ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heating cycles; thermodynamic cycles; thermodynamics; temperature difference utilization; heating; cold energy utilization; sustainable energy; cogeneration; thermal science
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:49:58 CET)
Considering the significance of thermodynamic cycles in the global energy system, it is necessary to develop new general classes of thermodynamic cycles to relieve current energy and environmental problems. Inspired by the relationship between power cycles and refrigeration cycles, we realize that general classes of thermodynamic cycles should occur in pairs with opposite functions. Here we reverse class 1 heating cycles to obtain another new general class of thermodynamic cycles named class 2 heating cycles (HC-2s). HC-2s have two basic forms, and each contains six thermodynamic processes. HC-2s present the simplest and most general approach to utilizing the temperature difference between a medium-temperature heat source and a low-temperature heat sink to achieve efficient high-temperature heating. HC-2s fill the gaps that have existed since the origin of thermal science, and they will play significant roles in the global sustainable energy system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0437.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heating cycles; thermodynamic cycles; thermodynamics; temperature difference utilization; heating; cooling; cogeneration; thermal science
Online: 28 October 2021 (13:00:46 CEST)
Thermodynamic cycles are not only the core concepts of thermal science, but also key approaches to energy conversion and utilization. So far, power cycles and refrigeration cycles have been the only two general classes of thermodynamic cycles. While diverse types of systems have been developed to perform thermodynamic cycles, no new general classes of thermodynamic cycles have been proposed. Based on the basic principles of thermodynamics, here we propose and analyze a new general class of thermodynamic cycles named class 1 heating cycles (HC-1s). Two basic forms of HC-1s are obtained by connecting six essential thermodynamic processes in the proper order and forming a thermodynamic cycle. HC-1s present the simplest and most general approach to utilizing the temperature difference between a high-temperature heat source and a medium-temperature heat sink to achieve efficient medium-temperature heating and/or low-temperature cooling. HC-1s fill the gaps that have existed since the origin of thermal science, and they will play significant roles in energy conservation and emission reduction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0549.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest plants; genetic breeding; omics technologies; multi-omics integration; gene regulatory networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (05:31:46 CEST)
In recent years, the ecological and economic values of forest plants have been gradually recognized worldwide. However, the growing global demand for new forest plant varieties with higher wood production capacity and better stress tolerance cannot be satisfied by conventional phenotype-based breeding, marker-assisted selection, and genomic selection. In the recent past, diverse omics technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been developed rapidly, providing powerful tools for the precision genetic breeding of forest plants. Genomics lays a solid foundation for understanding complex biological regulatory networks, while other omics technologies provide different perspectives at different levels. Multi-omics integration has combined the different omics technologies, becoming a powerful tool for genome-wide functional element identification in forest plant breeding. This review summarizes the recent progress of omics technologies and their applications in the genetic studies of forest plants. It will provide forest plant breeders with an elementary knowledge of multi-omics techniques for future breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0990.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: news; cross-language word embedding; LDA model; text clustering
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:29:01 CEST)
In today's world, news events are emerging incessantly. Classifying the same event reported by different countries is of significant importance for public opinion control and intelligence gathering. Due to the diverse types of news, relying solely on translators would be costly and inefficient, while depending solely on translation systems would incur considerable performance overheads in invoking translation interfaces and storing translated texts. To address this issue, we mainly focus on the clustering problem of cross-lingual news. To be specific, we use a combination of sentence vector representations of news headlines in a mixed semantic space and the topic probability distributions of news content to represent a news article. In the training of cross-lingual models, we employ knowledge distillation techniques to fit two semantic spaces into a mixed semantic space. We abandon traditional static clustering methods like K-Means and AGNES in favor of the incremental clustering algorithm Single-Pass, which we further modify to better suit cross-lingual news clustering scenarios. Our main contributions are as follows: (1) We adopt the English standard BERT as the teacher model and XLM-Roberta as the student model, training a cross-lingual model through knowledge distillation that can represent sentence-level bilingual texts in both Chinese and English. (2) We use the LDA topic model to represent news as a combination of cross-lingual vectors for headlines and topic probability distributions for content, introducing concepts such as topic similarity to address the cross-lingual issue in news content representation. (3) We adapt the Single-Pass clustering algorithm for the news context to make it more applicable. Our optimizations of Single-Pass include adjusting the distance algorithm between samples and clusters, adding cluster merging operations, and incorporating a news time parameter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0059.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: hyperspectral image classiﬁcation; deep learning; channel-wise attention mechanism; spatial-wise attention mechanism
Online: 12 February 2020 (05:40:08 CET)
In recent years, researchers have paid increasing attention on hyperspectral image (HSI) classification using deep learning methods. To improve the accuracy and reduce the training samples, we propose a double-branch dual-attention mechanism network (DBDA) for HSI classification in this paper. Two branches are designed in DBDA to capture plenty of spectral and spatial features contained in HSI. Furthermore, a channel attention block and a spatial attention block are applied to these two branches respectively, which enables DBDA to refine and optimize the extracted feature maps. A series of experiments on four hyperspectral datasets show that the proposed framework has superior performance to the state-of-the-art algorithm, especially when the training samples are signally lacking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1506.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Arithmetization-oriented hash functions; Legendre Symbol; Preimage attack; Algebraic cryptanalysis; Gröbner basis; Grendel
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:35:04 CEST)
Modern cryptographic protocols such as zero-knowledge proofs and secure multi-party computation have increased the demand for a novel category of symmetric primitives. These primitives are not optimized for traditional platforms such as servers, microcontrollers, and desktop computers but rather for their ability to be implemented in arithmetic circuits. To enable efficient arithmetic operations, they define operations over larger finite fields and use low-degree invertible functions to construct their non-linear layers. Grendel is an arithmetization-oriented permutation that leverages the Legendre Symbol to enhance the growth of algebraic degrees in its non-linear layer. In this paper, we present a preimage attack on the sponge hash function instantiated with the full rounds of the Grendel permutation using algebraic methods. We introduce a technique that allows us to eliminate two full rounds of substitution permutation networks (SPN) in the sponge hash function with minimal or no additional cost. This method can be combined with univariate root-finding techniques and Gröbner basis attacks to break the number of rounds claimed by the designers. By utilizing this strategy, our attack achieves an improvement of two additional rounds compared to the previous state-of-the-art attack. While not breaking its security margin, it allows us to further understand the design and analysis of such cryptographic primitives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1939.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Coal-biomass co-pyrolysis; Optimum pyrolysis conditions; Aspen plus; Technical and economic analysis
Online: 28 July 2023 (02:39:37 CEST)
In the end, this paper analyzed the economy from the investment in plant construction, raw material collection, product production and product sales. The resulting products include pyrolytic carbon, pyrolytic oil, pyrolysis gas. The results showed that when the treatment scale was 1 ton h−1, the pyrolysis plants with three loading modes will always be in a state of loss during the 20-year running time. When the processing scale was 9 ton h−1, the pyrolysis plant can be profitable in the first year. In the sensitivity analysis, the influence of three pyrolysis products on the total return on investment was explored. The results showed that the price change of pyrolysis oil has the greatest influence on the total return on investment (Total ROI) under the three loading methods, The price change of pyrolysis gas has minimal impact on the Total ROI. This study provides basic data and basis for the commercialization of coal-biomass co-pyrolysis technology and investment in plant construction.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: early childhood development; stimulating parenting practices; effective early childhood reading practices; rural China; mixed methodology
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:26:49 CET)
Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1,720 caregiver-child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. Qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0883.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: saline soil; biofertilizer; soil microbial community; Bacillus licheniformis; Halobacillus profundi; Brassica rapa L.
Online: 14 November 2023 (09:37:03 CET)
Declining agricultural productivity caused by soil salinization are becoming global dilemmas in recent years. Biofertilizers show great potential as a sustainable and environmentally friendly fertilization strategy for soil improvement, but their effectiveness for saline soil amendment and improving plant growth under saline stress is not well understood. Assess the effectiveness of biofertilizers in improving saline soils and enhancing crop growth under saline stress, as well as investigate its related potential mechanisms. Changes in soil physico-chemical properties, plant physiological parameters and soil microbial communities were analyzed through pot experiments. The results showed that the application of biofertilizer reduced total soluble salts (TSS) in soil by 30.8% and increased the Brassica rapa L. biomass by 8.4 times. Biofertilizer application increased soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (AP). Biofertilizer applications also increased the SOD, CAT, chl.a, chl.b, total soluble sugars, and Proline content. Biofertilizers present plant growth promotion and potential pathogenic fungi reduction by increasing the abundance of Bacillus and Planococcus and decreasing the abundance of Mortierella and Aspergillus. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated the excellent efficacy of biofertilizers in improving saline soils, and the application of biofertilizer strategies will greatly promote agricultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: PZT-PVDF; coupling agents; dielectric properties; piezoelectric properties
Online: 19 September 2016 (09:42:46 CEST)
PZT-Poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites were prepared by hot-pressing method. Before addition, PZT particles were firstly modified with two different coupling agents. The micromorphology, microstructure, dielectric properties, and piezoelectric properties of the composites were characterized and investigated. Results indicated that PZT particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PVDF matrix by the addition of coupling agents. The electric properties of PZT-PVDF composites with NDZ-101 were the best. Especially when the volume ratio of the titanate coupling agent NDZ-101 was 1%, the piezoelectric strain constant d33 of PZT-PVDF composites reached maximum value 19.23pC/N; its relative dielectric constant εr was 67.45; at the same time its dielectric loss tanδ was 0.0766.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0359.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway; Meridianin derivatives; Isothiouronium; Anti-tumor activity
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:06:38 CET)
Hyperactivation of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is an attractive therapeutic target for tumor therapy. Herein, forty-eight novel meridianin derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their anti-tumor activity were evaluated in vitro both for activity optimization and structure-activity relationship (SAR) study. The results indicated that most derivatives exhibited significantly improved anti-tumor activity, especially for compound 6e. The compound 6e contains an isothiouronium linked by an alkyl chain consisting of 6 carbon atoms with IC50 ranging from 1.11 to 2.80 μM on various cancer cell lines. Consistently, 6e dose dependently induced the apoptosis of A549 and DU145 cells, in which STAT3 are constitutively active. Western blotting assays indicated that the phosphorylation levels of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3 were inhibited by 6e at 5 μM without significant change in total STAT3 level. Moreover, 6e also suppressed the expressions of STAT3 downstream genes, including c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and Bcl-XL at 10 μM. An additional in vivo study revealed that 6e at the dose of 10 mg/kg could potently inhibit the DU145 xenograft tumor without obvious body-weight loss. These results clearly indicate that 6e could be a potential anti-tumor agent by targeting JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat; UAV image; color index; texture feature index; biomass
Online: 26 December 2019 (12:27:49 CET)
In order to realize rapid and nondestructive monitoring of wheat biomass in field, field experiments based on different densities, nitrogen fertilizer and variety treatments were studied. RGB images of wheat in the main growth stage were obtained by UAV, and wheat color and texture feature indices were obtained by image processing, and wheat biomass was obtained by field sampling in the same period. Then the relationship between different color and texture feature indices and wheat biomass was analyzed to select the color and texture feature index suitable for wheat biomass estimation. The results showed that there was a high correlation between image color index and wheat biomass in different stages, and most of them reached a very significant correlation level. However, the correlation between image texture feature index and wheat biomass was poor, only a few indexes reached significant or extremely significant correlation level. Based on the above results, the color indices with the highest correlation to wheat biomass or the combining indices of color and texture feature in different growth stage were used to construct estimation model of wheat biomass. The models were validated using independently measured biomass data, and the correlation between simulated and measured values reached the significant level, RMSE were smaller. This indicated that the estimated results by the models were reliable and accurate. It also showed that the estimation models of wheat biomass combined with color and texture feature indices of UAV image were better than the single color index models. The results would provide a new method for real-time monitoring of wheat field growth and biomass estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0382.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: intercropping; microbial community; high throughput sequencing; nifH gene; sugarcane
Online: 17 October 2018 (10:20:19 CEST)
Intercropping significantly improves land use efficiency and soil fertility. This study examines the impact of three cultivation systems (monoculture sugarcane, peanut-sugarcane and soybean-sugarcane intercropping) on soil properties and diazotrophs. Sugarcane rhizosphere soil was sampled from the farmers’ field. Soil properties and nifH gene abundance were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. Moreover, a total of 436,458 nifH gene sequences were obtained and classified into the 3201 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Maximum unique OTUs resulted with soybean-sugarcane intercropping (<375). The dominant groups across all cultivation were Alpha-proteobacteria and Beta-proteobacteria. On the basis of microbial community structure, intercropping systems were more diverse than monoculture sugarcane. In the genus level, Bradyrhizobium, Burkholderia, Pelomonas, and Sphingomonas were predominant in the intercropping systems. Moreover, diazotrophic bacterial communities of these cultivation systems were positively correlated to the soil pH and soil enzyme protease. Moreover, low available P recovered from intercropping system showed a strong correlation with higher nutrient uptake activity of soil microbes. Based on the results, our investigation concluded that intercropping system caused a positive effect on the growth of diazotrophic bacterial communities and it might boost the soil fertility and this kind of study helps to develop an eco-friendly technology for sustainable sugarcane production.