REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0192.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Fuel; Lubricant; Fuel-Lubricant Interaction; Fuel Dilution; Biofuels; Friction Modifiers
Online: 9 August 2021 (12:37:42 CEST)
A critical review of recent work on fuel lubricant interactions is undertaken. The work focusses on liquid fuels used in diesel and gasoline vehicles. The amount of fuel that contaminates the lubricant depends on driving conditions, engine design, fuel type and lubricant type. When fuel contaminates a lubricant, the viscosity of the lubricant will change (it will usually decrease), the sump oil level may increase, there may be a tendency for more sludge formation, there may be an impact on friction and wear, and low speed pre-ignition could occur. The increased use of biofuels (particularly biodiesel) may require a reduction in oil drain intervals, and fuel borne additives could contaminate the lubricant. The move to active regeneration of particulate filters by delayed fuel post-injection and the move to hybrid electric vehicles, and vehicles equipped with stop-start systems will lead to increased fuel dilution. This will be of more concern in diesel engines, since significant fuel dilution could still persist at sump oil temperatures in the range 100-150C (whereas in gasoline engines the more volatile gasoline fuel will have substantially evaporated at these temperatures). It is anticipated that more research into fuel lubricant interactions, particularly for diesel engines, will be needed in the near future.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Emissions; Tribology; Lubrication; Battery Electric Vehicles; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Life Cycle Analysis; Thermal Cooling Fluids
Online: 17 June 2021 (10:46:41 CEST)
The motivations for the move to electrified vehicles are discussed with reference to their improved energy efficiency, their potential for lower CO2 emissions (if the electricity system is decarbonized), their lower (or zero) NOx/particulate matter (PM) tailpipe emissions, and the lower overall costs for owners. Some of the assumptions made in life-cycle CO2 emissions calculations are discussed and the effect of these assumptions on the CO2 benefits of electric vehicles are made clear. A number of new tribological challenges have emerged, particularly for hybrid vehicles that have both a conventional internal combustion engine and a battery, such as the need to protect against the much greater number of stop-starts that the engine will have during its lifetime. In addition, new lubricants are required for electric vehicle transmissions systems. Although full battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will not require engine oils (as there is no engine) they will require a system to cool the batteries – alternative cooling systems are discussed, and where these are fluid based, the specific fluid requirements are outlined.