TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0261.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: protocol; soccer performance; supplements; diet; systematic review; soccer professional players
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:28:31 CEST)
The unique physical demands of soccer necessitate optimal nutrition strategies for enhancing players' performance, recovery, and overall health. However, the effects of nutrition interventions on professional soccer players remain underexplored. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on the impact of nutrition interventions on professional soccer players' performance to inform future research and practical applications. The review will follow the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews. We will employ a four-part search strategy to identify relevant studies, including electronic bibliographic databases, trial registers, the web of clinical trials, and bibliography screening. Inclusion criteria will encompass randomized clinical trials involving professional or semiprofessional soccer players utilizing a nutrition or diet intervention. Quality assessment will be conducted using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. A narrative synthesis will be provided, detailing the intervention types and their effects on performance. This review will offer a comprehensive understanding of the potential benefits of nutrition interventions for soccer professionals, helping coaches, nutritionists, and players to tailor their approaches for optimal performance and recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: soccer performance; supplements; diet; systematic review; high carbohydrate diet; creatine supplementation; tart cherry; betaine; bicarbonate and minerals; professional players
Online: 11 April 2023 (08:47:56 CEST)
Background: More than 270 million participants and 128,893 professional players play soccer. Research only weakly supports the impact of diets and supplements on the performance and recovery of professional soccer players. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search in Pub-Med, Scopus, Web of Science, and clinical trial registers. Inclusion criteria focused on professional or semi-professional soccer players, nutrition or diet interventions, performance improvement outcomes, and randomized clinical trial study types. We assessed quality using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. We identified 16 eligible articles involving 310 participants. No nutritional intervention during the recovery period effectively improved recovery. However, several perfor-mance-based interventions showed positive effects, such as tart cherry supplementation, raw pistachio nut kernels, bicarbonate and mineral ingestion, creatine supplementation, betaine consumption, symbiotic supplements, and a high carbohydrate diet. These interventions influenced various aspects of soccer performance, including endurance, speed, agility, strength, power, explosiveness, and anaerobic capacity. Conclusions: Specific strategies, such as solutions with bicarbonate and minerals, high carbohydrate diets, and supplements like creatine, betaine, and tart cherry, can enhance the performance of professional soccer players. These targeted nutritional interventions may help optimize performance and provide the competitive edge required in professional soccer. We did not find any dietary interventions that could enhance recovery during recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0010.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: DTP vaccine,; Africa; COVID-19; Vaccine coverage; Joinpoint regression; Health care system; Vaccination rates
Online: 1 May 2023 (03:49:11 CEST)
: Background: Vaccine-related death is one of the leading causes of death among African Children. Vaccine coverage is a very important measure to decrease infant mortality. Covid-19 Pandemic has affected the healthcare system and may have disrupted vaccine coverage. Methods: DTP third doses (DTP3) Vaccine Coverage was extracted from UNICEF databases from 2012 to 2021( the last available date). Joinpoint regression was performed to detect the point where the trend changed. The annual percentage change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was calculated for Africa and the regions. We compared DTP3 vaccination coverage in 2019 with 2021 in each country to verify compliance with WHO targets. Result: During the whole period, the vaccine coverage in Africa has increased with an Annual Percent change of 1.2% (IC 95% 0.9-1.5): We detected one Joint point in 2019. In 2019-2021, there was a decrease in DTP3 coverage with an APC of -3.5(95% -6.0;-0,9). (P< 0.001). Vaccination rates have decreased in many regions and countries during the last two years. Conclusions. COVID-19 has disrupted vaccine coverage, decreasing it all over Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2080.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Africa; ARIMA; Maternal mortality rate; Joinpoint regression analysis; Mortality; trends
Online: 29 June 2023 (09:42:35 CEST)
(1) Background: With the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) (2015-2030) fo-cusing on reducing maternal mortality, monitoring and forecasting Maternal Mortality Rates (MMR) in regions like Africa become crucial for health strategy planning by policymakers, in-ternational organizations, and NGOs. (2) Methods: We collected maternal mortality rates per 100,000 births from the World Bank database between 1990 and 2015. Join Point regression was applied to assess trends, and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used on 1990-2015 data to forecast the MMR for the next 15 years. (3) Results: The study found a decline in MMR in Africa with an average annual percentage change (APC) of -2.6% (95% CI -2.7; -2.5). North Africa reported the lowest MMR, while East Africa experienced the sharpest decline. The region-specific ARIMA models predict that the maternal mortality rate (MMR) in 2030 will vary across regions, ranging from 65 deaths per 100,000 births in North Africa to 249 deaths per 100,000 births in Central Africa., averaging 197 per 100,000 births for the continent. (4) Conclusions: Despite the observed decreasing trend in maternal mortality rate (MMR), the MMR in Africa remains relatively high. The results indicate that MMR in Africa will continue to decrease by 2030. However, only North and South Africa will likely reach the SDG target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1272.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Machine learning; Artificial inteligence; ChatGPT; GPT 3.5; GPT-4; Medical education; quality of care
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:34:31 CEST)
The rapid progress in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing has led to the emergence of increasingly sophisticated large language models (LLMs) enabling their use in healthcare. The study assesses the performance of two LLMs: the GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 models in passing the medical examination for access to medical specialist training in Spain MIR. Our objectives included gauging the model's overall performance, analyzing discrepancies across different medical specialties, discerning between theoretical and practical questions, estimating error proportions, and assessing the hypothetical severity of errors committed by a physician. We studied the 2022 Spanish MIR examination after excluding those questions requiring image evaluations or having acknowledged errors. The remaining 182 questions were presented to the LLM ChatGPT4 and GPT-3.5 in Spanish and English. Logistic regression models analyzed the relationships between question length and question sequence d performance. GPT-4 outperformed GPT -3.5, scoring 86.81% in Spanish (p<0.001). English translations had a slightly enhanced performance. Among medical specialties, GPT-4 achieved a 100% correct response rate in several areas, with specialties like Pharmacology, ICU, and Infectious Diseases showing lower performance. The error analysis revealed that while a 13.2% error rate existed, gravest categories like "error requiring intervention to sustain life" and "error resulting in death" had a 0% rate. Conclusions: GPT-4 performs robustly on the Spanish MIR examination, varying its capability to discriminate knoweldge across specialties. While the model's high success rate is commendable, understanding the error severity is critical, especially when considering AI's potential role in real-world medical practice and its implication on patient safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Africa; Maternal mortality rate; Joinpoint regression analysis; mortality; trends.
Online: 7 October 2022 (10:30:10 CEST)
Background: United Nations Sustainable Development Goals state that by 2030, the Global maternal mortality rate (MMR) should be lower than 70 per 100,000 live births. MMR is still one of Africa's leading causes of death among women. This research aims to study regional trends in maternal mortality in Africa. Methods: We extracted data for Maternal mortality rates per 100,000 births from the UNICE data bank from 2000 to 2017, being 2017 the last date available. Joinpoint regression was used to study the trends and estimate the annual percent change (APC). Results: Maternal mortality has decreased in Africa over the study period by an average APC of -3.0% (95% CI -2.9;-3,2%). All regions showed significant downward trends, with the sharpest decreases in the South. Only the North African region is close to the United Nations' sustainable development goals for Maternal mortality. The remaining sub-Saharan African regions are still far from achieving the goals. Conclusions: maternal mortality has decreased in Africa, especially in the South Africa region. The only region closed to the United Nations target is North Africa. The remaining sub-Saharan African regions are still far from achieving the goals. These results could be used for the development of Regional Policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Africa; Maternal mortality rate; Joinpoint regression analysis; mortality; trends
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:06:07 CEST)
Background: United Nations Sustainable Development Goals state that by 2030, the Global maternal mortality rate (MMR) should be lower than 70 per 100,000 live births. MMR is still one of Africa's leading causes of death among women. This research aims to study regional trends in maternal mortality in Africa. Methods: We extracted data for Maternal mortality rates per 100,000 births from the World Bank database from 1990-2015. Joinpoint regression was used to study the trends and estimate the annual percent change (APC). Results: Maternal mortality has decreased in Africa over the study period by an average APC of -2.6%. All regions showed significant downward trends, with the sharpest decreases in East Africa. Only the North African region is close to the United Nations' sustainable development goals for Maternal mortality. The remaining sub-Saharan African regions are still far from achieving the goals. Conclusions: maternal mortality has decreased in Africa, especially in East Africa. The only region closed to the United Nations target is North Africa. The remaining sub-Saharan African regions are still far from achieving the goals. These results could be used for the development of Regional Policies.