ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0209.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rpi-genes; parental lines; hybrid progeny; dRenSeq; SCAR markers.
Online: 14 October 2021 (08:38:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Although resistance to pathogens and pests has been researched in many potato cultivars and breeding lines with DNA markers, there is scarce evidence as to the efficiency of the marker-assisted selection (MAS) for these traits when applied at the early stages of breeding. A goal of this study was to estimate the potential of affordable DNA markers to track Rpi disease resistance genes, that are effective against the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, as a practical breeding tool on a progeny of 68 clones derived from a cross between the cultivar Sudarynya and 13/11-09. (2) Methods: this population was studied for four years to elucidate the distribution of LB resistance and other agronomical desirable or simple to phenotype traits such as tuber and flower pigmentation, capacity and structure of yield. LB resistance was phenotypically determined through natural and artificial infection and the presence/absence of nine Rpi genes was assessed via 11 sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. To aid this analysis, the profile of Rpi genes in the 13/11-09 parent was established using diagnostic resistance gene enrichment sequencing (dRenSeq) as a gold standard. (3) Results: at the early stages of a breeding program, MAS can halve the workload when screening the segregation of F1 offspring and selected SCAR markers for Rpi-genes provide useful tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Spring wheat; Drought conditions; semi-dwarf genes; grain weight genes; selection
Online: 4 October 2023 (04:21:35 CEST)
Wheat yield plays an important role in the global economy. Changing climate conditions and increased drought negatively affect grain yield. Currently, breeding programs are aimed at improving wheat productivity. To accelerate the selection process of hybrids and parental forms for crosses, it is essential to pay attention to plants' phenotypic and genetic potential. We studied the genes of the "green revolution" group Rht and coarse-grained TaGW and TaGS to increase yields by selecting optimal parameters for wheat. We focused on short-stemmed and coarse-grained characteristics in a dry climate and conducted a correlation analysis between the genetic potential of wheat varieties and hybrids and their phenotypic manifestation in drought conditions. Rht-D1b significantly reduced the height of plants by 51.67% and reduced the coleoptile length by 30.45%. At the same time, TaGW8-B1a increased the grain width by 13.37%. However, in the presence of Rht-D1b and Rht-B1b in the genome, the 1000-kernal weight was 35.06 g (p<0.05), the Rht-B1b gene enhanced it by 9% (p<0.05), while both Rht-D1a and Rht-B1a alleles gave a 1000-kernal weight of 37.96 g (p<0.05). The Rht-D1b and Rht-B1b alleles gave 18.5 seeds per ear, while the Rht-D1a and Rht-B1a alleles gave the value of grains per ear -24.1 pcs. The data obtained indicated the relationship of phenotypic and genetic parameters in wheat between the coarse-grained and short-stemmed genes, which makes it possible to select based on the genetic parameters of varieties and hybrids, thereby speeding up the selection process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Sugarcane; Cultivation; Housekeeping Genes
Online: 30 April 2020 (11:09:28 CEST)
Sugarcane is an important industrial crop of semitropical and tropical areas. Due to the importance of this crop it is cultivated on nearly 20 million hectares by more than 90 countries. This crop belongs to family Poaceae, a grass family which is economically vital tracheophyte family that has properties much like that of wheat, maize, rice and sorghum. The Poaceae family is globally vital for providing dietary macromolecules, carbohydrates, and different nutrients. The most important item of sugarcane for the consumption is sucrose that gets accumulated in the stalk internodes. Sucrose is taken out and refined by different mills which is used as a sweetener in human food industries and in the fermentation industry. Large production of alcohol is attained by Brazilian sugarcane industries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotic resistance genes; antibiotic resistance gene database; annotation of antibiotic resistance genes
Online: 17 February 2022 (04:52:10 CET)
As the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes is increasing in microbes, we are facing the return of the preantibiotic era. Consecutively, the number of studies concerning antibiotic resistance and its spread in the environment is rapidly growing. Next generation sequencing technologies are widespread used in many areas of biological research and antibiotic resistance is no exception. For the rapid annotation of whole genome sequencing and metagenomic results considering antibiotic resistance, several tools and data resources were developed. These databases, however can differ fundamentally in the number and type of genes and resistance determinants they comprise. Furthermore, the annotation structure and metadata stored in these resources can also contribute to their differences. Several previous reviews were published on the tools and databases of resistance gene annotation, however, to our knowledge, no previous review focused solely and in depth on the differences in the databases. In this review, we compare the most well-known and widely used antibiotic resistance gene databases based on their structure and content. We believe that this knowledge is fundamental for selecting the most appropriate database for a research question and for the development of new tools and resources of resistance gene annotation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; RNA-Seq; co-expression networks; influence genes; stress condition; causal genes
Online: 12 June 2020 (08:46:02 CEST)
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that predominantly affects sheep, goat, cattle, buffalo, and horses, but has also been recognized in other animals. This bacterium generates a severe economic impact on countries producing meat. Gene expression studies using RNA-seq is one of the most commonly used techniques to perform transcriptional experiments. Computational analysis on such data through reverse-engineering algorithms leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide complexity of gene interactomes, enabling the identification of genes having the most significant functions inferred by the activated stress response pathways. In this study, we identified the influential or causal genes from four RNA-seq data-sets from different stress conditions (high iron, low iron, acid, osmosis, and PH) in C. pseudotuberculosis, using a consensus-based network inference algorithm called miRsig and identified the causal genes in the network using the miRinfluence tool, which is based on the influence diffusion model. We found that over 50\% of the genes identified as influential have some essential cellular functions in the genomes. In the strains analyzed, most of the causal genes have crucial roles or participate in processes associated with response to extracellular stresses, pathogenicity, membrane components, and essential genes. This research brings new insight into the understanding of virulence and infection by C. pseudotuberculosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2204.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Linked; marker association; annotation; Genes
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:41:16 CEST)
Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) is an important fruit tree crop because of its oil used for cooking and industrial manufacture of cosmetics. Despite its many benefits, quantitative trait loci linked to the economic traits have not yet been studied. In this study, we performed association mapping on a panel of 374 shea tree accessions using 7,530 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers for oil yield and seed related traits. Twenty three markers that were significantly (–log10 (p) = 4.87) associated to kernel oil content, kernel length; width and weight were identified. The kernel dry matter oil content and kernel width had the most significant Marker Trait Association (MTA) on chromosomes 1 and 8 respectively. Sixteen candidate genes that condition early induction of flower buds and somatic embryos, seed growth and development, substrate binding, transport, lipid biosynthesis, metabolic processes during seed germination and disease resistance and abiotic stress adaptation were identified. The presence of these genes suggest their role in promoting shea bioactive functions that condition high oil synthesis. This study provides insights into the important marker-linked seed traits with genes controlling them, useful for molecular breeding for improving oil yield in the species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0035.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: EuAP2 genes; Flowering; Plant Development
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:04:57 CEST)
EuAP2 genes are famous for their role in flower development. A legacy of the founding member of this subfamily of transcription factor, whose mutants lacked petals in Arabidopsis. However, studies of other euAP2 genes in several species have accumulated evidence highlighting the diverse roles of euAP2 genes in other aspects of plant development. Here, we emphasize other developmental roles of euAP2 genes in various species and suggest a shift from regarding euAP2 genes as just flowering genes to consider the global role they may be playing in plant development. We hypothesize that their almost universal expression profile and pleiotropic effects of their mutation suggest their involvement in fundamental plant development processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rhizobium; species complex; bacterial taxonomy; core genes; housekeeping genes; average nucleotide identity; speciation; genospecies
Online: 12 December 2020 (11:51:22 CET)
Bacteria currently included in Rhizobium leguminosarum are too diverse to be considered a single species, so we can refer to this as a species complex (the Rlc). We have found 429 publicly available genome sequences that fall within the Rlc and these show that the Rlc is a distinct entity, well separated from other species in the genus. Its sister taxon is R. anhuiense. We constructed a phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 120 universal (core) genes, and calculated pairwise average nucleotide identity (ANI) between all genomes. From these analyses, we concluded that the Rlc includes 18 distinct genospecies, plus 7 unique strains that are not placed in these genospecies. Each genospecies is separated by a distinct gap in ANI values, usually at around 96% ANI, implying that it is a 'natural' unit. Five of the genospecies include the type strains of named species: R. laguerreae, R. sophorae, R. ruizarguesonis, "R. indicum" and R. leguminosarum itself. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence is remarkably diverse within the Rlc, but does not distinguish the genospecies. Partial sequences of housekeeping genes, which have frequently been used to characterise isolate collections, can mostly be assigned unambiguously to a genospecies, but alleles within a genospecies do not always form a clade, so single genes are not a reliable guide to the true phylogeny of the strains. We conclude that access to a large number of genome sequences is a powerful tool for characterising the diversity of bacteria, and that taxonomic conclusions should be based on all available genome sequences, not just those of type strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0751.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Recessive Alleles; Heterozygote advantage; Lethal Genes
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:37:33 CEST)
The article derives the probability for lethal recessive alleles in the case of recessive disadvantage or advantage. It is shown that the recessive advantage of a lethal gene can be detected by the ratio of heterozygotes and homozygotes. This demonstrates that the higher IQ of certain ethnic groups cannot be explained by the recessive advantage of lethal genes. The article shows that lethal genes can survive in the population if some lineages of families have much more children than the average.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0283.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Wheat; Biofortification; Iron; Zinc; Rht genes
Online: 13 May 2021 (11:20:29 CEST)
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) being a staple food crop is an important nutritional source providing protein and minerals. It is important to fortify staple cereals like wheat with essential minerals to overcome the problems associated with malnutrition. The experiment was designed to evaluate the status of 11 micronutrients including grain iron (GFe) and zinc (GZn) in 62 wheat cultivars released between 1911 and 2016 in Pakistan. Field trials were conducted over two years and GFe and GZn were quantified by both inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer (EDXRF). The GZn ranged from 18.4 to 40.8 mg/kg by ED-XRF and 23.7 to 38.8 mg/kg by ICP-OES. Similarly, GFe ranged from 24.8 to 44.1 mg/kg by ICP-OES and 26.8 to 36.6 mg/kg by EDEXR. The coefficient of correlation was higher for GZn (r=0.90), compared to GFe (r=0.68). Modern cultivars like Zincol-16 and AAS-2011 showed higher GFe and GZn along with improved yield components. Old wheat cultivars WL-711, C-518 and Pothowar-70 released before 1970 also exhibited higher value of GFe and GZn, however their agronomic performance was poor. Multivariate analysis using ten micronutrients (Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P) along with agronomic traits, and genome-wide SNP markers identified the potential cultivar with improved yield, biofortification trait and wider genetic diversity. Genetic gain analysis identified significant increase in grain yield (0.4% year-1), while there was negative gain for GFe (-0.11% year-1) and GZn (-0.15% year-1) over the span of 100 years. The Green Revolution Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 genes had strong association with plant height, and grain yield (GY), while semi-dwarfing alleles had negative effect on GFe and GZn contents. This study provided a valuable insight into biofortification status of wheat cultivars deployed historically in Pakistan and is a valuable source to initiate a breeding strategy for simultaneous improvement in wheat phenology and biofortification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1289.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Selection Signatures; Genomic Analysis; Muscular Development Genes
Online: 19 October 2023 (16:42:00 CEST)
The goal of our study was to identify signatures of selection in the Turopolje pigs and other commercial pig breeds. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of five datasets, including one local pig breed (Turopolje) and four commercial pig breeds (Large White, Landrace, Pietrain, and Duroc), using strict quality control measures. Our final dataset consisted of 485 individuals and 54,075 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To detect selection signatures within these pig breeds, we utilized the XP-EHH and XP-nSL methodologies, which allowed us to identify candidate genes that have been subject to positive selection. Our analysis consistently highlighted the PTBP2 and DPYD genes as commonly targeted by selection across all studied breeds. Both of these genes are associated with muscular development in pigs and other species. Furthermore, in the Large White breed a number of genes were detected by the two methods, such as ATP1A1, CASQ2, CD2, IGSF3, MAB21L3, NHLH2, SLC22A15, VANGL1. In Duroc breed a different set of genes was detected, such as ARSB, BHMT, BHMT2, DMGDH, JMY. The function of these genes was related to body weight, production efficiency and meat quality, average daily gain and other similar traits. Overall, our results have identified a number of genomic regionsthat are under selective pressure between local and commercial pig breeds. This information can help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying pig breeding, and ultimately contribute to the development of more efficient and sustainable pig production practices. Our study highlights the power of using multiple genomic methodologies to detect genetic signatures of selection, and provides important insights into the genetic diversity of pig breeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: transcriptomics; metabolomics; drought stress; rehydration; genes; pathway
Online: 3 October 2023 (05:34:06 CEST)
Drought stress is a major abiotic factor affecting tomato production and fruit quality. However, the genes and metabolites associated with tomato responses to water deficiency and rehydration are poorly characterized. To identify the functional genes and key metabolic pathways underlying tomato responses to drought stress and recovery, drought-susceptible and drought-tolerant inbred lines underwent transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. A total of 332 drought-responsive and 491 rehydration-responsive core genes were robustly differentially expressed in both genotypes. The drought-responsive and rehydration-responsive genes were mainly related to photosynthesis–antenna proteins, nitrogen metabolism, plant–pathogen interactions, and the MAPK signaling pathway. Various transcription factors, including homeobox-leucine zipper protein ATHB-12, NAC transcription factor 29, and heat stress transcription factor A-6b-like, may be vital for tomato responses to the water status. Moreover, 24,30-dihydroxy-12(13)-enolupinol, caffeoyl hawthorn acid, adenosine 5′-monophosphate, and guanosine were the key metabolites identified in both genotypes under drought and recovery conditions. The combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis highlighted the importance of 38 genes involved in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, biosynthesis of amino acids, and ABC transporters for tomato responses to water stress. Our results provide valuable clues regarding the molecular basis of drought tolerance and rehydration. The data presented herein may be relevant for genetically improving tomato to enhance drought tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1920.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Amorphophallus; reference genes; RT-qPCR; gene expression
Online: 27 June 2023 (13:43:45 CEST)
Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the most classic and widely used technology for evaluating the expression level of target gene. In order to select the proper internal reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae), eight candidate internal reference genes, including 25S ribosomal RNA gene (25S rRNA), 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA), actin gene (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH), Ubiquitin gene (UBQ), β-tubulin gene (β-TUB), eukaryotic elongation factor 1-αgene(eEF-1α), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4α-1 gene (eIF-4α) were selected and tested the corresponding expression level in different tissues at different growing stages. The results showed that 25S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ACT at the reproductive periods, eEF-1α and eIF-4α at the nutritional periods, and eEF-1α, UBQ, and ACT at different leaf developmental periods had a stable level of gene expression, respectively. These results might be useful for the study of gene function in A. konjac.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Wolinella; Virulence genes; Helicobacter pylori; genomic homology
Online: 20 September 2022 (02:06:43 CEST)
Wolinella spp. and Helicobacter spp. have been repeatedly reported in the oral cavity of dogs and are associated with periodontal disease. Wolinella strains predominate in the oral cavity of dogs. The only known species of this genus, Wolinella succinogenes, was considered non-pathogenic until sequence analysis of its genome revealed homologous genes resembling virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori. This has led researchers to question the nonpathogenic status of W. succinogenes. The cagA and babA genes are examples of crucial virulence factors in H. pylori pathogenesis; thus, the present study evaluated the prevalence of these genera and assessed the Wolinella strain genome in terms of the presence of these virulence factors. Multiple specific PCR tests were performed on oral secretion samples collected from 62 dogs by sterile cytobrush to evaluate the genera, species, and presence of virulence genes. The species-specific 16s rRNA genes from the Helicobacter and Wolinella genera were detected in 58.06% and 83.87% of the oral samples, respectively. H. pylori were not detected in the specimens. No cagA and babA genes were detected in the Wolinella spp. or non-pylori Helicobacter genomes. Our results confirmed that Wolinella spp. is the predominant population compared to Helicobacter in the oral cavity of dogs. Apparently, the incidence of Helicobacter infections is generally associated with non-pylori Helicobacter organisms. Despite the hypothesis of genomic homology between W. succinogenes and H. pylori, cagA and babA virulence genes were not identified in any of the oral samples from the dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Reporter Genes; PET Imaging; Radiotracers; SNAPTag; Xenograft
Online: 11 August 2021 (12:28:16 CEST)
There is a need for versatile in vivo nuclear imaging reporter systems to foster preclinical and clinical research. We explore the applicability of the SNAPTag and novel radiolabeled small-molecule ligands as a versatile reporter gene system for in vivo nuclear imaging. SNAPTag is a high-affinity protein tag used in a variety of biochemical research areas and based on the suicide DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine methyl transferase (MGMT). Its ligands are well suited for reporter gene imaging as the benzyl guanine core scaffold can be derivatized with fluorescent or radiolabeled moieties for various applications. Three guanine-based SNAPTag ligands ([18F]FBBG, [18F]pFBG and [18F]mFBG) were synthesized in high yields and were (radio)chemically characterized. HEK293 cells were engineered to express the SNAPTag on the cell surface and served as cell model to assess target affinity by radiotracer uptake assays, Western blotting and SDS-PAGE autoradiography. A subcutaneous HEK293-SNAPTag xenograft model in immunodeficient mice was used for in vivo evaluation of [18F]FBBG amd [18F]pFBG while the biodistribution of [18F]mFBG was characterized in naïve animals. The results were validated by ex vivo biodistribution studies and immunofluorescence staining of the xenografts. All three radiotracers were produced in high radiochemical purity, molar activity and good yields. Western blot analysis revealed successful SNAPTag expression by the transfected HEK293 cells. In vitro testing revealed high target affinity of all three tracers with an up to 191-fold higher signal in the HEK293-SNAPTag cells compared to untransfected cells. This was further supported by a prominent radioactive protein band at the expected size in the SDS-PAGE autoradiograph of cells incubated with [18F]FBBG or [18F]pFBG. The in vivo studies demonstrated high uptake in HEK293-SNAP xenografts compared to HEK293 xenografts with excellent tumor-to-muscle ratios (7.5 ± 4.2 for [18F]FBBG and 10.6 ± 6.2 for [18F]pFBG). In contrast to [18F]pFBG and its chemical analogue [18F]mFBG, [18F]FBBG showed no signs of unspecific bone uptake and defluorination in vivo. Radiolabeled SNAPTag ligands bear great potential for clinical applications such as in vivo tracking of cell populations, antibody fragments and targeted radiotherapy. With excellent target affinity, good stability, and low non-specific binding, [18F]FBBG is a highly promising candidate for further preclinical evaluation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: circadian rhythms; clock genes; glioblastoma; tretament; chronotherapy
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:18:02 CEST)
Gliomas are solid tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) that originated from different glial cells. The World Health Organization (WHO) classified these tumors into four groups (I-IV) with increasing malignancy. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor classified as a grade IV. GBM are resistant to conventional therapies with poor prognosis after diagnosis even when the Stupp protocol that combines surgery and radiochemotherapy is applied. Nowadays, few novel therapeutic strategies have been used to improve GBM treatment, looking for higher efficiency and lower side effects, but with relatively modest results. The circadian timing system temporally organizes the physiology and behavior of most organisms and daily regulates several cellular processes in organs, tissues, and even in individual cells, including tumor cells. The potentiality of the function of the circadian clock on cancer cells modulation as a new target for novel treatments with a chronobiological basis offers a different challenge that needs to be considered in further detail. The present review will discuss state of the art regarding GBM biology, the role of the circadian clock in tumor progression, and new chrono-chemotherapeutic strategies applied for GBM treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0508.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Swine; Archaea; Energy Metabolism; CAZyme genes; ARGs
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:54:38 CET)
Archaea are an essential class of gut microorganisms in humans and animals. Despite the substantial progress in gut microbiome research in the last decade, most studies have focused on bacteria, and little is known about archaea in mammals. In this study, we investigated the composition, diversity, and functional potential of gut archaeal communities in pigs by re-analyzing a published metagenomic dataset including a total of 276 fecal samples from three countries: China (n=76), Denmark (n=100), and France (n=100). For alpha diversity (Shannon Index) of the archaeal communities, Chinese pigs were less diverse than Danish and French pigs (P<0.001). Consistently, Chinese pigs also possessed different archaeal community structures from the other two groups based on the Bray-Curtis distance matrix. Methanobrevibacter was the most dominant archaeal genus in Chinese pigs (44.94%) and French pigs (15.41%), while Candidatus Methanomethylophilus was the most predominant in Danish pigs (15.71%). At the species level, the relative abundance of Candidatus Methanomethylophilus alvus, Natrialbaceae archaeon XQ INN 246, and Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii were greatest in Danish, French, and Chinese pigs with a relative abundance of 14.32%, 11.67%, and 16.28%, respectively. In terms of metabolic potential, the top three pathways in the archaeal communities included the MetaCyc pathway related to the biosynthesis of L-valine, L-isoleucine, and isobutanol. Interestingly, the pathway related to hydrogen consumption (METHANOGENESIS-PWY) was only observed in archaeal reads, while the pathways participating in hydrogen production (FERMENTATION-PWY and PWY4LZ-257) were only detected in bacterial reads. Archaeal communities also possessed CAZyme gene families, with the top five being: AA3, GH43, GT2, AA6, and CE9. In terms of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), the class of multidrug resistance was the most abundant ARG, accounting for 87.41% of archaeal ARG hits. Our study reveals the diverse composition and metabolic functions of archaea in pigs, suggesting that archaea might play important roles in swine nutrition and metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Trichoderma harzianum; Subtilase genes; Bioinformatics analysis; Nematode
Online: 19 October 2020 (17:15:04 CEST)
The subtilase family is the second largest family of serine proteases. Some fungi including Trichoderma species can capture and kill nematodes by secreting hydrolytic enzymes or toxins, among which serine proteases are important enzymes that allow fungi to infect nematodes. Subtilase can degrade nematode and insect body walls. In this study, subtilase family genes were identified from the Trichoderma harzianum genome database, and bioinformatics analysis of the characteristics and evolutionary status of these genes, along with structural and functional analyses of their proteins, was performed. Gene structure analysis revealed that all the 41 subtilase genes contained introns, while some did not have upstream or downstream regions. Chromosome localisation showed that subtilase family members were unevenly distributed in 22 Trichoderma chromosomes, and 3 clusters were present, indicating that they may be hot spots of subtilase genes. Conserved motif analyses showed these proteins contained a commonly conserved motif, and motifs belonging to the same subfamily remained highly similar. The upstream region of the subtilase genes were enriched with different type and numbers of cis-elements, indicating that subtilase genes are likely to play a role in the response to diverse stresses. Transcription of 31 genes was increased after 5 days of infection with nematodes, whereas that of 10 genes decreased. In these subtilase genes, ThSBT4, ThSBT5, ThSBT12, ThSBT27, ThSBT34, ThSBT35, ThSBT38, and ThSBT40 showed significantly upregulated expression with a log2 fold change value of more than 4, and ThSBT35 showed the highest peak. These results laid a theoretical foundation for further research on the function of the subtilase genes and the mechanism of the resistance response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, disease resistance, fish
Online: 19 February 2019 (11:14:48 CET)
The basic pattern of MHC variation in fish, with MHC class I versus class II, and polymorphic classical versus nonpolymorphic nonclassical, is similar in fish and mammals. Nevertheless, in many or all teleost fishes, important differences with mammalian or human MHC were observed: (1) The allelic/haplotype diversification levels of classical MHC class I genes tend to be much higher than in mammals; (2) Teleost fish classical MHC class I and class II loci are not linked. The present article summarizes previous studies that performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for mapping differences in teleost fish disease resistance, and discusses them from MHC point of view. Overall, those studies suggest the possible importance of genomic regions including classical MHC class II and nonclassical MHC class I genes, whereas similar observations were not made for the genomic regions with the highly diversified classical MHC class I alleles. The present study is a review and discussion of the fish MHC situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: powdery mildew; wheat; GWAS; FarmCPU; MTAs; candidate genes
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:51:02 CEST)
Powdery mildew (PM), caused by the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), significantly threatens global bread wheat production. Although the use of resistant cultivars is an effective strategy for managing PM, currently available wheat cultivars lack sufficient levels of resistance. To tackle this challenge, we conducted a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a diverse panel of 286 bread wheat genotypes. Over three consecutive years (2020-21, 2021-22, and 2022-23), these genotypes were extensively evaluated for PM severity under field conditions following inoculation with virulent Bgt isolates. The panel was previously genotyped using the Illumina 90K SNP Infinium iSelect SNP assay to obtain genome-wide SNP marker coverage. By applying FarmCPU, a multilocus mixed model, we identified a total of 113 MTAs located on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5A, 5B, 6B, 7A, and 7B at a significance level of p≤0.001. Notably, four novel MTAs on chromosome 6B were consistently detected in 2020-21 and 2021-22 environments. Furthermore, within the confidence intervals of the identified SNPs, we identified 96 candidate genes belonging to different proteins including 12 disease resistance/host-pathogen interactions related protein families. Among these, protein kinases, leucine-rich repeats, and zinc finger proteins, were of particular interest due to their potential roles in PM resistance. These identified loci can serve as targets for breeding programs aimed at developing disease-resistant wheat cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1643.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: GWAS; MTA; durum wheat; grain traits; candidate genes
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:54:50 CEST)
Durum wheat is an economically and nutritionally important cereal. The increase in durum wheat yield is mostly associated with improving grain traits. The grain size and shape-related traits are directly related to wheat yield. In addition, grain size influences the seed germination rate and seedling vigour, which play key roles in stand establishment and yield. Thus, it is important to investigate grain traits both agro-morphologically and genetically. In this study, a panel of durum wheat, consisted of 146 genotypes, was evaluated for grain traits agro-morphologically, and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to dissect the genomic regions associated with these traits. As a result of GWAS, a total of 41 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified on different chromosomes of durum wheat. Of these MTAs, only 11 were stable across environments. A BLAST search for flanking sequences of every stable MTAs in the Svevo genome identified 18 putative candidate genes directly associated with seed traits of different plants, particularly wheat seeds. In conclusion, the annotation results and literature information provide strong evidence that identified stable MTAs and their candidate genes may have important functions in the formation of wheat grain traits. After the validation of these MTAs with different fine-mapping and functional characterization studies, these loci may provide valuable information for geneticists and breeders to improve wheat yield.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0741.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fermented foods; Antibiotic-resistant bacteria; Antibiotic-resistant genes
Online: 12 July 2023 (09:30:13 CEST)
Fermented food products are widely consumed for their nutritional and health-promoting properties earning them a central place in diets around the globe. However, these foods can present a paradox, as they have the potential to harbor not only beneficial probiotics but also antibiotic-resistant (AR) microbes and genes. The impact of AR in fermented foods has far-reached implications, such as its potential effects on human health, repercussions in the food industry, and environmental consequences. An in-depth analysis of AR in fermented foods, including dairy products, fermented fruits and vegetables, meat products, and beverages, would provide insights into the extent and ramifications of the issue with these foods. Therefore, this review systematically presents the status of AR in fermented foods, with a particular focus on AR bacteria and genes within this category of food products. The review also highlights the complexities of AR in fermented foods, emphasizing the role of bacterial adaptation during the fermentation process and the dynamics of bacterial gene transfer. Various contributing factors to AR are brought into focus, including intrinsic resistance among bacteria in fermented foods and the potential risk of contamination with pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, this review presents a range of mitigation strategies, from the development of novel antimicrobials to advances in fermentation technology and regulatory control. This comprehensive perspective on the intricate interplay between AR and fermented food will potentially pave the way for more targeted research and mitigation strategies in this critical area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1766.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: xenotransplantation; porcine endogenous retroviruses; microchimerism; pig genes; SINE
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:30:58 CEST)
Xenotransplantation is, like allotransplantation, usually associated with microchimerism, e.g., the presence of cells from the donor in the recipient. Microchimerism was reported in first xenotransplantation trials in humans as well as in most preclinical trials in non-human primates (for review see Denner, Viruses 2023, 15, 190). When using pigs as xenotransplantation donors, their cells contain porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) in their genome. That makes it difficult to discriminate between microchimerism and PERV infection of the recipient. Here, we demonstrate which virological methods should be used to identify microchimerism, first of all screening for porcine cellular genes. Using porcine short interspersed nuclear sequences (SINES), which have hundred thousands of copies in the pig genome significantly increased the sensitivity of the screening for pig cells. Second, absence of PERV RNA demonstrated an absence of viral genomic RNA or expression as mRNA. Finally, absence of antibodies against PERV proteins conclusively demonstrated an absence of a PERV infection. When applying these methods for analyzing baboons after pig heart transplantation, microchimerism could be demonstrated in all animals. These methods can be used in future clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Banana; Somatic embryogenesis; Embryogenic cell suspension; Morphogenic genes
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:33:09 CEST)
Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) cultivation holds significant global economic importance, but it faces numerous challenges, which may include diverse abiotic and biotic factors such as drought and various diseases caused by fungi, viruses, and bacteria. The genetic and asexual nature of cultivated banana varieties makes them unattractive for improvement via traditional breeding. To overcome these constraints, modern biotechnological approaches like genetic modification and genome editing have become essential for banana improvement. However, these techniques rely on somatic embryogenesis, which has only been successfully achieved in a limited number of banana cultivars. Therefore, developing new strategies for improving somatic embryogenesis in banana is crucial. This review article focuses on advancements in banana somatic embryogenesis, highlighting the progress, the various stages involved, cryopreservation techniques, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the process. Furthermore, the article discusses the factors that could influence somatic embryogenesis and explores the prospects for improving the process, especially in recalcitrant banana cultivars. By addressing these challenges and exploring potential solutions, researchers aim to unlock the full potential of somatic embryogenesis as a tool for banana improvement, ultimately benefiting the global banana industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: E. coli; environment; antibiotic resistance; antibiotic resistance genes
Online: 17 May 2023 (04:43:22 CEST)
We survey the diversity of antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates and molecular genotypes by means of phylogenetic groups circulating in complex aquatic habitats, such as sewage and receiving waters bodies as well as in clinical environment in Boeotia regional district of Greece. The predominant resistant profile among all environmental and clinical isolates was to penicillins - ampicillin (AMP) and piperacillin (PIP). ESBLs resistance related profiles were observed both in environmental and clinical isolates. Phylogenetic group B2 was the predominant in clinical isolates, whilst group A was dominant in environmental isolates. We report that reclaimed river water and wastewater are reservoirs of R and MDR E. coli to commonly used antibiotics in clinical practice posing putative threats for human and animal health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0288.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Transcriptome; Differentially expressed genes; Macrobrachium rosenbergii; Aeromonas veronii
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:43:58 CEST)
To further investigate the immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against Aeromonas veronii, comparative transcriptomic analyses of the M. rosenbergii hepatopancreas were conducted on challenge and control groups at 6, 12, and 24 h post-infection (hpi), independently. A total of 51,707 high-quality unigenes were collected from the RNA-seq data, and 8,060 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered through paired comparisons. Among three comparison groups, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that 173 immune-related DEGs were considerably clustered into 28 immune-related pathways, including the lysosome and phagosome, etc. Moreover, the expression levels of the four key immune-related genes (TOLL, PAK1, GSK3β, and IKKα) were evaluated at various stages following post-infection in the hepatopancreas, hemolymph, and gill. Both PAK1 and GSK3β genes were highly upregulated in all three tissues at 6 hpi with A. veronii; TOLL was up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and hemolymph but down-regulated in the gill at 6 hpi; and IKKα was up-regulated in hemolymph and gill, but down-regulated in the hepatopancreas at 6 hpi. These findings lay the groundwork for understanding the immune mechanism of M. rosenbergii after contracting A. veronii.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; multidrug resistance genes; molecular mechanisms
Online: 19 April 2023 (10:54:50 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major threat to human health worldwide. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria can also be found in the community settings, apart from hospital environment, which indicates that reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes do exist outside the hospital. The growth of antibiotic resistance is a consequence of bacterial adaptations in response to selective pressures. To survive in this hostile environment, bacteria develop defence mechanisms such as chemical modification of antibiotics, enzyme-catalysed antibiotic degradation, altered permeability, antibiotic efflux, mutation of target sites and biofilm formation, resulting in resistance to nearly all currently available antibiotics used in the clinical practice. The present review summarizes insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the antibiotic resistance which is useful for planning strategies to combat antibiotic resistance and devise innovative therapeutic tools to fight against multidrug-resistant bacterial species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0493.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Autotetraploid; Potato; RNA-Seq; WGCNA analysis; Hub genes
Online: 18 April 2023 (05:25:28 CEST)
The formation and development of potato tissues and organs is a complex process regulated by a variety of genes and environmental factors. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the growth and development are still unclear. In this study, we used autotetraploid potato JC14 as experimental subject to analyze the transcriptome of root, stem and leaf at seedling, tuber formation and tuber expansion stages to explore the spatio-temporal expression pattern of genes and genetic development characteristics. The results identified thousands of differentially expressed genes and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that these genes were mainly involved in defense response and carbohydrate metabolism pathways. A total of 12 co-expressed Gene modules were identified by Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA), and 4 modules were screened out with the highest correlation with potato stem developmental traits. Core genes in the network were further investigated and functionally annotated by computing the connectivity of genes within the module. The results unveiled number of hub genes in stems at different developmental stages, including carbohydrate metabolism related genes, the defense response related genes, and transcription factors. These findings provide important leads for further understanding of the molecular regulation and genetic mechanisms of potato tissue development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant–microbe interactions; endophytes; comparative transcriptomics; velvet genes
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:06:31 CET)
Epichloë species form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. VelA is a key global regulator in fungal secondary metabolism and development. In previous studies, we showed the requirement of velA for E. festucae to form a mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne. We showed that VelA regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in membrane transport, fungal cell wall biosynthesis, host cell wall degradation and secondary metabolism, along with several small-secreted proteins in Epichloë festucae. Here, by a comparative transcriptomics analysis on perennial ryegrass seedlings and mature plants, which are endophyte free or infected with wild type (mutualistic interaction) or mutant ∆velA E. festucae (antagonistic or incompatible interaction), regulatory effects of the endophytic interaction on perennial ryegrass development was studied. We show that ∆velA mutant associations influence the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and response to biotic and abiotic stresses compared to wild type associations, providing an insight into processes defining mutualistic versus antagonistic interactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: habituation learning; habituation genes; habituation pathways; neurodevelopmantal disorders
Online: 13 January 2022 (10:57:23 CET)
Habituation, the most ancient and fundamental form of learning, manifests already before birth. Neuroscientists have been fascinated for decades by its function as a firewall protecting our brains from sensory information overload and its indispensability for higher cognitive processing. Evidence that habituation learning is affected in autism and related monogenic neurodevelopmental syndromes and their animal models has exponentially grown, but the potential of this convergence to advance both fields is still largely unexploited.In this review, we provide a systematic overview of the genes that to date have been demonstrated to underlie habituation across species. We describe the biological processes they converge on, and highlight core regulatory pathways and repurposable drugs that may alleviate the habituation deficits associated with their dysregulation. We also summarize currently used habituation paradigms and extract the most important arguments from literature that support the crucial role of habituation for cognition in health and disease. We conclude that habituation is a powerful tool to overcome current bottlenecks in research, diagnostics and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SNP; calpaincalpastatin system genes; genomic association; tenderization; ageing
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:48:09 CET)
The most important factor that determines beef tenderness is its proteolytic activity and the balance between calpain1 protease activity and calpastatin inhibition is especially important, while contributions could arise from calpain2 and possibly calpain3. These processes are however affected by the meat aging process itself. To determine whether genotypes in the calpaincalpastatin system can enhance tenderness throughout a 20 day aging period, South African purebred beef bulls (n=166) were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD SNP BeadChip, through genebased association analysis targeting the cast, capn3, capn2 and capn1 genes. The WarnerBratzler shear force (WBSF) and myofibril fragment length (MFL) of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) steaks were evaluated between d 3 d 20 of aging, with protease enzyme activity in the first 20 h postmortem. Although several of the 134 SNP associated with tenderness, only seven SNP in the cast, capn2 and capn1 genes sustained genetic associations, additive to agingassociated increases in tenderness for at least three of the four aging periods. While most genomic associations were relatively stable over time, some genotypes within SNP responded differently to aging, resulting in altered genomic effects over time. The level of aging at which genomic associations are performed is an important factor that determines whether SNP affect tenderness phenotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Streptococcus uberis; mastitis; typing; antimicrobial susceptibility; resistance genes
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:12:44 CET)
Intrammary infections are a major problem for dairy sheep farms, and Streptococcus uberis is one of the main etiological agents of ovine mastitis. Surveys on antimicrobial resistance are still limited in sheep and characterization of isolates is important for acquiring information on resistance and for optimizing therapy. In this study, a sampling of 124 S. uberis isolates collected in Sardinia (Italy) from sheep milk was analysed by multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for genetic relatedness. All isolates were also subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility analysis by the disk diffusion test using a panel of 14 antimicrobials. Resistance genes were detected by PCR assays. MLST analysis revealed that the isolates were grouped into 86 sequence types (STs), of which 73 were new genotypes, indicating a highly diverse population of S. uberis. The most frequently detected lineage was the clonal complex (CC)143, although representing only 13.7% of all characterized isolates. A high level of heterogeneity was also observed among the SmaI PFGE profiles, with 121 unique patterns. Almost all (96.8%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, while all exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to oxacillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ceftiofur. Of the antimicrobials tested, the highest resistance rate was found against streptomycin (93.5%), kanamycin (79.8%) and gentamicin (64.5%), followed by novobiocin (25%) and tetracycline-TE (19.3%). Seventy-four (59.7%) isolates were simultaneously resistant to all aminoglycosides tested. Seventeen isolates (13.7%) exhibited multidrug resistance. All aminoglycosides-resistant isolates were PCR negative for aad-6 and aphA-3’ genes. Among the TE-resistant isolates, the tetM gene was predominant, indicating that the resistance mechanism is mainly mediated by the protection of ribosomes and not through the efflux pump. Three isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and two of them harboured the ermB gene. This is the first study reporting a detailed characterization of the S. uberis strains circulating in Sardinian sheep. Further investigations will be needed to understand the relationships between S. uberis genotypes, mastitis severity, and intra-mammary infection dynamics in the flock, as well as to monitor the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0405.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sheep; E. coli; shiga-toxin; antimicrobial resistance genes
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:12:01 CEST)
Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment can pose a risk for developing resistance against antimi-crobial drugs in bacteria. Close human contact might have a higher chance of being transmitted to humans from sheep if the sheep population is a potential reservoir of zoonotic pathogens such as shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) (STEC). Therefore, this study aimed to exam-ine the sheep population in rural Bangladesh for antimicrobial resistant STEC. We screened 200 faecal samples collected from sheep in three Upazila from the Chattogram district. Phenotypical-ly positive E. coli isolates were examined for two shiga toxin-producing genes – stx1 and stx2. PCR positive STEC isolates were investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes- blaTEM, sul1 and sul2. In total, 123 of the 200 tested samples were confirmed positive E. coli by cul-tured based methods. PCR results show 17(13.8%) E. coli isolates harboured ≥ one virulent gene (stx1 or/and stx2) of STEC. Six of the tested STEC isolates exhibited blaTEM gene; eight STEC isolates had sul1 gene, and sul2 gene was detected in ten STEC isolates. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal a significant proportion of STEC isolated from sheep in rural Bangla-desh harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Polymorphism; genes; phase-II metabolism; glutathione; clopidogrel resistance
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:30:31 CEST)
Clopidogrel is one of the thienopyridine antiplatelet drugs commonly used as a prophylactic medication to prevent coagulation in vessels and cardiovascular events. The molecule of clopidogrel is metabolized in the liver via phase-I and phase-II metabolism pathways. The sulfenic acid clopidogrel metabolite undergoes phase-II metabolism through conjugation with glutathione by the glutathione-s-transferase (GST) to form a glutathione conjugate of clopidogrel (inactive metabolite). A glutaredoxin enzyme removes the glutathione conjugated with clopidogrel to form cis-thiol-clopidogrel. This review focused on the polymorphisms of genes related to phase-II metabolism during the clopidogrel bioactivation process. Overall, no well-controlled studies were done about the relationship between the clopidogrel bioactivation process and genes related to phase-II metabolism’s enzymes. Nevertheless, some polymorphisms of G6PD, GCLC, GCLM, GSS, GST, GSR, HK, and GLRX genes could be responsible for clopidogrel resistance due to low glutathione conjugate or glutaredoxin plasma levels. Studies needed to be concerned with the relationship between clopidogrel resistance and phase-II metabolism issues in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0719.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: foam; flocculation; FLO genes; Saccharomyces; fuel-ethanol; FLO8
Online: 30 June 2021 (08:59:57 CEST)
Many contaminant yeast strains able to survive inside fuel ethanol industrial vats show detrimental cell surface phenotypes, such as filamentation, invasive growth, flocculation, biofilm formation and excessive foam production. Previous studies have linked some of these phenotypes to the expression of FLO genes, and the presence of gene length polymorphisms causing the expansion of FLO gene size appears to result in stronger flocculation and biofilm formation phenotypes. We have performed here a molecular analysis of FLO1 and FLO11 gene polymorphisms present in contaminant strains of S. cerevisae from Brazilian fuel ethanol distilleries showing strong foaming phenotypes during fermentation. The size variability of these genes was correlated with cellular hydrophobicity, flocculation and highly foaming phenotypes in these yeast strains. Our results also show that deleting the major activator of FLO genes (the FLO8 gene) from the genome of a contaminant and highly foaming industrial strain avoids problematic foam formation, flocculation, invasive growth and biofilm production by the engineered (flo8∆::BleR / flo8Δ::kanMX) yeast strain. Thus, the characterization of highly foaming yeasts and the influence of FLO8 in this phenotype opens new perspectives for yeast strain engineering and optimization in the sugarcane fuel-ethanol industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hearing impairment; novel murine genes; gene enrichment; africa
Online: 19 September 2019 (11:27:27 CEST)
The prevalence of congenital hearing impairment (HI) is highest in Africa. Estimates evaluated genetic causes to account for 31% of HI cases in Africa, but the identification of associated causative genes mutations have been challenging. In this study, we reviewed the potential roles, in humans, of 38 novel genes identified in a murine study. We gathered information from various genomic annotation databases and performed functional enrichment analysis using online resources i.e. genemania and g.proflier. Results revealed that 27/38 genes are express mostly in the brain, suggesting additional cognitive roles. Indeed, HERC1- R3250X had been associated with intellectual disability in a Moroccan family. A homozygous 216-bp deletion in KLC2 was found in two siblings of Egyptian descent with spastic paraplegia. Up to 27/38 murine genes have link to at least a disease, and the commonest mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive (n=8). Network analysis indicates that 20 other genes have intermediate and biological links to the novel genes, suggesting their possible roles in HI. This study will contribute to advance our knowledge in unravelling the biological roles of novel murine HI genes in humans and could enhance the understanding of the genetic causes of HI in Africans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: hox genes; temporal collinearity; axial patterning; gastrulation; xenopus
Online: 11 June 2019 (04:03:46 CEST)
Kondo and collaborators recently reported the absence of Hox temporal collinearity in Xenopus tropicalis. They found none in the initiation of accumulation of Hox transcripts (detected via RNA seq). And none in the initial expression sequence of primary unprorocessed transcripts (Identified by using qRT-PCR against introns or intron-exon boundaries). Nor in the initial acquisition by Hox gene DNA of a mark for active chromatin. These findings are in conflict with the idea that temporal collinearity has to do with the initiation of Hox gene transcription or with the opening of and a progression from repressed to active states in Hox chromatin. But collinear acquisition of the same active chromatin mark has been shown by others in murine 5’ Hoxd cluster genes.The reason for this difference is unknown . This careful study thus indicated that the initiation phase of Hox expression shows no temporal collinearity in X. tropicalis. A previous study in X. laevis from the same group also showed that the sequence of times for reaching (normalised) half maximal Hox expression showed no temporal collinearity. These conclusions are likely to be correct. These authors do however also conclude that “experimental evidence for the temporal collinearity hypothesis is not strong” There is however strong evidence that Hox temporal collinearity does occur in early vertebrate embryos. Below. I present and discuss 3 lines of evidence to resolve the present conflict I argue that Hox temporal collinearity actually does exist and that it is part of a central mechanism in early development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pan-cancer; bidirectional promoters; head-to-head genes
Online: 6 July 2018 (09:37:08 CEST)
Bidirectional gene promoters affect the transcription of two genes, leading to the hypothesis that they should exhibit protection against genetic or epigenetic changes in cancer. Therefore, they provide an excellent opportunity to learn about promoter susceptibility to somatic alteration in tumors. We tested this hypothesis using data from genome-scale DNA methylation (14 cancer types), simple somatic mutation (10 cancer types), and copy number variation profiling (14 cancer types). For DNA methylation, the difference in rank differential methylation between tumor and tumor-adjacent normal matched samples based on promoter type was tested by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Logistic regression was used to compare differences in simple somatic mutations. For copy number alteration, a mixed effects logistic regression model was used. The change in methylation between non-diseased tissues and their tumor counterparts was significantly greater in single compared to bidirectional promoters across all 14 cancer types examined. Similarly, the extent of copy number alteration was greater in single gene compared to bidirectional promoters for all 14 cancer types. Furthermore, among 10 cancer types with available simple somatic mutation data, bidirectional promoters were slightly more susceptible. These results suggest that selective pressures related with specific functional impacts during carcinogenesis drive the susceptibility of promoter regions to somatic alteration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: archaic human genes; obesity; diabetes mellitus; Indigenous Australians
Online: 25 June 2018 (08:13:36 CEST)
Indigenous Australians have been particularly affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus due to their genetic susceptibility and a range of environmental risk factors. Recent genetic studies link predisposition to some diseases, including diabetes, to archaic humans, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting persistence of ancient alleles in the genomes of modern humans. In this review we discuss the evolutionary role of the negative genetic selection associated with an adopted Western lifestyle as well as DNA variants influencing predisposition to obesity and diabetes in the Australian Indigenous population. We review the contribution of the ancient gene/pathways to the modern human phenotypes including the Neanderthal haplotype-tagging SNPs in NTRK2 gene, which may continue to play a role in obesity in Indigenous Australians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: mastitis; dairy cow; S. aureus; genotypes; virulence genes
Online: 25 April 2018 (08:04:51 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investigated for 26 different virulence factors to increase the knowledge on the circulating genetic lineages among the cow population with mastitis. New genotypes were observed for South African strains while for all the other countries new variants of existing genotypes were detected. For each country, a specific genotypic pattern was found. Among the virulence factors, fmtB, cna, clfA and leucocidins genes were the most frequent. The sea and sei genes were present in seven out of eight countries; seh showed high frequency in South American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Argentina), while sel was harboured especially in one Mediterranean country (Tunisia). The etb, seb and see genes were not detected in any of the isolates, while only two isolates were MRSA (Germany and Italy) confirming the low diffusion of methicillin resistance microorganism among bovine mastitis isolates. This work demonstrated the wide variety of S. aureus genotypes found in dairy cattle worldwide. This condition suggests that considering the region of interest might help to formulate strategies for reducing the infection spreading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0002.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ark shell; transcriptome; growth; metabolism; differentially expressed genes
Online: 1 March 2018 (04:47:45 CET)
To understand the molecular mechanism associated with growth variability in bivalves, the Solexa/Illumina technology was employed to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of extreme growth rate differences (fast- VS. slow-growing individuals) in one full-sib family of the ark shell Scapharca subcrenata. De novo assembly of S. subcrenata transcriptome yielded 276,082,016 raw reads, which were assembled into 98,502 unique transcripts by Trinity strategy. A total of 6,357 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained between fast- and slow-growing individuals, with 580 up-regulated expression and 5777 down-regulated expression. Functional annotation revealed that the largest proportion of DEGs were classified to the large or small subunit ribosomal protein, all of which showed significantly lower expression levels in fast-growing group than those in slow-growing group. GO enrichment analysis identified the maximum of DEGs to biological process, followed by molecular function and cellular component. Most of the top enriched KEGG pathways were related to energy metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation. These findings reveal the link between gene expression and contrasting phenotypes in ark shells, which support that fast-growing individuals may be resulted from decreased energy requirements for metabolism maintenance, accompanying with greater efficiency of protein synthesis and degradation in bivalves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Nurse bees; DWV-A; OBPs; synaptic genes; olfactory responses
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:55:52 CET)
Insect behavior is coordinated mainly by smell, through the diverse odor-binding proteins (OBP) that allow them to identify and recognize their environment. Sensory information collected through smell is then analyzed and interpreted in the brain, allowing for correct insect functioning. The behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) can be affected by different pathogens, such as deformed wing virus (DWV). In particular, DWV variant A (DWV-A) is capable of altering olfactory sensitivity, reducing the gene expression of different OBPs, including those associated with nursing behavior. DWV is also capable of replicating itself in the sensory lobes of the brain, further compromising the processing of sensory information. This study evaluated the behavioral response of nurse honey bees exposed to a pheromone compound and the alterations in the gene expression of pre- and post-synaptic neuronal genes neuroxins-1 and neurogilin-1 in the bee heads and OBP proteins in antennae of nurse bees inoculated with DWV-A. The behavioral response of nurse bees exposed to the larval pheromone compounds benzyl alcohol was analyzed using a Y-tube olfactometer. The viral load, gene expression of OBP5 and OBP11 in antennae and the neuroxins-1 and neurogilin-1 in the bee heads were analyzed by qPCR. High viral loads significantly reduced the ability of 10- and 15-day-old nurse honey bees to choose the correct pheromone compound. Also, the gene expression of OBP5, OBP11, neuroxin-1 and neurogilin-1 in nurse honey bees decreased when they were highly infected with DWV-A. These results suggest that a DWV-A infection can disturb information processing and cause nurse honey bees to reduce their activity inside the hive, altering internal cohesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1937.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: neonicotinoids; pollinator; rice field; qRT PCR; toxicity stress-genes
Online: 31 October 2023 (02:46:53 CET)
Honey bees are vital organisms that provide ecological and economic value to humans. However, in recent years, the increase in honey bee losses due to various environmental factors, including pesticides, has become a growing concern. In Europe, neonicotinoid pesticides that are banned are being used without restrictions in the domestic setting, leading to ongoing damages as a result. Ongoing research is continually being conducted to demonstrate the risks associated with neonicotinoid pesticides. However, validation of the actual damages and impact in the field remains absent. Therefore, in this study, we observed changes in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies located near rice cultivation areas as they progressed beyond the rice pesticide application period. Furthermore, we collected honey bees exposed to the clothianidin and analyzed their stress-related gene expression. The results showed that the foraging behavior of honey bee colonies located near rice cultivation areas did not exhibit significant differences between the treatment site (Cheongyang and Gimje) and the control site (Wanju) during the experimental period. However, it was observed that the expression levels of stress-related genes in honey bees collected from the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control. Most of the stress-related genes were associated with detoxification processes in response to pesticides. As a result, pesticide treatment in proximity to rice cultivation areas did not cause direct damage to honey bees but had an indirect impact, suggesting the potential for ongoing chronic damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Genetic diversity; Germplasm; molecular markers; transcription factors; DEGs; genes.
Online: 4 October 2023 (09:03:49 CEST)
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1533.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chronic myelomonocytic leukemia; CSF3R; bleeding disorders; predisposing genes; NGS
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:35:11 CEST)
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematological neoplasm characterized by monocytosis, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and anemia. Moreover, it is associ-ated with SRSF2 mutations and rarely with CSF3R variants. The presented case is an 84-year-old patient with persistent anemia and monocytosis. Due to the presence of dysmorphic granulocytes, monocyte atypia and myeloid precursors in peripheral blood, the patient was submitted to bone marrow examination. The diagnosis was consistent with CMML type 2. Hemocoagulative test showed an increase of fibrinolysis markers. Next generation targeted sequencing showed TET2 and SRSF2 mutations, along with an unexpected CSF3R germline missense variant, rarely encountered in CMML. The pa-tient started Azacitidine treatment reaching normal hemostatic process values. In con-clusion, we identified a heterozygous germline mutation that, cooperating with TET2 and SRSF2 variants, have been responsible for the hemorrhagic manifestation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2079.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Legionella; residential buildings; virulence factors; virulence genes; sequence type
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:10:06 CEST)
Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen with a biphasic life cycle and humans are occasional hosts of Legionella. The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of virulence genes and genetic diversity among L. pneumophila isolated from water-supply systems of residential buildings in Latvia. In total, 492 water samples from 200 residential buildings were collected. Identification of Legionella spp. was performed according to ISO 11731 and 58 isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing. At least one Legionella positive sample was found in 112 out of 200 apartment buildings (56.0%). The study revealed extensive sequence type diversity where 58 L. pneumophila isolates fell into 36 different sequence types. A total of 420 virulence genes were identified of which 260 genes were found in all sequenced L. pneumophila isolates. Virulence genes enhC, htpB, omp28, and mip were detected in all isolates, suggesting that adhesion, at-tachment, and entry into host cells are enabled for all isolates. The relative frequency of viru-lence genes among L. pneumophila isolates was high. High prevalence, extensive genetic diver-sity, and the wide range of virulence genes indicated that the virulence potential of environ-mental Legionella is high and proper risk management is of key importance to public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2031.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Kpètè Kpètè; microbiological contaminant; Enterobacteria; resistance genes; Staphylococcus spp
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:02:20 CEST)
This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of the bacteria isolated and characterized from the kpètè kpètè used to produce two fermented beers in Benin. Species were identified by specific biochemical tests such as catalase, coagulase, and API 20 E. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested according to the French Society of Microbiology Antibiogram Committee. The crystal violet microplate technique and conventional PCR evaluated biofilm production to identify genes encoding virulence and macrolide resistance. Our data shows that Kpètè Kpètè used to produce beers are contaminated by Enterobacteriaceae species (Klebsiella terrigena, Enterobacter aerogens, Providencia rettgeri, Chryseomonas luteola, Serratia rubidae, and Enterobacter cloacae) and Staphylococcus spp. These multidrug-resistant strains can produce biofilms with a strong predominance of Enterobacter aerogens, Klebsiella terrigena (100%), and Staphylococcus spp (60%). Enterobacter cloacae (4%) and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (5.55%) harbor the macrolide resistance gene. For other strains, these genes were not detected. Foods contaminated with bacteria resistant to antibiotics and carrying a virulence gene could constitute a potential public health problem. There is a need to increase awareness campaigns on hygiene rules in preparing and selling these traditional beers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; biofilm; extensively drug resistance; biofilm associated genes
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:33:26 CEST)
Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is a bacterium that causes infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Treatment is challenging due to biofilm formation by AB strains, which hinders antibiotic effec-tiveness and promotes drug resistance. The aim of our study was to analyze the biofilm-producing capacity of AB isolates from various forms of infections in relation to biofilm-related genes and their drug resistance. We tested one hundred isolates for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate method. Drug re-sistance analyses were performed based on EUCAST and CLSI guidelines, and biofilm genes were detected using PCR. All tested strains were found to form biofilms, with 50% being ICU strains and 72% classified as strong biofilm-producers. Among these, 87% were extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and 2% were extra extensively drug-resistant (E-XDR). The most common gene set was bap, bfmS, csuE, and ompA, found in 57% of all isolates. Our research has shown that, regardless of the form of infection, biofilm-forming strains can be expected among AB isolates. The emergence of E-XDR and XDR strains among non-ICU infections highlights the necessity for the rational use of antibiotics to stop or limit the further acquisition of drug re-sistance by A. baumannii.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gliomas; temozolomide; resistance; genes; PIK3C2B; ERBB3; KIT; MLH1; MGMT
Online: 18 May 2023 (14:59:42 CEST)
Background. The treatment for patients with high-grade gliomas includes radiation therapy and temozolomide. However, some patients do not respond to temozolomide because they have a methylation reversal mechanism through the enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase. This biomarker has been used as a prognostic factor in patients receiving treatment with temozolomide. However, not all patients respond in the same way, which suggests the existence of other genes involved in resistance to temozolomide. Materials and Methods. A group of 31 patients with high-grade gliomas was recruited and were clinically, image pattern, and pathologically characterized. The sequencing of 324 genes related to different types of cancer was performed to detect mutations. Subsequently, a statistical analysis was conducted to determine the mutated genes that were most related to resistance to treatment. Results. The genes related to the second relapse of patients with high-grade glioma after the use of temozolomide according to Stupp protocol and metronomic dose were PIK3C2B, KIT, ERBB3, and MLH1. Conclusions. Considering the results obtained, we suggest that the mutations in the four genes and the methylation of the gene promoter that codes for MGMT protein could be related to the clinical evolution of patients with high-grade gliomas and its response to treatment with temozolomide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Paramyxoviridae; virulence factor; overlapping genes; protein structure; viral evolutio
Online: 12 January 2023 (08:50:26 CET)
The protein C is a small viral protein encoded in an overlapping frame of the P gene in the sub-family Orthoparamyxovirinae. This protein, expressed by alternative translation initiation, is a virulence factor that regulates viral transcription, replication and production of defective interfering RNA, interferes with the host-cell innate immunity systems and supports assembly of viral particles and budding. We expressed and purified full-length and an N-terminally truncated C protein from Tupaia paramyxovirus (TupV) C protein (genus Narmovirus). We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal part of TupV C protein at a resolution of 2.4 Å and found that it is structurally similar to Sendai virus C protein, suggesting that despite undetectable sequence conservation, these proteins are homologous. We characterized both truncated and full-length proteins by SEC-MALLS and SEC-SAXS and described their solution structures by ensemble models. We established a minireplicon assay for the related Nipah virus (NiV) and showed that TupV C inhibited the expression of NiV minigenome in a concentration-dependent manner as efficiently as NiV C protein. A previous study found that the Orthoparamyxovirinae C proteins former two clusters without detectable sequence similarity, raising the question of whether they were homologous or instead had originated independently. Since TupV C and SeV C are representative of these two clusters, our discovery that they have a similar structure indi-cates that all Orthoparamyxovirine C proteins are homologous. Our results also imply that, strik-ingly, a STAT1-binding site is encoded by exactly the same RNA region of the P/C gene across Paramyxovirinae, but in different reading frames (P or C) depending on which cluster they belong to.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Huntington’s disease; circadian rhythm; clock genes; adult neurogenesis; chemogenetics
Online: 27 September 2022 (04:45:35 CEST)
Huntington’s disease (HD) causes progressive movement disorders and cognitive deficits. Besides, sleep disturbances and emotional distress are prominent clinical signatures of HD. The experimental subjects and HD human brains display altered regenerative plasticity resulting from aberrant neurogenic and nonneurogenic areas. Sleep disorders, emotional disruption, and cognitive deficits have been linked to impaired cell cycle events of neural stem cells (NSC) in neurodegenerative disorders. In a physiological state, circadian clock gene pathways play important roles in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of NSC, whereas the irregular circadian clock pathway is attributed to impairment in the neurogenic process. The recent advancement of chemogenetic-based approaches represents a potential scientific tool to rectify the abnormal circadian clock which may aid in mitigating neurogenic failure in the brain. Notably, GABAergic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the brain plays a key role in the regulation of neuroplasticity and circadian rhythm. Thus, this conceptual review article addresses the potential link between sleep disorder and aberrant neurogenic events in HD and proposes chemogenetic kindling of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) -expressing GABAergic neurons in the brain as a therapeutic strategy for reprogramming the clock gene pathways in mitigating the neurodegenerative failure in HD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Ricefish; Microbiome; Ampicillin; Erythromycin; Immune and Stress-Related Genes
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:05:46 CEST)
Antibiotics have been used in various fields such as livestock farm and fish farm as well as hospital in order to treat diseases caused by bacteria. However, the antibiotics that are not completely decomposed, but remains as residue and discharge to aquatic environment, can cause an imbalance in the gut flora of host, as well as regulate abnormal host gene regulatory system. We investigated the effects of chronic exposure with the low concentrations of erythromycin and ampicillin on gut microbiome and immune and stress-related gene expression using Korea native ricefish (Oryzias latipes). As a result of microbiome analysis, the proportion of Proteobacteria was increased in the ricefish when exposed to erythromycin and ampicillin chronically, whereas the proportion of other bacterial phyla decreased. In addition, the immune and stress-related genes were significantly influenced in the ricefish under the chronic antibiotics exposure. These results show that the internal microbial flora and the host gene expression are susceptible even in the low concentration of chronic antibiotic existing environments. This study provides the importance of the appropriate use of antibiotics dose to maintain the sustainable and healthy aquaculture industry and water ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Systems biology; cervical cancer; prognostic biomarker; differentially expressed genes.
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:25:47 CET)
Nowadays, cervical cancer (CC) is treated as the leading cancer among women throughout the world. Despite effective vaccination and improved surgery and treatment, CC remains its fatality rate about half of the infected populations globally. The major screening biomarkers and therapeutic target identification have now become a global concern. The present study, we have employed systems biology approaches to retrieve the potential biomarkers and pathways from the transcriptomic profiling. Initially, we have identified 76 of each up-regulated and down-regulated gene from a total of 4,643 differentially expressed genes. The up-regulatory genes are mainly concentrating on immune-inflammatory response and the down-regulatory genes are on receptor binding and gamma-glutamyltransferase. The involved pathways associated with these genes were also assessed through pathway enrichment and they were mainly focused on different cancer pathways, immunoresponse, and cell cycle pathways. After the subsequent enrichment of these genes, we have identified 12 hub genes, which play a crucial role in CC. Furthermore, the survival of the hub genes was also assessed, and among them, finally, CXCR4 has identified as one of the most potential differentially expressed gene that might play a vital role to the survival of CC patients. Thus CXCR4 could be used as a prognostic biomarker and development of a drug target for CC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Maize; Prolificacy; Linkage analysis; GWAS; Candidate genes; Ethylene signaling
Online: 11 January 2021 (11:28:54 CET)
For the different harvest targets, the requirement for the prolificacy trait of maize was also different, so prolificacy is of great significance for modern production. Although some QTLs and genes associated with prolificacy in teosinte have been reported, the genetic mechanism of prolificacy in maize has not been fully elucidated. In this study, two RIL populations and GWAS population were used to genetic research of prolificacy trait in maize, with multi-environment. Combine linkage analysis and Genome-wide association study has identified a total of 13 QTLs and 8 significant SNPs. There were two genes related to tissue differentiation in the stable QTL qP9-2, and two significant SNPs corresponding to three genes were in QTL qP5-1 and QTL qP7-1, respectively. Four candidate genes GRMZM2G317262, GRMZM2G317584, GRMZM5G882364 and GRMZM2G141679 were finally screened out by qRT-PCR analysis. Based on the function of candidate genes, ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in the formation of prolificacy in maize. It has deepened our understanding of the formation mechanism of prolificacy and laid a foundation for breeding new varieties with various prolificacy in maize.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Pasteurella multocida; antimicrobial resistance genes; antimicrobial susceptibility patterns; swine
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:47:26 CEST)
Forty-eight Pasteurella multocida isolates were recovered from porcine pneumonic lungs collected in Norwestern Spain (2017- 2019). These isolates were characterized for their minimal inhibition concentrations to twelve antimicrobial agents and for the appearance of eight resistance genes: tetA, tetB, blaROB1, blaTEM, ermA, ermC, mphE and msrE. Relevant resistance percentages were shown to teracyclines, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and tiamulin, thus suggesting that P. multocida isolates were mostly susceptible to amoxicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, marbofloxacin and macrolides. 29.2% of isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. The tetracycline resistance genes (tetA and tetB) were detected in 22.9% of the isolates, but none was positive to both simultaneously; blaROB1 and blaTEM genes were found in one third of isolates but both genes were detected simultaneously in only one isolate. ermC gene was observed in 41.7% of isolates, a percentage that decreased until 22.9% for msrE; finally, ermA was harboured by 16.7% and mphE was not found in any of them. Six clusters were established based on hierarchical clustering analysis on antimicrobial susceptibility for the twelve antimicrobials. Generally, it was unable to foresee the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for each family and the association of each particular isolate inside the clusters established from the presence or absence of the resistance genes analyzed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: MDR typhoid; metal resistant genes; water toxicity; gut microbiome
Online: 20 April 2020 (02:27:07 CEST)
AMR and drug void have caused huge panic today with few thousand death per year. MDR Typhoid was a serious old disease and caused serious health hazard in humen and animals demanding an update on molecular biology of the status on transferable genetic elements. R-plasmids combined in F’-plasmid and the new MDR conjugative plasmids were shown abundant in Sanmonella ranging 70-440kb with similarities. BlaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA, blaNDM mdr genes were abundant in >50 plasmids analyzed and metal resistant gene clusters are predominant in most large plasmids. Among the acetyltransferase all catA1, aacA1 and aac-1b-cr genes were located. Abundant streptomycin phosphotransferases (StrAB) and rarely colistin resistant Mcr-5/9 phosphoethanolamine–lipid A transferase were detected. Altered isomeric dihydropterote synthases (Sul1/2/3) were present giving sulfamethoxazole resistance and dhfr gene frequently associated giving trimethoprim resistance. Metal resistant gene clusters like SilABC (CusABC), PcoAB, RcnA, terABC, and merABCXT etc were found in many Salmonella enterica plasmids. Toxin genes like HipA and virulence genes like spvABD were located in few plasmids increasing virulence and pathogenesis. Drug efflux genes tetA or tetB and OqxB, floR, CmlA were frequent where as QepA and EamA genes were rarely seen. Thus, Salmonella metal resistant genes combined with antibiotic resistant genes has tried to overcome the both toxic antibiotics and metalions causing Typhoid AMR. Such acquisition spreads salmoniasis in the live stocks (pig, cow, chicken) where toxic soil and water dominate increasing chance of MDR typhoid in human.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Nile tilapia; pseudomonas; antibiotic resistance; biofilm formation; virulence genes
Online: 24 November 2019 (14:11:40 CET)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) produces a suite of virulence factors that are coordinated by Quorum Sensing (QS) contributing to its disease-causing ability in aquaculture. The present study is first of its kind to obtain information regarding the presence and distribution of five QS genes, three virulence genes viz: lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR, rhlAB, toxA, aprA and plcH and seven of the Extended-spectrum βlactamases (blaVEB, blaPER, blaTEM,, blaSHV, blaCTX-M1, blaCTX-M2 and blaCTX-M3) of Pseudomonas species isolated from fish meat by direct PCR. Bacterial identification was based mainly on conventional biochemical techniques using the Vitek 2, automated system. Phenotypic sensitivity of antibiotics was established by the agar disc diffusion technique through 16 various antimicrobial drugs. Quantification of their in vitro production of numerous virulence genes outside the cell that are QS dependent namely, pyocyanin, elastase, alkaline protease, biofilm and cytotoxicity of Vero cell was as well executed. Fifteen genes demonstrated an enormous variety in their association. The total number of Pseudomonas species isolates were 30/100 to be identified by the API 20NE system as P. aeruginosa 12/30 (40%), P. fluorescens 8/30 (27%), P. putida 6/30 (20%) and P. alkylphenolia 4/30 (13%). The outcomes of this study have great significance for the strategic designation of QS quenching.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oral cancer; Oropharyngeal cancer; Tumor-suppressor genes; Promoter hypermethylation
Online: 19 March 2019 (12:56:24 CET)
Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by DNA promoter hypermethylation is an earlyevent in carcinogenesis; Hence TSGs may serve as early tumor biomarkers. We determinedthe promoter methylation levels of p16INK4a, RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs in salivary DNA from oral cancer (OC), and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients, using methylation specific PCR coupled with densitometry analysis. We assessed the association between DNA methylation of individual TSGs with OC and OPC risk factors. We evaluated the performance and the clinical validity of this quadruple methylation marker panel in discriminating OC and OPC patients from healthy controls using CombiROC web tool. Our study reported that RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs were significantly hypermethylated in OC and OPC cases compared to healthy controls. We found that DNA methylation levels of TSGs were significantly augmented by smoking, alcohol use and betel quid chewing by indicating that the fact that frequent exposure to risk factors may drive oral and oropharyngeal carcinogenesis through TSG promoter hypermethylation. Also, this quadruple-methylation marker panel of p16INK4a, RASSF1A, TIMP3 and PCQAP/MED15 TSGs demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in the early detection of OC at 91.7% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity, and OPC at 99.8% sensitivity and 92.1% specificity, from healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0274.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: rice bran; rice genes; rice cultivars; metabolic pathway; metabolomics
Online: 15 September 2018 (19:34:43 CEST)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics and resulted in 378-430 metabolites. Gambiaka cultivar had the highest number and Njavara had the lowest number of metabolites. The 71 rice bran compounds of significant variation by cultivar included 21 amino acids, seven carbohydrates, two metabolites from cofactors and vitamins, 33 lipids, six nucleotides, and two secondary metabolites. Tryptophan, -ketoglutarate, γ-tocopherol/β-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol are example bran metabolites with extensive cultivar variation and genetic information. 34 rice bran components that varied between cultivars linked to 535 putative biosynthetic genes using to the OryzaCyc 4.0, Plant Metabolic Network database. Rice genes responsible for bran composition with animal and human health importance is available for rice breeding programs to utilize in crop improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, meat, raw milk, antibiotics; antibiotic resistance genes
Online: 15 August 2018 (13:58:11 CEST)
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occasionally threatens the life of the host as a persistent pathogen even though it is normal flora of humans and animals. We characterized drug resistance in S. aureus isolated from animal carcasses and milk samples from the abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province. Methods: A 1000 meat swab samples and 200 raw milk samples were collected from selected abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using biochemical tests and confirmed by molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test against 14 different antibiotics was performed against all isolates. Antibiotic resistance genes were also detected. Results: Of the 1200 samples collected, 134 (11.2%) samples were positive for S. aureus. Resistance ranged from 71.6% for penicillin G to 39.2% for tetracycline. Resistance gene (blaZ) was detected in 13 (14.9%), while msrA was found in 31 (52.5%) of S. aureus isolates. Conclusions: The present result shows the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the dairy farms and abattoirs in the Eastern Cape. Therefore, this implies that the organism may rapidly spread through food and pose serious public health risk
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1565.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: goji berry; breeding; plant resistance; Whole Genome Sequencing; BODYGUARD genes.
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:17:31 CET)
Goji berries, long valued in Chinese medicine and cuisine for their wide range of medicinal benefits, are considered a 'superfruit' and functional food. Out of the nearly 100 Lycium species known for their genetic diversity, L. barbarum and L. chinense currently dominate the market. Due to increasing market demand and concerns about food safety and sustainability, Europe and the Americas are expanding the local goji berry production, using as starting material plants originated from China. European breeding programs are focusing on Lycium to develop varieties adapted to local conditions, especially in response to climate change. By 2023, Romania registered seven goji berry varieties, both from L. barbarum and L. chinense species, without incorporating local germplasm. Advanced genomic studies, including NGS sequencing of five cultivated and three wild goji berry plant genomes, have been conducted to analyse their genetic variation, with a particular focus on the BODYGUARD 3 and 4 genes. This research uncovered significant differences between cultivated and wild genotypes, both in the entire genome and specifically in the BODYGUARD genes, providing crucial insights for goji berry breeders to support the development of goji berry cultivation in Romania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Bacterial blight; Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; molecular characterization; resistance genes
Online: 19 September 2023 (11:00:55 CEST)
In Benin, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causing bacterial blight (BLB) was first described in 2013 on wild rice Oryza longistaminata. No studies have been conducted on Beninese Xoo strains and resistant rice varieties. The aim of this study is to check whether Xoo has already spread to cultivated varieties and to screen some rice accessions for the main resistance genes detection. To achieve this aim, rice leaves showing typical BLB symptoms were collected from various rice fields in Benin and analyzed by PCR to identify Xoo-specific sequences. In addition, seventy-five rice accessions were examined to identify Xoo resistance genes. The results showed that Xanthomonas oryzae (Xo) had been identified in Banikouara and Malanville. In addition, Sphingomonas sp was detected in several rice fields. A Xo-Sphingomonas Sp co-infection was also noted. 47 of 75 rice accessions examined (62.66%) carried Xoo resistance genes with 3 (4%) and 40 (53.33%) of xa5 and Xa21 respectively. None of the accessions had neither Xa7 nor Xa13 resistance genes. Three accessions had both xa5 and Xa21 genes. In addition, the rice isogenic lines IRBB60 and IRBB21used as positive controls, were found to be susceptible. These results indicate that Xo has evolved from a wild rice to cultivated varieties in northern Benin. Consequently, a varietal improvement program must be implemented with varieties having resistance genes to prevent a BLB pandemic in Benin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: FALD; hepatocellular carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; NGS; FGFRs genes; GNAS and TMB
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:13:28 CEST)
Purpose: To analyze the genetic and molecular profile of liver nodules in the context of Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) with the aim of identifying possible biomarkers for predictive outcome and personalized therapy. Methods: this retrospective monocentric study included 9 patients who developed FALD in the context of congestive cirrhosis:1 regenerative nodular hyperplasia, 2 hepatic adenomas (HA) and 4 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 1 fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) and 1 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The lesions were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry (b-catenin, glypican 3, glutamine synthetase and SOX9). To study the molecular profile of neoplastic FALD, targeted NGS was performed on DNA and RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded neoplastic liver tissue of 1 HA, 2 HCCs, 1 FLC and 1 ICC. Results: Molecular analysis showed 3 patients with copy number alteration involving FGFR3, and one patient with a hotspot mutation on CTNNB1 and NRAS genes. All 5 patients showed a tumor mutational burden ranging from low to intermediate. Variants of unknown significance in GNAS were present in 2 HCC and 1 ICC. The single FLC had a DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion. Conclusions: The molecular results seem to be consistent with a peculiar molecular profile of the malignant FALD which may be useful for new target therapies for HCC/ICC in FALD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Pyeloureteric junction; Pyeloureteric junction obstruction; Gene expression; Fibrosis related genes
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:08:25 CEST)
Introduction: congenital ureteral stenosis is one of the leading causes of impaired urinary drainage and subsequent dilatation of urinary collecting system, known as hydronephrosis or ureterohy-dronephrosis. Mechanism that leads to obstruction is not clearly known. Multiple studies in rat models have shown increased angiotensin 11 and TGFβ levels in obstructed ureteral tissue. The aim of the study is to investigate expression of fibrosis related genes in obstructive and normal ureteral tissue. Material and methods: it is a monocentric study in which nineteen patients were selected prospec-tively. 17 patients of which underwent Hynes-Anderson pyeloplasty due to the PUJO, 2 patients underwent ureteroneocystostomy due to ureterovesical junction obstruction (UVJO) and 6 patients were chosen for control group: 5 underwent nephrectomies due to the kidney tumor and 1- upper pole heminephrectomy due to the duplex kidney with normal pyeloureteric junctions in all. Tissue RNA was chemically extracted after freezing the biopsy samples in liquid nitrogen, with cDNA synthesis performed immediately after nucleic acid isolation. qPCR to evaluate the relative expres-sion of Tgfb1, Mmp1, Timp1, Pai1, Ctgf and Vegfa was performed. Expression levels of Gapdh and Gpi genes (geometric average) were used to calculate the relative expression of the investigated genes. Outliers were removed prior to calculating confidence intervals for the experimental groups, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed to determine statistical significance of the differences. Results: significant differences between healthy and stenotic tissue samples in Ctgf gene expression levels were observed, with the samples from afflicted tissue showing lower expression. No statistical difference in expression levels of Tgfb1, Timp1, Vegfa, Mmp1, Pai1 was found. Discussion and conclusions: These findings suggest that tissue fibrosis similar to other tissues and organs is not the leading cause of stenosis, at least at the moment of surgery. Decreased CTGF ex-pression is indicative of developmental origin of obstruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Gastric cancer; Blood-based miRNAs; Differentially expressed genes; Biomarkers; Bioinformatics
Online: 8 August 2023 (10:14:59 CEST)
In order to provide a new direction for the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer, the differentially expressed blood-based miRNAs in gastric carcinoma were obtained and analyzed from the datasets GSE113486, GSE112264 and GSE113740 by the SangerBox, the miRNA - target genes prediction, GO and KEGG functional enrichment analyses with DAVID 6.8, and the STRING database with Cytoscape, respectively. The correlation between the key miRNAs expression and the prognosis and diagnostic value of gastric cancer patients were detected by survival prognosis and ROC curve. QRT-PCR was used to detect the possible key miRNAs expression in human blood species. The dataset GSE108307 which shows the miRNAs affected by H. pylori infection was analyzed by GEO2R. The expression level of CagA and the clinically used gastric cancer markers were detected in human blood species for contrast. Five key blood-based miRNAs were determined, including hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-125a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-3p, hsa-miR-4276, and hsa-miR-575.The detection in human blood species as well as the cross analysis with H. pylori infection and clinically used markers expression suggested the importance and efficacy of the specific miRNAs in the early diagnosis and monitoring of gastric carcinoma. The study identified potential novel blood miRNA biomarkers of gastric cancer by bioinformatics and human blood species detection, which may give a new possibility of the important biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0465.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: lleles; Brain; Disease; Genes; Gastrointestinal Tract; Mutations; Epigenetics; Evolution; Phenotypes
Online: 4 August 2023 (19:17:21 CEST)
Complex interactions between gene variants and environmental risk factors underlie the pathophysiological pathways in major psychiatric disorders. Autism Spectrum Disorder is a psychiatric condition in which susceptible alleles along with epigenetic memories contribute to the mutational landscape of the ailing brain. The present work reviews recent evolutionary, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms potentially linked to the etiology of autism. First, we present a clinical vignette to describe clusters of maladaptive behaviors frequently diagnosed in autistic patients. Next, we microdissect brain regions pertinent to the nosology of autism as well as cell networks from the bilateral body plan. Lastly, we catalog a number of pathogenic environments associated with disease risk factors. This set of perspectives provides emerging insights into the dynamic interplay between epigenetic and environmental variation in the development of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dawn; melatonin; clock genes; metabolic health; glucose control; dinner; cortisol
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:36:20 CEST)
Achieving synchronization between the central and peripheral body clocks is essential for ensuring optimal metabolic function. Meal timing is an emerging field of research that investigates the influence of eating patterns on our circadian rhythm, metabolism, and overall health. This narrative review examines the relationship between meal timing, circadian rhythm, clock genes, circadian hormones, and metabolic function. It analyzes existing literature and experimental data to explore the connection between mealtime, circadian rhythms, and metabolic processes. The available evidence highlights the importance of aligning mealtime with the body’s natural rhythms to promote metabolic health and prevent metabolic disorders. Specifically, studies show that consuming meals later in the day is associated with a elevated prevalence of metabolic disorders, while early time-restricted eating, such as having an early breakfast and an earlier dinner, improves levels of glucose in the blood and substrate oxidation. Circadian hormones, including cortisol and melatonin, interact with mealtimes and play vital roles in regulating metabolic processes. Cortisol, aligned with dawn in diurnal mammals, activates energy reserves, stimulates appetite, influences clock gene expression, and synchronizes peripheral clocks. Consuming meals during periods of elevated melatonin levels, specifically during the circadian night, has been correlated with potential implications for glucose tolerance. Understanding the mechanisms of central and peripheral clock synchronization, including genetics, interactions with chronotype, sleep duration, and hormonal changes, provides valuable insights for optimizing dietary strategies and timing. This knowledge contributes to improved overall health and well-being by aligning mealtime with the body’s natural circadian rhythm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1530.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stresses; Molecular breeding; Machine learning; Responsive genes; Adapted crops
Online: 22 May 2023 (15:29:12 CEST)
Plants have a natural protective process of altering their genetic molecules in response to changing environments. To uncover the genetic potential of plants, it is crucial to understand how they adapt to adverse conditions by analyzing their genetic molecules. In the study, we focused on understanding the responsive genes of tomatoes under drought conditions. We analyzed RNASeq data from different Tomato genotypes, tissue types, and different drought durations. We used a time series scale to identify early and late drought-responsive gene modules and applied a machine learning method to identify the best responsive genes. We found six candidate genes of Tomato (ASCT, FLA2, BAG5, DCL2b, NFP7.3, and ADC1) that were responsive to drought. We further constructed their protein-protein interaction network to identify their potential interactors and found them drought responsive proteins. The candidate genes can help to explore the adaptation of tomato plants under drought conditions. The identification of these candidate genes and modules can have far-reaching implications for molecular breeding and genome editing in Tomato, providing insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie drought adaptation. This research underscores the importance of the genetic basis of plant adaptation, particularly in changing climates and growing populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA-Seq; Vitamin K; Comorbidities; Differential Expressed Genes; Variant analysis
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:13:29 CEST)
Systems genetics is key for integrating a large number of variants associated with diseases. Vitamin K (VK) is one of the scarcely studied conditions in lieu of ascertaining either the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) or variants in an individual subpopulation of diseased phenotypes associated with VK, viz. myocardial infarction, renal failure, prostate cancer, thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulation related diseases to name a few. In this work, we have screened characteristic DEGs common to three VK-related diseases, viz. myocardial infarction, renal failure and prostate cancer and asked whether or not any DEGs in addition to pathogenic variants are common to these conditions. We attempt to bridge the gap in finding characteristic biomarkers and discuss the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the biogenesis of VK deficiencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Schizophrenia; cell types proportions; differential expression genes; functional pathways; CIBERSORTx
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:05 CEST)
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental disorder that may result in hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking. How each cell type in the brain contributes to SCZ occurrence is still unclear. Here, we leveraged the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bulk RNA-seq data, then used the RNA-seq deconvolution algorithm CIBERSORTx to generate SCZ brain single-cell RNA-seq data for a comprehensive analysis to understand SCZ-associated brain cell types and gene expression changes. Firstly, we observed that the proportions of brain cell types in SCZ differed from normal samples. Among these cell types, astrocyte, pericyte, and PAX6 cells were found to have a higher proportion in SCZ patients (astrocyte: SCZ = 0.163, Control = 0.145, P.adj = 4.9×10-4; pericyte: SCZ = 0.057, Control = 0.066, P.adj = 1.1×10-4; PAX6 : SCZ = 0.014, Control = 0.011, P.adj = 0.014), while the L5/6_IT_CAR3 cells and LAMP5 cells are the exact opposite (L5/6_IT_Car3 : SCZ = 0.102, Control = 0.108, P.adj = 0.016; LAMP5 : SCZ = 0.057, Control = 0.066, P.adj = 2.2×10-6). Next, we investigated gene expression in cell types and functional pathways in SCZ. We observed chemical synaptic transmission dysregulation in two types of GABAergic neurons (PVALB and LAMP5), and immune reaction involvement in GABAergic neurons (SST) and non-neuronal cell types (endothelial and oligodendrocyte). Furthermore, we observed that some differential expression genes from bulk RNA-seq displayed cell-type-specific abnormal in the expression of molecules in SCZ. Finally, the cell types with the SCZ-related transcriptomic changes could be considered to belong to the same module since we observed two major similar coordinated transcriptomic changes across these cell types. Together, our results offer novel insights into cellular heterogeneity and the molecular mechanisms underlying SCZ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0320.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Boechera; Brassicaceae; CENH3; APOLLO; apomixis associated genes; cell division; apomeiosis
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:40:57 CET)
Apomictic plants (reproducing via asexual seeds), unlike sexual individuals, avoid meiosis and egg cell fertilization. Consequently, apomixis is very important for fixing maternal genotypes in the next plant generations. Despite the progress in the study of apomixis, molecular and genetic regulation of the latter remains poorly understood. So far APOLLO (Aspartate Glutamate Aspartate Aspartate histidine exonuclease) is one of the very few described genes associated with apomixis in Boechera species. The centromere-specific histone H3 variant encoded by CENH3 gene is essential for cell division. Mutations in CENH3 disrupt chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis since the attachment of spindle microtubules to a mutated form of the CENH3 histone fails. This paper presents in silico characteristic of APOLLO and CENH3 genes, which may affect apomixis. Also, we characterize the structure of CENH3, study expression levels of APOLLO and CENH3 in gynoecium/siliques of the natural diploid apomictic and sexual Boechera species at the stages of before and after fertilization. While CENH3 was a single copy gene in all Boechera species, the APOLLO gene have several polymorphic alleles associated with sexual and apomictic reproduction in the Boechera genera. Expression of the APOLLO apo-allele during meiosis was upregulated in gynoecium of apomict B. divaricarpa downregulating after meiosis until 4th day after pollination (DAP). On the 5th DAP, expression in apomictic siliques increased again. In sexual B. stricta gynoecium and siliques APOLLO apo-allele did not express. Expression of the APOLLO sex-allele during and after meiosis in gynoecium of sexual plants was several times higher than that in apomictic gynoecium. However, after pollination the sex-allele was downregulated in sexual siliques to the level of apomicts and increased sharply on the 5th DAP, while in apomictic siliques it almost did not express. At the meiotic stage, the expression level of CENH3 in the gynoecium of apomicts was two times lower than that of the sexual Boechera, decreasing in both species after meiosis and keep remaining very low in siliques of both species for several days after artificial pollination until the 4th DAP, when the expression level raised in sexual B. stricta siliques exceeding 5 times the level in apomictic B. divaricarpa siliques. We also discuss polymorphism and phylogeny of the APOLLO and CENH3 genes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0348.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli; E. coli pathotypes; Virulence factor genes
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:16:59 CEST)
Abstract: Escherichia coli are remarkably versatile microorganisms and important members of the normal intestinal microbiota of humans and animals. This harmless commensal organism can acquire a mixture of comprehensive mobile genetic elements that contain genes encoding viru-lence factors, becoming an emerging human pathogen capable of causing a broad spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Nine definite enteric E. coli pathotypes have been well characterized, causing diseases ranging from various gastrointestinal disorders to urinary tract infections. These pathotypes employ many virulence factors and effectors subverting the func-tions of host cells to mediate its virulence and pathogenesis. This review summarizes new de-velopments in our understanding of diverse virulence factors associated encoding genes used by different pathotypes of enteric pathogenic E. coli to cause intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, RNA-seq, prostate cancer, biomarkers, RNA genes
Online: 9 February 2021 (10:26:47 CET)
Prostate cancer (Pca) is a highly heterogeneous disease and the second more common tumor in males. Molecular and genetic profiles have been used to identify subtypes and guide therapeutic intervention. However, roughly 26% of primary Pca are driven by unknown molecular lesions. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and custom RNAseq-data normalization to identify a gene expression signature which segregates primary PRAD from normal tissues. This Core-Expression Signature (PRAD-CES) includes 33 genes and accounts for 39% of data complexity along the PC1-cancer axis. The PRAD-CES is populated by protein-coding (AMACR, TP63, HPN) and RNA-genes (PCA3, ARLN1) sparsely found in previous studies, validated/predicted biomarkers (HOXC6, TDRD1, DLX1), and/or cancer drivers (PCA3, ARLN1, PCAT-14). Of note, the PRAD-CES also comprises six over-expressed LncRNAs without previous Pca association, four of them potentially modulating driver’s genes TMPRSS2, PRUNE2 and AMACR. Overall, our PCA capture 57% of data complexity within PC1-3. GO enrichment and correlation analysis involving major clinical features (i.e., Gleason Score, AR Score, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion and Tumor Cellularity) suggest that PC2 and PC3 gene signatures might describe more aggressive and inflammation-prone transitional forms of PRAD. Of note, surfaced genes may entail novel prognostic biomarkers and molecular alterations to intervene. Particularly, our work uncovered RNA genes with appealing implications on Pca biology and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0472.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: BLB Resistance; Xa genes; Xoo; Molecular characterization; Rice; LRR; S_TKc
Online: 23 October 2020 (09:13:39 CEST)
Globally, rice is utilized as staple food, belongs to the family Poaceae. From the past few decades under variable climate conditions, it greatly affected by the bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease caused by a bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Scientists studied causes of the disease and found more than 61 isolates of Xoo. About 39 Xa genes were noted that cause race specifically resistance either individually or in pairs against Xoo. The canvas on the characterization of these genes is still unrevealed. In this study, amino acid sequences of Xa15, Xa19, Xa20 and Xa21 were mined and used for motif-domain identification, characterization, and comparative analysis. It includes screening of physical and chemical characteristics, sequence comparison to find sequence similarity between them and their phylogenetic comparison with other Xa genes and other species based upon LRR and S_TKc domains to find evolutionary relationship among them. The comparison-based modeling was performed and assessed by different tools to gain better understanding and structural evaluation. The results showed identified domains are specific in function, each domain involved in resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses through regulating different cellular processes. This study also revealed high similarity (>98% sequence identity) between these genes and encode a similar leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase like protein. It will optimize the breeding programs as it will be useful for the selection of effective genes to produce resistance in rice varieties against the specific strains of Xoo that will be more effective against BLB than the other Xa genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0699.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: SVM; MRMR; Bootstrap; Genes; Gene Expression; Biological Relevance; Subject Classification
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:09:52 CEST)
Selection of biologically relevant genes from high dimensional expression data is a key research problem in gene expression genomics. Most of the available gene selection methods are either based on relevancy or redundancy measure, which are usually adjudged through post selection classification accuracy. Through these methods the ranking of genes was done on a single high-dimensional expression data, which leads to the selection of spuriously associated and redundant genes. Hence, we developed a statistical approach through combining Support Vector Machine with Maximum Relevance and Minimum Redundancy under a sound statistical setup for the selection of biologically relevant genes. Here, the genes are selected through statistical significance values computed using a non-parametric test statistic under a bootstrap based subject sampling model. Further, a systematic and rigorous evaluation of the proposed approach with nine existing competitive methods was carried on six different real crop gene expression datasets. This performance analysis was carried out under three comparison settings, i.e. subject classification, biological relevant criteria based on quantitative trait loci, and gene ontology. Our analytical results showed that the proposed approach selects genes that are more biologically relevant as compared to the existing methods. Moreover, the proposed approach was also found to be better with respect to the competitive existing methods. The proposed statistical approach provides a framework for combining filter, and wrapper methods of gene selection.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0655.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: urinary tract infections; multi-drug resistance; biofilm; virulence genes; WGS
Online: 27 September 2020 (02:40:41 CEST)
Background: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). They are often multidrug-resistant (MDR), making them challenging to treat. Additionally, virulence mechanisms as biofilm formation are associated with persistent UTIs. Aims: To reveal a possible association between patients’ risk factors and UTIs caused by MDR or biofilm-forming ExPECs and characterize ExPECs causing asymptomatic bacteriuria, community- (CA), or hospital-acquired (HA) UTIs in hospitalized patients in Brazil. Methods: Bacterial DNA was extracted from the urine of 63 hospitalized patients and sequenced using short-read sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using VITEK-2, and the biofilm-forming, adhesion, and invasion abilities were quantitatively assessed. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates were high, and the majority of UTIs were complicated CA-UTIs. Most MDR- and ESBL-producing E. coli isolates belonged to high-risk lineages and were associated with UTIs in patients with comorbidities and over 60 years of age. The mortality rate of patients infected with MDR-isolates was higher than of those infected with non-MDR isolates. Most isolates were biofilm-forming, but no association with patients’ risk factors was found. Conclusions: Complicated UTIs caused by MDR- and biofilm-forming bacteria are frequently found in hospitalized patients in Brazil suffering from a UTI and are associated with high-risk lineages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: cis-regulatory element; data mining; NBS-LRR resistance genes; Zucchini
Online: 5 January 2020 (17:22:10 CET)
Although Cucurbita pepo is one of the most variable species of the plant kingdom, Zucchini morphotype has undergone intensive breeding that has led to a narrow genetic base making the crop vulnerable to pest and diseases. This vulnerability makes the knowledge of resistance genes of utmost importance. In this study, a data mining search of Zucchini summer squash genome database was conducted to identify and annotate members of the NBS-encoding gene family. In order to characterize the retrieved genes in detail, they have been studied in the bases of phylogenetic relationships, structural diversity, conserved protein motifs, gene duplications and promoter region analysis. Our study shows that the NBS-encoding gene family is relatively small in Zucchini (34 members, which are separated into non-TIR- and TIR-NBS-LRR subfamilies) with a significantly lower number of R-genes than in other species. Duplications have not played a major role in the expansion of this type of genes in C. pepo. Among the cis-regulatory elements presented in these sequences, six motifs are over-represented. These elements were reported to be involved in pathogens or plant stress induced responses. These results will contribute to the identification, isolation and characterization of candidate R-genes, thereby providing insight into NBS gene family evolution in the species.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; strigolactones; biosynthesis and signaling genes; expression patterns; salt stress
Online: 3 October 2019 (14:01:36 CEST)
Strigolactones (SLs) are a novel emerging plant hormones, which play important roles in regulating plant organ development and environmental stress tolerance. Even though the SL related genes have been identified and well characterized in some plants. The information of SL related genes in soybean is not fully established yet, especially in response to salt stress. In this study, we identified nine SL biosynthesis genes: two D27, two CCD7, two CCD8, and three MAX1, and seven SL signaling genes: two D14, two MAX2 and three D53 in soybean genome. We found that SL biosynthesis and signaling genes are conserved during evolution in different species. Syntenic analysis of these genes revealed their location on nine chromosomes as well as existence of ten pairs of duplication genes. Moreover, plant hormone and stress-responsive elements were identified in the promoter regions of SL biosynthesis and signaling genes. By using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we confirmed that SL genes have different tissue expression in roots, stems and leaves. Further, we also explored the expression profiles of SL biosynthesis and signaling genes under salt stress. These results suggested that SL signaling genes may play important regulatory roles in response to salt stress. In conclusion, we identified and provided valuable information on the soybean SL biosynthesis and signaling genes, and established a foundation for further functional analysis of soybean SL related genes in response to salt stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hox genes, Retinoids, BMP, Gastrulation, Xenopus, Timing, Time Space Translation
Online: 28 March 2019 (10:33:43 CET)
The vertebrate anterior-posterior (A-P) body axis arises due to time space translation (TST). BMP dependent Hox temporal collinearity in early embryonic mesoderm generates the initial vertebrate axial pattern because the Hox codes associated with sequential times are frozen sequentially by BMP inhibiting signals from the embryonic organiser or node. There are three reasons why it is now opportune to review TST. 1/ It has become clear that this mechanism is highly relevant for current and emergent directions in medicine. Making a particular tailored stem cell or culturing a specific organoid in vitro both depend on it. 2/ This unexpected and perhaps unlikely sounding mechanism has recently been thoroughly validated. 8 recent primary publications from 6 major groups confirm that TST is the mechanism for primary axial patterning in the 4 best investigated vertebrate embryos. 3/ Its mechanism is now becoming clear. Previous publications propose it involves Hox regulation of cell movement during gastrulation or sequential stabilisation of Hox codes by anti BMP as above. Neither of these processes works alone but together they amount to a very convincing mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: injury; soccer; genetics; ankle injuries; knee injuries; dna testing; genes
Online: 29 January 2018 (04:13:08 CET)
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0086.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: arsenic pollution; differential display; genes; resistance; rice crop; soil contamination
Online: 22 June 2017 (05:16:08 CEST)
The main objective of the present study was to investigate arsenate [As (V)] resistance genes in rice cultivars grown in arsenic contaminated Egyptian soil in order to genetically induce resistance against arsenic in the local rice varieties as well as defining contaminated rice grains and/or soil. Three local rice cultivars; Sakha 102-104 were cultivated on modified Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MS medium) containing elevated concentrations of arsenate (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/l). The three varieties showed different resistant attitudes against arsenate with Sakha 104 being the most resistant. Extracted messenger RNA (mRNA) from treated and untreated Sakha 104 plantlets was scanned using differential display to demonstrate the arsenate resistant genes using three different arbitrary primers. About 100 different RNAs with (1500 bp - 50 bp) were obtained from which seven were up-regulated genes, subjected to DNA cloning using TOPO TA system and the selected clones were sequenced. The sequence analysis described four genes out of the seven namely disease resistance protein RPM1, Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-1-like, CwfJ family protein and outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA while the other three genes were hypothetical proteins. It is concluded the four induced genes in the resistant rice cultivar considered as a direct response to arsenic soil pollution. Genes detected in the present study can be used as geno-sensors for rice grains and soil contamination with As (V). Moreover, local rice cultivars may be genetically modified with such genes to induce high resistance and to overcome arsenic soil pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0733.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: liver; intestine-liver axis; innate immune genes; comparative genomics; IL-2
Online: 12 October 2023 (02:30:26 CEST)
The liver is not only a digestive gland, but also an immune tissue that receives a double infusion from the hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein. Receiving 80% of its blood supply from the intestine through the hepatic portal vein system, the liver is enriched with a large number of innate immune cells, which carry out the process of immune response by detecting pathogens entering the organism through the intestine. The intestine and liver communicate extensively through the bile ducts, portal vein and the somatic circulation, a bidirectional communication known as the intestinal-liver axis. The mammalian gut is considered an important microbial ecosystem. The interplay between the natural immune system and microbes coordinates the physiology of the whole organism, and in specific mammalian lineages, there is a dependency between the host and its associated microbes. To this end, we explored the regulatory mechanisms of natural immunity genes at the genome-wide level. Based on comparative genomics, 1473 bovine natural immunity genes were obtained by collecting the latest reports of human natural immunity genes and updated bovine genomic data for comparison, and a bovine natural immunity gene database was initially constructed to screen and match calf liver natural immunity differential genes mainly affected by the phylum Mimosoidea and the phylum Thick-walled Bacteria, and 16 differentially expressed natural immunity genes were obtained. In addition, the results of IPA analysis indicated that the upstream factor IL-2 initiated the PI3K/AKt/mTOR, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and JAK/STAT5 pathway, leading to the liver's involvement in gut microbial immune regulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0392.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wheat dwarf virus; WDV; resistance; mastrevirus; resistance genes; geminiviridae; resistance breeding
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:15:48 CEST)
Wheat dwarf disease (WDD) is an important disease of monocotyledonous species, including economically important cereals. The causative pathogen, the wheat dwarf virus (WDV), is a monopartite Mastrevirus that has a circular single-stranded (ss)DNA genome and is transmitted persistently and propagatively mainly by the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus. The disease can induce high yield losses in many European countries in a range of 20-100%. Due to climate change the periods of vector activity increased and the vectors spread to new habitats, leading to an increased importance of WDV in large parts of Europe. In the light of integrated pest management approaches cultivation practices and the use of resistant/tolerant host plants are currently the only effective methods for controlling WDV. To date, there is limited knowledge of the pathosystem and epidemiology of the disease. The few sources of genetic tolerance, indicate the need for further research. Considering the economic importance of the disease, and its likely increasing relevance in the coming decades, this review was prepared to compile and update knowledge on aspects of WDV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1794.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA methylation; cancer associated genes; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:33:03 CEST)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) takes the sixth place among the most common cancers in the world. Abnormal methylation can be one of the reasons for this cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA promotor methylation status of cancer-associated genes (ATM, APC, CDO1, RB1, TP53, WIF1) in patients with HNSCC. Bisulfite Conversion and Methylation-Sensitive High-Resolution Melting was used for analysis of the DNA methylation level of normal and tumor tissues in 44 patients. There were significant differences in DNA methylation level between patient’s tumor and normal tissues for CDO1 and WIF1 genes in all subjects and subgroups (p<0.05). In T3 subgroup there was significant correlation between CDO1 gene methylation and age in the normal tissue. The same correlation was detected also for the WIF1 gene methylation in tumor tissue samples in the subgroup with T3 and in normal tissue samples in the subgroup with T4 (p<0,05). In all genes no significant differences were found between the subgroups (T2, T3, T4 stage, primary/recurrent lesion, non-keratinizing/keratinizing SCC, age before/ after 50, smokers/non-smokers) of the patients. Thus, changes in the expression of the CDO1 and WIF1 genes can affect mechanisms of the occurrence and development of HNSCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ABA-related genes; drought stress; epigenetics; euchromatic histone modifications; Hordeum vulgare
Online: 17 July 2023 (04:07:59 CEST)
Plants respond to drought by major reprogramming of gene expression enabling the plant to survive this threatening environmental condition. One major upstream signal inducing this multifaceted process is the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). In this report, we investigate the drought response in barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, cv. Morex) at both epigenome and transcriptome levels. Leaves of barley plants after 10 days of drought treatment, when soil water content was decreased by about 40%, were compared to well-watered controls. Due to the drought treatment, chlorophyll content and photosystem II-efficiency were decreased by about 10% and some known drought-related genes were already induced. Global ChIPseq analyses were used to identify genes where histones 3 associated with promoter or gene body were modified with euchromatic K4 trimethylation or K9 acetylation during drought. Using stringent exclusion criteria, 129 genes loaded with H3K4me3 and 2008 genes loaded with H3K9ac in response to drought were identified, indicating that H3K9 acetylation reacts to drought more sensitive than H3K4 trimethylation. Comparison with differentially expressed genes enabled to identify those genes, which are loaded with the euchromatic marks and are induced in response to the drought treatment. The results show that a major part of these genes is involved in ABA-signaling and related pathways. Intriguingly, two members of the protein phosphatase 2C family (PP2Cs), which are involved in the central regulatory machinery of ABA signaling, were also identified by this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Water channel; Abiotic stresses; Wheat genes; Post-translation modification; Gene expression
Online: 15 December 2022 (10:07:52 CET)
During the response of plants to adverse stresses, aquaporin (AQP) plays a prominent role in membrane water transport based on received upstream signals. In addition, they have various physical parts for dealing with environmental stresses. Due to the importance of the AQP gene family, studies have been conducted investigating the function and regulatory system of these genes. However, many of their molecular aspects are still unknown. This study aims to carry out a genomic-wide investigation of the AQP gene family in durum wheat using bioinformatics tools and to investigate the expression patterns of some members in response to salt stress. Our results showed that there are 80 TtAQP genes in durum wheat, which are classified into four main groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Many duplications were observed between the members of the TtAQP gene family, and high diversity in response to post-translational modifications was observed between TtAQP family members. The expression pattern of TtAQP genes disclosed that these genes are primarily upregulated in response to salt stress. Besides, qPCR data revealed that TtAQPs are more induced in delayed responses to salinity stress. Overall, our findings illustrate that TtAQP members are diverse in terms of their structure, regulatory systems and expression levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0355.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: testosterone; estrogen; cyprotenone acetate; masculinizing; feminizing; cytochrome P450; sex-specific genes
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:10:00 CET)
Transgender (TG) describes individuals whose gender identity differs from the social norms. Some TG people undergo gender-affirming hormone therapy (HT) and may be considered as a sub-group of population susceptible to environmental contaminants for their targets and modes of action. Aim of the work is to set appropriate HT doses and identify specific biomarkers to implement TG animal models. Four adult rats/group/sex are subcutaneously exposed to 3 doses of HT (plus control) selected starting from available data. Demasculinizing-feminizing model (dMF): β-estradiol plus cyproterone acetate: 0.09+0.33, 0.09+0.93 and 0.18+0.33 mg, 5 times/week. Defeminizing-masculinizing model (dFM): testosterone 0.45, 0.95 and 2.05 mg, 2 times/week. Clitoral gain and sperm count, histophatological analysis of reproductive organs and liver, hormone serum levels and gene expression of sex-dimorphic CYP450 are evaluated. In dMF model, the selected doses, leading to T serum levels at the range of the corresponding cisgender, induced strong general toxicity and cannot be used in long-term studies. In dFM model, 0.45 mg of testosterone represents the correct dose. In addition, the endpoints selected are considered suitable and reliable to implement the animal model. The sex-specific CYP expression is a suita-ble biomarker to set proper (de)masculinizing/(de)feminizing HT and to implement TG animal models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Small RNA sequencing; miRNAs; Target prediction; Chemosensory-associated genes; Apolygus lucorum
Online: 18 February 2022 (10:01:58 CET)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which function as regulators of gene expression and contribute in numerous physiological processes. However, little is known referring to miRNAs function in insect chemosensation. In the current study, nine small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the antennae of nymphs, adult males and females of Apolygus lucorum. In total, 399 miRNAs were identified including 275 known and 124 novel miRNAs. Known miRNAs were classified into 71 families, amongst which, 23 families were insect-specific. Expression profile analysis showed that miR-7-5p_1 was the most abundant miRNAs in the antennae of A. lucorum. Altogether, 69708 target genes related to biogenesis, membrane and binding activities were predicted for 399 miRNAs. Particularly, 15 miRNAs were found to target 16 olfactory genes. These miRNAs could be involved in regulation of olfactory-associated genes ex-pression. Comparing the antennae of nymphs, adult males and females, 94 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. The expression levels of some differentially expressed miRNAs measured by qPCR were consistent with sequencing results. This study provides a global miRNAs transcriptome in the antennae of A. lucorum and valuable information for further investigation on miRNA-mRNA interactions, especially the functions of miRNAs in regulating chemosensation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0381.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA transcription factors; genes; finitely-generated groups; free groups; aperiodic order
Online: 10 January 2022 (11:52:04 CET)
Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that recognize specific DNA fragments in order to decode the genome and ensure its optimal functioning. TFs work at the local and global scales by specifying cell type, cell growth and death, cell migration, organization and timely tasks. We investigate the structure of DNA-binding motifs with the theory of finitely generated groups. The DNA ‘word’ in the binding domain -the motif- may be seen as the generator of a finitely generated group Fdna on four letters, the bases A, T, G and C. It is shown that, most of the time, the DNA-binding motifs have subgroup structure close to free groups of rank three or less, a property that we call ‘syntactical freedom’. Such a property is associated to the aperiodicity of the motif when it is seen as a substitution sequence. Examples are provided for the major families of TFs such as leucine zipper factors, zinc finger factors, homeo-domain factors, etc. We also discuss the exceptions to the existence of such a DNA syntactical rule and their functional role. This includes the TATA box in the promoter region of some genes, the single nucleotide markers (SNP) and the motifs of some genes of ubiquitous role in transcription and regulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0509.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: hox genes; gene cluster; larva; evolutionary novelties; Spiralia; Lophotrochozoa; Annelida; Rotifera
Online: 26 November 2021 (13:28:22 CET)
The decoding of genomes of a larger number of animal species have provided further insights into the genomic Hox gene organization and with this indicated the evolutionary changes during the radiation of several clades. The expansion of gene expression studies during development and life history stages of more species, complete the picture of the relationship between cluster organisation and temporal and spatial correlation of the Hox activity. Now these results open the opportunity to look deeper into the regulatory pathways that form these patterns and identify what exact changes caused the evolution of the application of this iconical gene set for the evolution of new larval forms and new structures. Here we review recent progress of Hox gene related research in the large clade Spiralia, that comprises Annelida, Mollusca, Lophophorata, Platyhelminthes, Nemertea and others. Albeit their relationship to each other is not resolved yet, there are emerging patterns that indicate that Hox genes are mainly used for patterning late, adult body parts and that Hox genes are often not expressed on the larval stages. Hox genes seem also often recruited for the formation of morphological novelties. Together with the emerging genomic information Hox genes show a much more dynamic evolutionary history than previously assumed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: selective pressures; mitochondrial protein-coding genes; subterranean voles; adaptations; subterranean lifestyle.
Online: 19 October 2021 (15:01:42 CEST)
The current study evaluates the selection signals in the evolution of mitochondrial DNA of voles, subfamily Arvicolinae, during the colonization of subterranean environments. The comparative sequence analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes of eight subterranean vole species (Prometheomys schaposchnikowi, three species of the genus Ellobius: E. talpinus, E. fuscocapillus and E. lutescens, two species of the genus Terricola: T. subterraneus and T. daghestanicus, Lasiopodomys mandarinus and Hyperacrius fertilis) and their closest aboveground relatives using codon-substitution models was applied. The highest number of selection signatures was detected in genes ATP8 and CYTB. The relaxation of selection was observed in most mtDNA protein-coding genes. In mole voles (genus Ellobius) the signatures of adaptive evolution of mitochondrial genes related to subterranean niche were most pronounced. The number of selection signatures was found to be independent of the evolutionary age of the lineage but fits the degree of specialization to the subterranean niche. The common trends of selective pressures were observed among the evolutionary ancient and highly specialized subterranean rodent families and phylogenetically young lineages of voles. It suggests that the signatures of adaptations in individual mitochondrial protein-coding genes associated with the colonization of the subterranean niche may appear within a rather short evolutionary timespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0269.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: escherichia coli; dogs; virulence genes; antibiotic resistance; WGS; ST372; clonal structure
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:56:27 CEST)
Under one-health perspective and the worldwide antimicrobial resistance concern, we investigate extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), and multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli from 197 isolates recovered from healthy dogs in Spain between 2013 and 2017. Ninety-one (46.2%) isolates were classified as ExPEC and/or UPEC including 50 clones, among which (i) four clones were dominant (B2-CH14-180-ST127, B2-CH52-14-ST141, B2-CH103-9-ST372 and F-CH4-58-ST64815) and (ii) 15 had been shown to be displayed by previously published isolates causing extraintestinal infections in humans. Twenty-eight (14.2%) isolates were classified as MDR, associated with B1, D and E phylogroups and included 24 clones, of which eight had also been identified among human isolates causing infections. We selected 23 ST372 strains, 21 healthy dogs faecal isolates and two human clinical isolates for whole genome sequencing and built a SNP-tree with these 23 genomes and 174 genomes (128 from canine strains and 46 from human strains) obtained from public databases. The analysis of these 197 genomes allowed to identify six clusters. Cluster 1 comprised 74.6% of the strain genomes that were mostly composed of canine strain genomes (P < 0.00001). Clusters 4 and 6 also included canine strain genomes, while clusters 2, 3 and 5 were significantly associated with human strain genomes. All these findings suggest that dogs are reservoirs of ExPEC, UPEC and MDR E. coli isolates with zoonotic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0463.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: E. coli; clonal structure; ST88; ST141; ST131; ST1193; virulence genes; resistance
Online: 29 February 2020 (10:25:09 CET)
Escherichia coli is the main pathogen responsible for extraintestinal infections. A total of 196 clinical E. coli consecutively isolated during 2016 in Spain (100 from Lucus Augusti hospital in Lugo) and France (96 from Beaujon hospital in Clichy) were characterized. Phylogroups, clonotypes, sequence types (STs), O:H serotypes, virulence factor (VF)-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance were determined. Approximately 10% of the infections were caused by ST131 isolates in both hospitals and approximately 60% of these infections were caused by isolates belonging to only 10 STs (ST10, ST12, ST58, ST69, ST73, ST88, ST95, ST127, ST131, ST141). ST88 isolates were frequent especially in Spain while ST141 isolates significantly predominated in France. The 23 ST131 isolates displayed four clonotypes: CH40-30, CH40-41, CH40-22 and CH40-298. Only 13 (6.6%) isolates were carriers of ESBL enzymes. However, 37.2% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Approximately 40% of the MDR isolates belonged to only four of the dominant clones (B2-CH40-30-ST131, B2-CH40-41-ST131, C-CH4-39-ST88 and D-CH35-27-ST69). Among the remaining MDR isolates two isolates belonged to B2-CH14-64-ST1193 i.e the new global emergent MDR clone. To our knowledge, it is the first identification of this emergent clone in Spain. Moreover, a hybrid ExPEC/enteroaggregative isolate belonging to A-CH11-54-ST10 clone was identified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Hox genes; limb development; main body axis; timing; time space translation
Online: 20 November 2019 (10:31:55 CET)
This article is a tribute to Lewis Wolpert on the occasion of the recent 50th anniversary of the publication of his article ‘Positional Information and the Spatial Pattern of Differentiation’. This tribute relates to another of his ideas: his early ‘Progress Zone’ timing model for limb development. Recent evidence is reviewed that a mechanism sharing features with this model patterns the main body axis in early vertebrate development. This tribute celebrates the golden era of Developmental Biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: tea polyphenol; serum hormone; enzyme activity; immune function, enzyme-related genes
Online: 1 August 2019 (05:18:08 CEST)
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of tea polyphenol （TP） on serum hormone, serum enzyme activity, antioxidant-related and immune-related gene expression of laying hens under heat stress. A total of 288 Chinese yellow chicken (186 days old) were randomly distributed among two treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens. Dietary treatments were that the basal diet was supplemented with 200 mg / kg tea polyphenol. The study lasted for 7 weeks, including 1 week of adaptation and 6 weeks of the formal test. The content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP) in serum significantly decreased by dietary supplementation with tea polyphenol. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in treatments compared to the control. However, supplementation of tea polyphenol did not affect the activity of serum catalase (CAT). The results indicated that long-term feeding of tea polyphenols help to increase the amount of hormones (FSH, E2) associated with reproduction in laying hens and thus improve egg production. It also improved the immune function of laying hens in high temperature environments. Adding tea polyphenols to the diet can significantly increase the serum IgG, IgM content of the laying hens and can upregulate the IgA content. Dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols in the laying hens significantly increased the expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes (SOD, CAT and GPX1) in the liver. Moreover, the addition of tea polyphenols significantly increased the expression of immune-related genes (Interferon-γ (INF-γ), Interleukin 2 (IL-2) and Interleukin 4 (IL-4)) in the spleen. It is concluded that addition of tea polyphenols has a positive effect on antioxidant activity and immune function of laying hens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Hox genes, Hox collinearity, Noether’s Theory, Anterior Posterior axis, Rotational symmetry
Online: 27 May 2019 (14:14:36 CEST)
Hox Gene Collinearity (HGC) is a fundamental property that determines the development of many animal clades including Vertebrates. In the Hox gene clusters the genes are located in a sequence Hox1, Hox2, Hox3,… along the 3’ to 5’ direction of the cluster in the chromosome. During Hox cluster activation the Hox genes are expressed sequentially in the ontogenetic units D1, D2, D3,… along the anterior (A)- Posterior (P) axis of the early embryo. This collinearity, first observed by E.B. Lewis, is surprising because the spatial extent of these structures (Hox clusters and embryos) differ by about 4 orders of magnitude. Biomolecular mechanisms alone cannot explain this correlation. Long range physical interactions like diffusion or electric attractions should be involved. A biophysical model (BM) has been formulated which cooperates with the biomolecular processes and describes the data successfully. Hundred years ago E. Noether made a fundamental discovery in Mathematics and Physics. She proved rigorously that a physical system obeying a symmetry law (e.g.rotations or self similarity) is linked to a conserved physical quantity. It is argued here that HGC obeys a ‘primitive’ self similarity symmetry of the genes of a Hox cluster along a finite straight line. In the case of Vertebrates, the associated partially conserved quantity is the ever increasing ‘ratchet’- like gene ordering where some Hox genes are missing. Another application of Noether’s Theory is performed to rotationally symmetric embryos like the sea urchin.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: transcriptome; Solanum lycopersicum; RNA-seq; light intensity distributions; differentially expressed genes
Online: 19 March 2019 (10:42:26 CET)
Plants grown under fluctuating light impact plant developments compared with those grown under non-fluctuating light conditions. However, our knowledge on the underlying regulatory mechanisms is still quite limited, particularly from the transcriptional perspective. In order to investigate the influence of different light intensity distributions on tomato plant development, we designed three fluctuating light intensity distributions with the non-fluctuating light intensity as control and compared the transcriptional differences after five weeks of treatment. We found plant height and aerial/root weight were significantly reduced under all fluctuating light treatments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the number of up and down regulated genes had a distinct distribution pattern between different treatments and control. The largest difference between the numbers of down and up regulated genes was found between treatment 1 and 3, reaching to a total of 416 genes. The number and type of the top 20 enriched pathways differed between treatments and control. The largest number of genes enriched was involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. These results provide insights into the transcriptional regulations of tomato under different light intensity distributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0565.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EZH2; epigenetic regulation; DZNep; tumor-related genes; head and neck cancer
Online: 24 October 2018 (10:34:10 CEST)
EZH2 overexpression is associated with tumor proliferation, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Targeting and inhibiting EZH2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We previously analyzed EZH2 mRNA expression in a well-characterized dataset of 230 (110 original and 120 validation cohorts) human head and neck cancer samples. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting EZH2, either via RNA interference or via pharmacotherapy, on HNSCC growth. EZH2 upregulation was significantly correlated with recurrence (P < 0.001) and the methylation index of tumor suppressor genes (P < 0.05). DNMT3A was significantly upregulated upon EZH2 upregulation (P = 0.043). Univariate analysis revealed that EZH2 upregulation was associated with poor disease-free survival (log-rank test, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, EZH2 upregulation was evaluated as a significant independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival (hazard ratio: 2.085, 95% confidence interval: 1.390–3.127; P < 0.001). Cells treated with RNA interference and DZNep, an EZH2 inhibitor, showed the most dramatic changes in expression, accompanied with a reduction in the growth and survival of FaDu cells. These findings suggest that EZH2 upregulation is correlated with tumor aggressiveness and adverse patient outcomes in HNSCC. Evaluation of EZH2 expression might help predict the prognosis of HNSCC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); Circadian clock; Soleus Muscle (SM); Brown adipose tissue (BAT); liver; 6-meal feeding; Respiratory exchange ratio (RER); Clock genes; metabolic genes; Shift work.
Online: 11 September 2018 (14:21:48 CEST)
Restricted feeding is well known to affect expression profiles of both clock and metabolic genes. However, it is unknown whether these changes in metabolic gene expression result from changes in the molecular clock or in feeding behavior. Here we eliminated the daily rhythm in feeding behavior by providing 6-meals evenly distributed over the light/dark-cycle. Animals on this 6-meals-a-day feeding schedule retained the normal day/night difference in physiological parameters including body temperature and locomotor activity. The daily rhythm in respiratory exchange ratio (RER), however, was significantly phase-shifted through increased utilization of carbohydrates during the light phase and increased lipid oxidation during the dark phase. This 6-meals-a-day feeding schedule did not have a major impact on the clock gene expression rhythms in the master clock but did have mild effects on peripheral clocks. By contrast, genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism showed differential expression. Concluding, eliminating the daily rhythm in feeding behavior in rats does not affect the master clock and only mildly affects peripheral clocks, but disturbs metabolic rhythms in liver, skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in a tissue-dependent manner. Thereby a clear daily rhythm in feeding behavior strongly regulates timing of peripheral metabolism, separately from circadian clocks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer; new hormonal agents; transcriptomic profiling; DNA damage repair genes; tumor suppressor genes; androgen receptor; immunotherapy; CDK4/6 inhibitors; PARP inhibitors; AKT inhibitors.
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:17:07 CEST)
De novo metastatic hormone-sensitive PC (mHSPC) accounts for 5-10% of all prostate cancer (PC) diagnoses but it is responsible for nearly 50% of PC-related deaths. Since 2015, the prognosis of mHSPC has slightly improved thanks to the introduction of new hormonal agents and chemotherapy combined with androgen deprivation therapy from the first-line setting. This review describes the current therapeutic opportunities in de novo mHSPC, focusing on potential molecular biomarkers identified in the main clinical trials that have changed the standard of care, the genomic features of de novo mHSPC, and the principal ongoing trials that are investigating new therapeutic approaches and the efficacy of a biomarker-guided treatment in this setting. The road towards a personalized treatment for de novo mHSPC is still long considering that the randomized clinical trials, which have furnished the basis of the current therapeutic options, stratified patients according to clinical criteria that not necessarily reflect the biological rationale of the chosen therapy. The role of transcriptomic profiling of mHSPC as predictive biomarker requires further validation, as well as it remains to ascertain how the genomic alterations detected in mHSPC, that are considered predictive in the castration-resistant disease, can be exploited in the mHSPC setting.