socioeconomic losses for coastal tourism under climate extremes, progressively attracting global attention. Mapping, evaluating, and predicting the flood inundation risk (FIR) is significant for coastal tourism. The study develops a spatial tourism–aimed framework integrating a weighted k-Nearest Neighbors (WkNN), Geographic Information Systems, and flood-related spatially environmental criteria such as precipitation, elevation, soil, and drainage systems. These model inputs were standardized and weighted using distance, and integrated into WkNN to infer regional probability and distribution of FIR. Zhejiang province, China, was selected as a case study. The resulting map was pictured to denote the likelihood of the criteria at various risk categories, which was validated by historical Maximum Inundation Extent (MIE) extracted from World Environment Situation Room. The result indicates 80.59% of WkNN results reasonably confirm the MIE. Precipitation and elevation make a negative contribution to high-medium risk, and drainage systems positively alleviate the regional stress of FIR. The results can help stakeholders make suitable strategies to protect coastal tourism, and also weigh WkNN is superior to kNN in FIR assessment. The framework provides a productive way to yield a reliable assessment of FIR and can also be extended to other risk-related environmental studies under climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1788.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: geothermal fluids; micro-nanoparticles; TEM; NTA; deep hidden geothermal resources; central area of Shandong Province
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:44:12 CEST)
Micro-nanoparticles' characteristics in geothermal fluids can be applied to detect of deep hidden geothermal resources. Observations using a nanoparticle tracking analyzer (NTA) indicated that the karst geothermal water collected in the central area of Shandong Province (Jinan and Zibo) contains many natural micro-nanoparticles with sizes primarily ranging between 100 nm and 5 μm. The micro-nanoparticles’ type, shape, crystal form, and chemical composition in the samples were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images and energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that the micro-nanoparticles in geothermal water samples were mostly amorphous, irregular, or nearly spherical, with rough edges. The micro-nanoparticles were mainly carbonates, sulfates, and chlorine-containing Fe, Ca, Na, and Mg. The characteristics of the particles can reveal the properties of the deep, hot reservoirs and aquifers from where they originate. Therefore, we believe that natural micro-nanoparticles can be essential to detecting and studying deep, hidden geothermal resources, which is a novel approach to exploring deep, hidden geothermal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fracture grouting; cement-silicate grout; geophysical prospecting; seepage; Yellow River Embankment
Online: 28 May 2018 (05:45:00 CEST)
Fracture grouting has been a widely used mitigation measure against seepage in the Yellow River Embankment. However, there is currently a lack of systematic investigation for evaluating the anti-seepage effectiveness of fracture grouting employed in this longest river embankment in China. Therefore, in this work, laboratory and in-situ experiments are carried out for investigating the reinforcement effect of fracture grouting in the Jinan Section of the Yellow River Embankment. In particular, firstly, the laboratory tests concentrate on studying the optimum strength improvement for cement-silicate grout by varying the content of backfilled fly ash and bentonite as admixtures. Flexural strength and Scanning Electron Microscope photographs are investigated for assessing the strength and compactness improvement. Subsequently, based on the obtained optimum admixtures content, in-situ grouting tests are carried out in the Jinan Section of the Yellow River Embankment to evaluate the anti-seepage effectiveness of fracture grouting, where geophysical prospecting and pit prospecting methods are employed. Laboratory results show that, compared with pure cement-silicate grouts, the gelation time of the improved slurry is longer and gelation time increases as fly ash content increases. The optimum mixing proportion of the compound cement-silicate grout is 70% cement, 25% fly ash and 5% bentonite, and the best volume ratio is 2 for the investigated cases. Geophysical prospecting using the Ground Penetrating Radar and High Density Resistivity methods can reflect the anti-seepage effectiveness of fracture grouting on site. It shows that the grouting material mainly flows along the axial direction of the embankment. The treatment that is used to generate directional fracture is proved to be effective. The injection hole interval distance is suggested to be 1.2 m, where the lapping effect of the grouting veins is relatively significant. For the investigated cases, the average thickness of the grouting veins is approximately 6.0 cm and the corresponding permeability coefficient is averagely 1.6 × 10−6 cm/s, which meets the anti-seepage criterion in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: myofibrillar protein; sulfhydryl-blocking agent; disulfide bond; protein-stabilized emulsions; interface protein membrane
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:21:59 CEST)
To investigate the role of sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds in different protein-stabilized emulsions, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was used as sulfhydryl-blocking agent to be added in the emulsion. The addition of NEM to block the sulfhydryl groups resulted in a reduction of the content of disulfide bonds formation, which enabled destruction of the internal structure of the protein molecule, and then decreased the restriction of protein membrane on the oil droplets. Furthermore, with NEM content increasing in the emulsion, a reduction of protein emulsifying activity and emulsion stability also occurred. At the same time, the intermolecular interaction of the protein on the oil droplet interface membrane was destroyed, and the emulsion droplet size increased with the NEM content in the emulsion. Although NEM blocking sulfhydryl groups not to form disulfide bonds has similar effects on three types of protein emulsion, the degree of myofibrillar protein (MP), egg-white protein isolate (EPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) as emulsifier had a subtle difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0123.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water quality; nanoparticle tracking analysis; high-resolution transmission electron microscopy; weathering byproducts; water safety
Online: 4 September 2023 (15:24:27 CEST)
Environmental nanoparticles have been shown to exist in most aquatic environments, and environmental nanoparticles in water distribution systems significantly affect water quality. However, little research has been conducted on the environmental nanoparticles in mineral water, which is a special water resource. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were conducted. This study was the first to identify many environmental nanoparticles in natural mineral water in Zibo City, Shandong Province, China. The results of the NTA showed that the concentration of the particles was 5.5 ×106 particles/mL and the peak diameter of the size distribution was 180 nm. The HRTEM showed that the nanoparticles were granular, pinniform, rodlike, and flakey in shape, and some of the nanoparticles existed in aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectrometry results showed that most of the nanoparticles contained O, Mg, Ca, Si, Fe, Ti, and P, and some of them also contained F, V, S, and Mn. When combined with the characteristics of the selected area electron diffraction pattern, the nanoparticles were confirmed to be Ca-bearing nanoparticles, attapulgite nanorods, MnO2 nanosheets, and TiO2 nanoparticles. These results indicate a new form of elements occurring in mineral water. In addition, based on the chemical and physical characteristics of the nanoparticles and mineral water, these environmental nanoparticles in the mineral water are likely to be the weathering byproducts of minerals. These nanoparticles within mineral water provide a good opportunity for understanding the behavior of nanoparticles in varied systems. Moreover, environmental nanoparticle science is important for continuing efforts in water safety, treatment, and remediation.