ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: AmRosea1 gene; transcriptome analysis; drought tolerance; salt tolerance; rice
Online: 14 December 2016 (09:16:50 CET)
Ectopic expression of the MYB transcription factor of AmROSEA1 from Antirrhinum majus has been reported to change anthocyanin and other metabolites in several species. In this study, we found that overexpression of AmRosea1 significantly improved the tolerance of transgenic rice to drought and salinity stress. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a considerable amount of stress-related genes were affected by exogenous AmRosea1 during both drought and salinity stress treatments. These affected genes are involved in stress signal transduction, the hormone signal pathway, ion homeostasis and the enzymes that remove peroxides. This work suggests that the AmRosea1 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0550.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Basmati rice; QTL introgression; near isogenic lines; yield under drought; climate resilience
Online: 20 November 2020 (20:45:02 CET)
Drought stress at the reproductive stage in rice is one of the most important cause for yield reduction, affecting both productivity and quality. All Basmati rice varieties, including the popular cultivar ‘Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1)’ is highly sensitive to reproductive stage drought stress (RSDS). We report for the first time, improvement of a Basmati cultivar for RSDS tolerance, with the introgression of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), ‘qDTY1.1’ into PB1. The QTL donor was sourced from an aus variety, Nagina 22 (N22). A QTL linked microsatellite (SSR) marker ‘RM 431’ was employed for foreground selection for qDTY1.1 in the marker assisted backcross breeding process. A set of 113 SSR markers polymorphic between N22 and PB1 were utilized for background selection to ensure higher genome recovery. After three backcrosses followed by five generations of selfing, eighteen near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed, through combinatory selection for agro-morphological, grain and cooking superiority traits. The NILs were evaluated for three consecutive Kharif seasons, 2017, 2018 and 2019 under well-watered and drought stress conditions. RSDS tolerance and yield stability indicated that NIL3, NIL5, NIL6, NIL7, NIL12, NIL15 and NIL17 were best in terms of overall agronomic and grain quality under RSDS. Additionally, NILs exhibited high yield potential under normal condition as well. The RSDS tolerant Basmati NILs with high resilience to water stress, is a valuable resource for sustaining Basmati rice production under water limiting production environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0274.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: rice bran; rice genes; rice cultivars; metabolic pathway; metabolomics
Online: 15 September 2018 (19:34:43 CEST)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics and resulted in 378-430 metabolites. Gambiaka cultivar had the highest number and Njavara had the lowest number of metabolites. The 71 rice bran compounds of significant variation by cultivar included 21 amino acids, seven carbohydrates, two metabolites from cofactors and vitamins, 33 lipids, six nucleotides, and two secondary metabolites. Tryptophan, -ketoglutarate, γ-tocopherol/β-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol are example bran metabolites with extensive cultivar variation and genetic information. 34 rice bran components that varied between cultivars linked to 535 putative biosynthetic genes using to the OryzaCyc 4.0, Plant Metabolic Network database. Rice genes responsible for bran composition with animal and human health importance is available for rice breeding programs to utilize in crop improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0179.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: rice wash; vinegar; rice wine; Soxhlet; fermentation
Online: 11 May 2018 (09:04:45 CEST)
This study was conducted to search for green technology that can extract metabolites from neem leaves for use in the development of botanical pesticide against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae). Rice wine, rice wash, vinegar and distilled water were used as solvents and hot infusion, maceration, hot continuous reflux (Soxhlet), and fermentation were the methods employed. The different leaf extracts prepared by green technology were evaluated for their potentials as pesticide against B. dorsalis. Vinegar extract via Soxhlet extraction (V-S) for eight (8) h registered to have the highest mortality but not significantly different from vinegar - fermentation (V-F), rice wash - Soxhlet (RWa-S), vinegar - maceration (V-M), distilled water - fermentation (DW-F), and rice wash - fermentation (RWa-F) extracts. Phythochemicals present in the extracts are affected by the solvent-extraction interaction. Among the sixteen solvent-extraction interactions, the use of rice wash and fermentation is the most economical method in extracting the extracting the active components of neem leaves against B. dorsalis. Rice wash is a waste that can be utilized in the development of a biopesticide from neem leaves for pest management of B. dorsalis. This is the first report that rice wash is used as extracting solvent in green synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0461.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Rice; Fish; Culture; Efficiency; Environment; Rice-Fish Culture
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:04:49 CEST)
The efficiency of rice cum fish culture study was conducted in different areas of Tangail district with those farmers who cultivate rice and fish together at a time. The study was conducted along 60 farmers of different areas in Ghatail upazilla. The primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews and secondary data were collected through different reputed journals, newspapers, authentic portals and so on. Data collection was carried out during the period from November 2021 to May 2022. Both tabular and functional analyses were performed to achieve the specific objectives of the study. NPV, BCR and IRR method was used to estimate the profitability and a multiple regression model was used to find out the factors motivating farmers' decision on rice cum fish cultivation. SWOT analysis was done to find out the internal and external-positive and negative factors faced by the farmers in rice cum fish cultivation. About 40% of farmers are under the age of 30 and most of them got at least primary education. Agriculture was the main occupation of the respondents and fish cultivation was the secondary. The highest annual income among the sample growers came from the production of rice cum fish culture. The BCR of the production is upbeat and 2.09 which indicates that the cultivation is profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0036.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: parboiled rice; medium-grain white rice; medium-grain brown rice; sensory evaluation; consumer acceptability
Online: 6 November 2017 (07:07:41 CET)
Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that storage of cooked rice at 4 °C for 24 h and reheating to 65 °C significantly reduced starch digestibility and postprandial glycaemic responses. Moreover, the effect was greater for parboiled rice compared to other rice varieties commonly consumed in New Zealand. This study aimed to evaluate consumer preferences of related sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of several rice varieties freshly cooked or reheated. Method: Sixty-four consumers volunteered and recorded on Visual Analoge Scales their preference and acceptability of freshly prepared or cold-stored and reheated medium grain white, medium grain brown and parboiled rice. Results: All six rice samples were accepted by participants (average 54%). Reheated parboiled rice and reheated medium grain brown rice were both accepted by participants as a preferred staple meal compared to other rice samples. Among all rice samples, the sweetness and the flavour of freshly cooked warm medium-grain white rice were less preferred (scored 42.1% and 45.0% respectively) compared with other samples (P = 0.05). Participants who prepared and consumed brown rice at home regularly (more than 10 times per month), preferred the reheated brown rice (73.8% (67.4, 80.2)) and reheated parboiled rice (74.3% (67.9, 80.7)) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is suggested that reheated parboiled rice, with the lowest starch digestibility and glycaemic impact (both in vitro glucose release and in vivo glucose response) could be accepted as a healthier alternative for the daily staple meal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0499.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: system archetypes; rice production; system dynamics; climate change; Indonesia rice
Online: 28 April 2020 (13:04:04 CEST)
Climate projections show that southern Indonesia such as West Nusa Tenggara is projected to experience a lower precipitation and higher temperatures. To date, research on climate change impact on Indonesian rice production yield is limited. As climate change is projected to decrease rainfall and to increase temperatures, this paper offers a qualitative analysis using system archetypes to understand the impacts of climate change on rice production. Two system archetypes are identified including Limits to Growth and Success to Successful. Both archetypes explain that rice production is hampered by high minimum temperature as photosynthesis output is decreased by increasing respiration. This paper shows that using a simple tool, system archetypes, we can describe the impacts of climate change on rice production. The outputs of this study such as a causal loop diagram and system archetypes can be a basis to develop a simulation model in understanding the impacts of climate change on main crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Risk management; Laos; livelihood; swidden; upland rice; rice bank; NTFPs; market economy; livestock
Online: 28 January 2018 (16:32:52 CET)
In areas with strongly seasonal climates, local people often use complex strategies to manage agricultural production shortages, including diverse activities such as hunting, selling and consuming non-agricultural products, and wage labor. We surveyed all the households in a village in northern Laos to evaluate how such livelihood activities varied during years with differing agricultural production conditions. We compared two years with normal rice production conditions (2010, 2012) and one year with a severe rice shortage (2011) due to a rodent outbreak. Earning wages inside and outside the village was the most important activity for mitigating rice shortages, followed by selling livestock and using/selling non-timber forest products. Villagers also borrowed rice from a village rice bank. Most cash income was earned from selling rice. We concluded that a balance of traditional risk management activities under the swidden system (e.g., raising livestock) with the more recent rice bank system and wages from the market economy will be critical for the sustainable development of mountain villages in northern Laos. Permanent crops and monocultures tend to make local livelihoods more dependent on a single crop, but maintaining the traditional swidden system will help local people to manage agricultural production shortages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus initiative; Farming; Food traceability; Organic Farming; Rice; Rice paddy fields; Water Management; Sentinels
Online: 20 May 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Whereas a vast literature exists on satellite-based mapping of rice paddy fields in Asia, where most of the global production takes place, little has been produced so far that focuses on the European context. Detection and mapping methods that work well in the Asian context will not offer the same performances in Europe, where different seasonal cycles, environmental contexts, and rice varieties make distinctive features dissimilar to the Asian case. In this context, water management is a key clue; watering practices are distinctive for rice with respect to other crops, and within rice there exist diverse cultivation practices including organic and non-organic approaches. In this paper, we focus on satellite-observed water management to identify rice paddy fields cultivated with a traditional agricultural approach. Building on established research results, and guided by the output of experiments on real-world cases, a new method for analysing time series of Sentinel-1 data has been developed, which can identify traditional rice fields with a high degree of reliability. This work is a part of a broader initiative to build space-based tools for collecting additional pieces of evidence to support food chain traceability; the whole system will consider various parameters, whose analysis procedures are still at their early stages of development.
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:35:30 CEST)
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2018, laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications having seven treatments viz. N omission (T1), N applied as basal and AT (T2), N as basal, AT and PI (T3), N as basal and top dressing at NDVI threshold of 0.75 (T4), at NDVI threshold of 0.8 (T5), at SPAD threshold of 35.0 (T6) and SPAD threshold of 37.5 (T7) with Rice variety Sahabhagidhan.The study revealed that application of 30 kg N/ha as basal dose and top dressing of 20 kg N/ha twice at 35 and 63 DAS guided by NDVI threshold value of 0.8 (T5) was found to be superior over other treatments with respect to productivity. T5 recorded highest grain yield of 4438 kg/ha which was 17.0% higher than that top dressed at NDVI threshold of 0.75 (T4) and 7.1% higher than that top dressed at SPAD threshold value of 37.5 (T7). In case of SPAD meter, nitrogen top dressed at threshold value of 37.5 (T7) produced grain yield of 4143 kg/ha which was 15.0% higher than T6. T5 produced maximum dry matter of 8678 kg/ha with highest grain yield (4438 kg/ha), straw yield (5092 kg/ha) and harvest index 46.0%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0282.v1
Online: 21 December 2019 (11:00:09 CET)
Rice is an essential crop for national food security in Egypt. Increasing the population calls for regular increases in rice production. At the same time, cultivated rice crop areas should be decreased because of the gradual scarcity of irrigation water. This means more rice production should be gained from less rice area. This situation calls for the annual accurate system for rice monitoring and yield estimation. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a remotely sensed based system for rice cultivation assessment using satellite imagery parallel with field measurements of some biophysical parameters. Multi-temporal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from twelve sentinel-2 imagery cover the whole summer season with variance and maximum value assessed by ground control points (GCPs), were used to isolate uncultivated areas, then to isolate rice areas and other vegetation covers. object-based classification methods with kappa co-efficient 0.9261 and overall accuracy 94.92% was generated to discriminate rice crop area and other summer crops on the study area. Leaf area index (LAI) for the experiment the l site was calculated using the surface energy balance algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model and then tested versus measured (LAI). NDVI and LAI were used to generate an empirical ran rice yield prediction model. Then, this model was used to produce rice to yield a map. The study was carried out in an experimental site in Kafr Elsheikh governorate with a total area of 5040 Hectare. Produced cultivated land use map showed 95% overall accuracy. High similarity was observed between measured and calculated (LAI) with high accuracy of R2 = 0.94. of Rice, yield map showed expected to yield more to than a month before harvest. The generated yield map was tested using a correlation coefficient between actual yield and estimated yield with high accuracy R2 = 0.9. This method is applicable to estimate the acreage and productivity of rice in the northern Nile delta in adequate time before harvest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0069.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; RGB; oats; rice; growth
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:48:41 CET)
Fusarium graminearum is a cereal pathogen responsible for economic losses worldwide every year. An understanding of its growth is key to control its infection, but current growth models are limited because their size-based approach provides little information about the mold's metabolism. Recently, a RGB (red, green and blue) imaging analysis demonstrated the predictability of F. graminearum color change as it grows in yeast extract agar (YEA). This study aimed to verify the same phenomenon in oats (aw = 0.94, 0.97 and 0.99) and rice (aw = 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99). Photos were taken using a professional camera and a smartphone (iPhone 6) after incubation and during the subsequent 16 days, and average RGB was quantified using ImageJ software. The photos showed very similar color variations, regardless of the type of grain or aw. The mold first adopted a k-selection strategy by growing as a mycelium and then a r-selection strategy, increasing spore production. All RGB channels showed positive Pearson correlations between them (p < 0.001) and it was possible to design a model showing two lag phases, the first prior to a mycelial phase and the second prior to a sporular phase at the end of the experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Pakistan; Climate change; Rice production; ARDL
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:26:03 CET)
This research paper aims to examine the relationship between CO2, temperature, area, fertilizers and rice production in Pakistan. This study used Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root tests to check the order of integration of each variable. The cointegration analysis with ARDL bounds testing approach is used to examine the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan over time series data from the period 1968 to 2014. The parameter stability test of the model is also checked at the end. The results of estimation show that the important variables of the study are cointegrated demonstrating the presence of long-run association among them. Furthermore, climate change factors, e.g. CO2 and temperature have a long-run and short-run positive effect on the production of rice in Pakistan. This present work is original and it is first time empirically tested the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan. The annual time series data of 47 years enhances the validity of the empirical findings. The most fruitful finding of this research is that rice production in Pakistan is positively influenced by emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 5 percent significance level in both long-run and short-run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Parboiled rice, medium-grain white rice, cold stored, reheating, blood glucose concentration chewing time, satiety, palatability.
Online: 17 April 2017 (05:35:10 CEST)
Background: Globally, hot cooked refined rice is consumed in large quantities and is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load. This study aimed to compare the glycaemic potency of hot and cold stored parboiled rice to widely available medium grain white rice. Method: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a three treatment experiment where postprandial blood glucose was measured over 120 minutes after consumption of 140g of rice. Three rice samples were freshly cooked medium-grain white rice, freshly cooked parboiled rice, and parboiled rice stored overnight at 4 ºC. All rice was served warm at 65 ºC. Chewing time was recorded. Results: The 24-hours cold-stored and reheated parboiled rice resulted in a 42% and 12% lower blood glucose concentration trajectory than freshly cooked medium-grain white rice and freshly cooked parboiled rice. Chewing time for 10g cold stored parboiled rice was 6 seconds (25%) longer and was considered more palatable, visually appealing and better tasting than freshly cooked medium grain (all P<0.05). Conclusions:. For regular consumers of rice reheating cooked rice after cold storage would lower the dietary glycaemic load and long term may reduce risk for type 2 and gestational diabetes. More trials are needed to identify the significance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0223.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Rice; Supply chain traceability; Quality control
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:34:45 CEST)
Rice is the grain feeds more than half of the world population. It is an important staple food provides twenty percent of the calories consumed worldwide. Food safety affects the health of consumers. Establishing an effective traceability system is one of the primary measures to protect rice quality and food safety. Blockchain-based traceability system has the characteristics of data tamper-proofing, decentralization, and co-governance. This paper proposed a rice traceability scheme based on blockchain technology that selects the critical nodes in the rice industry chain to construct a blockchain network to achieve transparent data sharing. It is meaningful for both enterprises and consumers. It can let enterprises get the real quality information of rice and related raw materials. Consumers can get the true information of rice and rice products to buy safe and healthy food. The scheme is proved feasible by simulating the traceability of the rice supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0157.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Methylococcaceae; methanotroph; Indian rice field; Methylmonas; novel species
Online: 11 July 2022 (09:56:06 CEST)
An aerobic methanotroph, strain Kb3T, was isolated from a rhizospheric soil sample collected from a tropical Indian rice field. The cells were motile, Gram-negative bacilli, formed pink colonies and pink turbid/pellicles in the liquid medium. Biochemical characteristics showed that strain Kb3T utilised only methane and methanol as its sole carbon and energy sources. The isolate's 16S rRNA gene sequence expressed 99.52% similarity to the recently described valid species Methylomonas fluvii EbB (Mmf), with 92% query cover. But examining the genome similarity between Kb3 and EbB, a DDH value of 44.20% [41.6 - 46.7%] and an Ortho-ANI value of 91.48 was observed that were below the current cut-off values for species differentiation. Also, the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and the phylogenomic analysis branched the two species separately. The major fatty acid in Methylomonas sp. Kb3 was C14:0, followed by C16:1 ω5c. The genome sequence revealed the size of strain Kb3 is 5.1 Mb, with the G + C content of 51.8%. Strain Kb3T shared the closest relatedness with Methylomonas sp. LW13 reveals a 99.66% 16S rRNA gene similarity, an Ortho-ANI value of 97.9%, a DDH value of 87.3%, and a close branching in the phylogenomic tree Kb3 and LW13 together form a new species. The genomic and phylogenetic distinction between species Mmf and strain Kb3 supports Kb3T to be described as a novel species within the genus Methylomonas, with the proposed name, Methylomonas aquatica sp. nov. (Mma) and the type strain being Kb3T (=MCC 4012, =JCM 33634, =KCTC 72521).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: waxy rice starch; α-amylase; protein; amylopectin structure
Online: 4 November 2021 (08:00:31 CET)
Waxy rice is one of the most popular traditional crops served as a staple food in China. In this study, the effect of different factors including α-amylase activity, protein, and amylopectin structure on the pasting properties of four waxy rice varieties were investigated. Rice flours treated with AgNO3 solution, DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) or protease, suggested that both α-amylase activity and protein significantly decrease the pasting viscosity of waxy rice flours. Chain length distribution of amylopectin as measured by high performance ion exchange chromatography (HPAEC-PAD) showed that starch with higher ratio of short chain leading to a higher pasting viscosity. X-Ray diffractograms showed that the crystal type of all the four varieties of rice starches were characteristic A-type. Relative crystallinity of each rice starch was further calculated, and a higher crystallization resulted in a higher viscosity. Our study would provide a fundamental knowledge of the relationship between different factors and waxy starch pasting properties, as well as be a reference for controlling the quality of waxy rice starch-based food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0673.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Aflatoxin; Food safety; Maize; Mycology; Nigeria; Pupuru; Rice
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)
Cereals and cassava-based foods serve as major dietary sources for several households in Nigeria. However, these foods are highly prone to contamination by moulds and aflatoxins owing to poor storage and vending practices. We therefore studied the fungal diversity of maize, cassava-based flour (pupuru) and rice vended in markets from Ondo state, Nigeria, and assessed the aflatoxin levels of these using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Fungi were detected in 93 (88 %) of the 106 food samples. Molecular analysis of 65 representative isolates revealed 26 species belonging to 5 genera: Aspergillus (80.9 %), Penicillium (15.4 %) and Talaromyces (1.9 %) in the Ascomycota; Syncephalastrum (1.2 %) and Lichtheimia (0.6%) in Mucoromycota. Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species in the food samples. Aflatoxins were found in 98 % of the 42 representative food samples and about one half (49.8 %) exceeded the 10 μg/kg threshold adopted in Nigeria for total aflatoxins. Integrated mitigation options, including at post-harvest stages, are suggested to ensure consumer safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0252.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Water saving; Irrigation; Water productivity; Grain yield; Rice
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:22:02 CEST)
Tanzania with 945 million hectares of land area and annual rainfall of 300 mm on 67% of its territorial land is considered as a semi-dry region in the world. Rice production in Tanzania needs to be increased to feed a growing population, whereas water for irrigation is getting scarce. One way to decrease water consumption in paddy fields is to change the irrigation regime for rice production and to replace continuous flooding with alternate wetting and drying. In order to investigate the effect of different regimes of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and water productivity of hybrid rice, two greenhouse pot experiments comprising soils from upland and lowland production ecologies were conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania during crop seasons of 2019. The experiment was arranged in split plots based on randomized completely block design with 3 replications. Water regimes were the main factor comparing continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) with nitrogen fertilizer levels as the sub-factor including absolute control , 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) improved water productivity in both upland and lowland production ecologies compared to CF. AWD increased yield under lowland production by 13.3% while in upland there was 18.5% decrease in yield. The average water use varied from 31.5 to 84 L pot-1 under upland trials, while in lowland trials it was 36 to 82.3 L. Higher yield and lower water application led to an increase in WP varying from 1.2 to 1.8 kg cm-3 under upland trials, and 0.6 to 1.5 kg cm-3 under lowland trials. The variation in water productivity among treatments was mainly due to the differences in the yield, water and nitrogen levels used in the production process. Both sets of trials recorded water saving up to 34.3% and 17.3% under lowland and upland trials, respectively. Under upland trials, the yield varied from 39.9 to 124.1 g pot-1 and in lowland trials yield ranged from 20.6 to 118.2 g pot-1 representing paddy rice. The measurements showed that less water can be used to produce more crops under alternative rice growing practices. The results are important for water-scarce areas, providing useful information to policy makers, farmers, agricultural departments, and water management boards in devising future climate-smart adaptation and mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0119.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: black rice; transcriptome sequencing; genic SSRs; genetic diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (09:03:34 CET)
Study in black rice has gain prominence in recent times due to its high nutritive value, curative effect, and anti-oxidant properties. However, its poor agronomic traits, including low yield necessitates the incorporation of the colour-grain trait into elite varieties through plant breeding techniques. SSR markers play an important role in plant identification and breeding. Here, the generation of reference-based transcriptome, annotation of transcriptome datasets, and a large set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Black rice have been described. In all 28664 SSRs were predicted in 34978 (48.59%) expressed transcripts. However, 7068 (20.20%) transcripts were found to have more than one SSR. The identified SSRs were dominated by tri-nucleotide and tetra-nucleotide repeats representing about 54.11% and 33.31% respectively, of total SSRs. Validation of selected markers associated with anthocyanin trait performed across different black rice accessions established the reliability of the process used for mining SSR markers. The SSR markers identified in this study could be used to select varieties with desired traits, and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of black rice. Furthermore, the findings from this study may prove beneficial in future genetic diversity studies, primer development, and selective breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0189.v1
Online: 18 August 2019 (03:19:48 CEST)
The onset of leaf senescence is triggered by external cues and internal factors such as phytohormones and signaling pathways involving transcription factors (TFs). Abscisic acid (ABA) strongly induces senescence and endogenous ABA levels are finely tuned by many senescence-associated TFs. Here, we report on the regulatory function of the senescence-induced TF OsWRKY5 TF in rice (Oryza sativa). OsWRKY5 expression was rapidly upregulated in senescing leaves, especially in yellowing sectors initiated by aging or dark treatment. A T-DNA insertion activation-tagged OsWRKY5-overexpressing mutant (termed oswrky5-D) promoted leaf senescence under natural and dark-induced senescence (DIS) conditions. By contrast, a T-DNA insertion oswrky5-knockdown mutant (termed oswrky5) retained leaf greenness during DIS. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that OsWRKY5 upregulates the expression of genes controlling chlorophyll degradation and leaf senescence. Furthermore, RT-qPCR and yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that OsWRKY5 indirectly upregulates the expression of senescence-associated NAC genes including OsNAP and OsNAC2. Precocious leaf yellowing in the oswrky5-D mutant might be caused by elevated endogenous ABA concentrations resulting from upregulated expression of ABA biosynthesis genes OsNCED3, OsNCED4, and OsNCED5, indicating that OsWRKY is a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis during leaf senescence. Furthermore, OsWRKY5 expression was significantly suppressed by ABA treatment, indicating negative feedback regulation of OsWRKY5 expression by ABA. OsWRKY5 is a positive regulator of leaf senescence that upregulates senescence-induced NAC genes leading to expression of ABA biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: red yeast rice; berberis aristate; morus alba; PCSK9
Online: 15 October 2018 (07:49:55 CEST)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is the key regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plasma levels. We previously observed that treatment of dyslipidemic subjects with nutraceutical combination containing red yeast rice (monacolin K 3.3 mg), Berberis aristata cortex extract (Berberine 531.25 mg) and Morus alba leaves extract (1-deoxynojirimycin 4 mg) (LopiGLIK®) did not alter the plasma PCSK9 levels. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of these three components on PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cell line in relationship to their effects on LDL-C cellular uptake. HepG2 cell line were incubated with Berberis aristata cortex extract (BCE), red yeast rice (RYR) and Morus alba leaves extract (MLE) alone or in combination for 24 h. RYR (50 µg/mL) increased PCSK9 protein expression (WB and ELISA assays), PCSK9 mRNA and its promoter activity. BCE (40 µg/mL) reduced PCSK9 expression, mRNA levels and promoter activity. MLE determined a concentration-dependent inhibition of PCSK9 at mRNA and protein levels, with a maximal reduction at 1 mg/mL; no significant changes in PCSK9 promoter activity were found. MLE also downregulates the expression of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels. The combination of RYR, BCE and MLE reduced PCSK9 at mRNA, protein, and promoter activity. Finally, this combination induced the LDL receptor and LDL-C uptake by HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the positive effect of MLE on PCSK9 supports the rational of using this nutraceutical combination to control hyperlipidemic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0024.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SWAT; water quality; paddy fields; irrigation; rice; watershed
Online: 13 September 2018 (08:42:30 CEST)
The recent increase in global consumption of rice has led to increased demand for sustainable water management in paddy cultivation. In this study, we propose an enhanced paddy simulation module to be introduced to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate the sustainability of paddy cultivation. The enhancements added to SWAT include: (1) modification of water balance calculation for impounded fields, (2) addition of an irrigation management option for paddy fields that are characterized by flood irrigation with target water depth, and (3) addition of a puddling operation that influences the water quality and infiltration rate of the top soil layer. In a case study, the enhanced model, entitled SWAT-Paddy, was applied to an agricultural watershed in Japan. The results showed that the SWAT-Paddy successfully represented paddy cultivation, water management, and discharge processes. Simulated daily discharge rates with SWAT-Paddy (R2 = 0.8) were superior to the SWAT result (R2 = 0.002). SWAT-Paddy allows the simulation of paddy management processes realistically, and thus can enhance model accuracy in paddy-dominant agricultural watersheds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0042.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rice; OsCDPK1; grain size; amylose content; endosperm appearance
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:00:14 CEST)
Overexpression of a constitutively active truncated form of OsCDPK1 (OEtr) in rice produced smaller seeds, but a double-stranded RNA gene-silenced form of OsCDPK1 (Ri) yielded large seeds, suggesting that OsCDPK1 plays a functional role in rice seed development. In the study presented here, we propose a model in which OsCDPK1 plays key roles in negatively controlling the grain size, amylose content, and endosperm appearance, and also affects the physicochemical properties of the starch. The dehulled transgenic OEtr grains were smaller than the dehulled wild-type grains, and the OEtr endosperm was opaque and had a low amylose content and numerous small loosely packed polyhedral starch granules. However, the OEtr grain sizes and endosperm appearances were not affected by the temperature being either optimal (25 °C ) or low (22 °C) or high (31 °C) during the grain-filling phase. In contrast, the transgenic Ri grains were larger, had higher amylose contents, and had more transparent endosperms filled with tightly packed polyhedral starch granules. This demonstrates that OsCDPK1 plays a novel functional role in starch biosynthesis during seed development and affects the transparent appearance of the endosperm. These results improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which the grain filling process occurs in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0075.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: OsCd1; Cadmium accumulation; rice grain; indica; japonica; GWAS
Online: 9 February 2018 (07:13:17 CET)
Cadmium accumulation in rice grain poses a serious threat to people’s health. Understanding the genetic basis on grain cadmium accumulation facilitates efforts to reduce it. Here, we show that OsCd1 is involved in Cd uptake and contributes to grain accumulation in rice. Natural variation in OsCd1 with a missense mutation Val449Asp is responsible for the divergence of rice grain cadmium accumulation between japonica and indica. Notably, near-isogenic line tests confirmed that the indica variety carrying the OsCd1V449 allele could reduce the grain cadmium accumulation. The favorable allele OsCd1V449 may be an important genetic resource to reduce grain cadmium accumulation for indica.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: food sustainable innovation; rice with milk; hedonic tasting
Online: 16 November 2017 (07:29:20 CET)
Sustainable innovation in the agro-food system has become a strategy increasingly used by companies as a means to increase their competitiveness and position themselves in the market. In this context, the objective of this work is to identify the attitudes and sensory perceptions of consumers towards sustainable food technology through two scales (Food Technology Neophobia and Domain Specific Innovativeness) and hedonic tastings. For this, a new product was selected in the market: powder to prepare rice with milk. Most consumers have attitudes toward low neophobia to products with food technology, but there is also some caution, situation that is corroborated by the moderate predisposition towards innovations. Color and flavor attributes can make the difference in positive perceptions. It should not be forgotten that there is a segment of innovative sustainable consumers that represent a key market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0134.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rice; water requirement; climate change; Penman-Monteith; CROPWAT
Online: 31 October 2016 (03:21:42 CET)
In this paper, Rice water requirement and irrigation water requirement in Amol agro meteorological Station in 2016-2045 are forecasted based on the projected meteorological data of Hadcm3 under A2 scenario. Rice water requirements are estimated by using crop coefficient approach. Reference evapotranspiration are calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method. Moreover, the irrigation water requirements are simulated by calibrated CROPWAT model using the meteorological parameters. The results show that both crop water requirement and irrigation water requirement present downward trend in the future. In 2016-2045, the rice water requirement and irrigation water requirement decrease by more than 9.9% under A2 scenario, respectively. Furthermore, the precipitation rise may be the main reason for the decrease in crop water requirement, while significant decrease of irrigation water requirement should be attributed to combined action of rising precipitation and a slight increase in temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0004.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; SFA; rice production; Cambodia; agriculture; productivity
Online: 13 September 2016 (10:20:53 CEST)
The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors effecting rice production in Cambodia. Four-years dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of entire 25 provinces between 2012-2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA) was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity) of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technically fertilizers application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4% implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency by given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production technique and amount of agricultural supporting staffs are being as the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring into more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staffs and rural farmers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: rice; nutrient elements; toxic elements; phenotypic variance; genetic basis
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:31:22 CEST)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is primary dietary source for half of the global population that comprising both essential nutrients and toxic heavy metal elements for human health. A number of nutrients are required within the diet and generally lacking in human diets, and need to biofortify into the rice grains, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), iodine (I), selenium (Se), and Sulphur (S). Meanwhile, some elements are toxic to human, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) which need to be eliminated from the rice grains. This article reviews the aspects of phenotypic variation of grain elemental concentration in the diverse rice genotypes, relationship of environmental conditions and rice grain elemental accumulation, correlation between rice grain elemental content and others agronomic traits, and also genetic basis of grain elemental concentration in rice. All of these aspects are important to develop rice varieties with a balanced elemental nutrients and lower toxic heavy metal elements. Enhancing the concentration of essential mineral elements and reducing the accumulation of toxic elements in the rice grain are important to improve the rice quality for human health in addressing mineral deficiency and toxicity that could be accomplished by using plant breeding, agronomic, and genetic engineering approaches.
Online: 23 April 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
To increase rice production, fertilizer plays a crucial role in rice yield. In this research, we applied the coupled atmospheric and crop model, which is based on the WRF and CERES-Rice models, to find the appropriate nitrogen fertilizer level for increasing rice yield production in northern Thailand. The model was conducted from October to December in 2011 to 2015. To evaluate the model capability, the output from the model, including meteorological data, i.e., precipitation and temperature, and rice production, as compared to actual observation data. The modeling system shows an acceptable level of output for statistical examination; for example, the R2 values were 0.93, 0.76, and 0.97 for precipitation, temperature, and rice production, respectively. To assess the optimization of the nitrogen fertilizer level, we designed 9 experiments: control cases and other cases that were multiplied by a factor of 2 – 10 times the nitrogen fertilizer levels. The model suggested that we can produce worthwhile rice yield production by approximately 4830 kg/ha if we increase the nitrogen fertilizer levels by 36 kg/ha.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0298.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomaterials; Carbon nanotubes; Rice husk; Agriculture waste; Carbon nanofibres
Online: 13 September 2020 (16:23:49 CEST)
Today is the era of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which finds applications in the field of medicine, electronics, or environmental cleanup. Even though the nanotechnology is in its emerging phase, but still it provides solutions to numerous challenges. Nanotechnology and nanoparticles are found very effective because of their unique chemical and physical properties, high surface area, but their high cost is one of the major hurdles in its wider application. So, the synthesis of nanomaterials especially 2D nanomaterials from the industrial, agricultural and other biological activities could provide a cost-effective technique. The nanomaterials synthesized from such waste not only minimizes the pollution but also provides an eco-friendly approach towards the utilization of the waste. In the present review work, the emphasis has been given on the types of nanomaterials, different methods for the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials from the waste generated from industries, agriculture and their application in electronics, medicine and catalysis.
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rice; yield; HYV; Tongil; indica; japonica; SNP; molecular breeding
Online: 12 May 2020 (05:56:38 CEST)
The inter-subspecific crossing between indica and japonica subspecies in rice have been utilized to improve the yield potential of temperate rice. In this study, a comparative study of the genomic regions in the eight high-yielding varieties (HYVs) was conducted with those of the four non-HYVs. The Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) mapping on the Nipponbare reference genome identified a total of 14 common genomic regions of japonica-originated alleles. Interestingly, the HYVs shared japonica-originated genomic regions on nine chromosomes, although they were developed through different breeding programs. A panel of 94 varieties was classified into four varietal groups with 38 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 38 genes residing in the japonica-originated genomic regions and 16 additional trait-specific SNPs. As expected, the japonica-originated genomic regions were only present in the japonica (JAP) and HYV groups, except for Chr4-1 and Chr4-2. The Wx gene, located within Chr6-1, was present in the HYV and JAP variety groups, while the yield-related genes were conserved as indica alleles in HYVs. The japonica-originated genomic regions and alleles shared by HYVs can be employed in molecular breeding programs to further develop the HYVs in temperate rice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0238.v1
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:09:42 CEST)
Several transgenic rice lines have been developed and are currently under field trials around the world. There are future plans for the commercial release of transgenic rice into the environment. Rice is an autogamous plant and therefore not perceived to be a very high candidate for pollen mediated gene flow to wild and weedy relatives. However, in a tropical environment like Ghana, where sexually compatible wild Oryza species which belongs to the AA genome are present within the ecology of cultivated rice, the possibility of gene flow to wild species cannot be overlooked. There is little evidence on gene flow and its consequences on the wild rice species should they acquire useful genes through gene flow. This review discusses the chances of cultivated to wild rice gene flow in Ghana and the biosafety considerations that should be put in place before the commercial release of genetically modified (GM) rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0247.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Rice-husk; power plants; CO2 emission reductions; Clean Development Mechanism
Online: 8 April 2021 (17:33:39 CEST)
The research is designed for developing the pilot small-scale clean development mechanism bundled project activities in Vietnam electricity/ energy sector. Its overall purpose is to assess the potential of rice husk - fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta. Based on estimating the electricity potential of a bundle of rice husk-fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta with the capacity of 11 MW per project, assessing their CO2 emission reductions (CERs) and CER credits, calculating and comparing their financial indices (NPV, B/C, IRR) in two cases: W/O CDM and W/CDM, the research expects to establish a rice husk energy balance flowchart for the whole Mekong delta in the year 2021 and recommend policies to use for bio-power generation the unused rice husk that is dumped and discharged from local paddy milling centers into rivers and canals, as well as, to put forward a safe and environmentally friendly solution to minimize thoroughly the current serious pollution of rivers and canals in Mekong delta with the increasing unused rice husk quantity in the context is where the sea level rise phenomenon is the strongest in the world .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0539.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Rhus chinensis Mill; Syzygium aromaticum; Rice sheath blight; Antifungal activity
Online: 24 February 2021 (10:05:28 CET)
Plant diseases reduce crop yield and quality, hampering the development of agriculture. Fungicides, which restrict chemical synthesis, are the strongest controls for plant diseases. However, the harmful effects on the environment due to continued and uncontrolled utilization of fungicides has become a major challenge in recent years. Plant-sourced fungicides are a class of plant antibacterial substances or compounds that induce plant defenses. They can kill or inhibit the growth of target pathogens efficiently with no or low toxicity, degrade readily, do not prompt development of resistance, which has led to their widespread use. In this study, the growth inhibition effect of 24 plant-sourced ethanol extracts on rice sprigs was studied. Ethanol extract of gallnuts and cloves inhibited the growth of rice sprites by up to 100%. Indoor toxicity measurement results showed that the gallnut and glove constituents inhibition reached 39.23 μg/mL and 18.82 μg/mL, respectively. Extract treated rice sprigs were dry and wrinkled. Gallnut caused intracellular swelling and breakage of mitochondria , disintegration of nuclei, aggregation of protoplasts, and complete degradation of organelles in hyphae and aggregation of cellular contents. Protection of Rhizoctonia solani viability reached 46.8% for gallnut and 37.88% for clove in water emulsions of 1,000 μg/mL gallnut and clove in the presence of 0.1% Tween 80. The protection by gallnut was significantly stronger than that of clove. The data could inform the choice of plant-sourced fungicides for the comprehensive treatment of rice sprig disease. The studied extract effectively protected rice sprigs and could be a suitable alternative to commercially available chemical fungicides. Further optimized field trials are needed to effectively sterilize rice paddies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0361.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Transgenic rice; metacaspase; ER stress; salinity stress; programmed cell death
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:04:38 CET)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle responsible as protein synthesis regulator in plant. High salinity can also lead to the activation of ER stress, caused by the accumulation of misfolded protein. This could lead to a stress response mechanism, unfolded protein response (UPR). Failure of UPR to reverse the effect of protein misfolding will activate Programmed Cell Death (PCD). Metacaspase genes regulate programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The present study was focused on comprehensive gene analyses of the expression patterns of type II rice metacaspase (OsMC) genes in response to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and salinity stress in rice leaf and OsMC4 in callus. A strong evidence of unfolded protein response (UPR) during tolerance to both ER and salinity stress was found in the present study. Overexpression of OsMC4 in rice callus as a fusion protein with TagRFP and controlled by the CaMV35 promoter caused major changes in the expression of the stress ER-marker genes, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and Binding immunoglobulin Protein (BiP), and OsMC4 in overexpressing calli. These expression analyses of the OsMC family provide valuable information for further functional studies on the biological roles of OsMCs in PCD related to ER and salinity stress responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0472.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: BLB Resistance; Xa genes; Xoo; Molecular characterization; Rice; LRR; S_TKc
Online: 23 October 2020 (09:13:39 CEST)
Globally, rice is utilized as staple food, belongs to the family Poaceae. From the past few decades under variable climate conditions, it greatly affected by the bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease caused by a bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Scientists studied causes of the disease and found more than 61 isolates of Xoo. About 39 Xa genes were noted that cause race specifically resistance either individually or in pairs against Xoo. The canvas on the characterization of these genes is still unrevealed. In this study, amino acid sequences of Xa15, Xa19, Xa20 and Xa21 were mined and used for motif-domain identification, characterization, and comparative analysis. It includes screening of physical and chemical characteristics, sequence comparison to find sequence similarity between them and their phylogenetic comparison with other Xa genes and other species based upon LRR and S_TKc domains to find evolutionary relationship among them. The comparison-based modeling was performed and assessed by different tools to gain better understanding and structural evaluation. The results showed identified domains are specific in function, each domain involved in resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses through regulating different cellular processes. This study also revealed high similarity (>98% sequence identity) between these genes and encode a similar leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase like protein. It will optimize the breeding programs as it will be useful for the selection of effective genes to produce resistance in rice varieties against the specific strains of Xoo that will be more effective against BLB than the other Xa genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0336.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Stubble management; Tillage system; Rice wheat cropping system; happy seeder
Online: 16 October 2020 (07:24:43 CEST)
Rice wheat cropping system prevailed in more than fifty percent areas of rice belt of central and upper Punjab. In this area yield of wheat is curtailed every year due to late harvesting of rice crop. In addition to this, lack of machinery for direct sowing of wheat into combine harvested rice is a major limitation for timely wheat sowing due to presence of heavy straw load dropped by the combine harvester. A field experiment was planned and executed during two consecutive years 2017-18 and 2018-19 at Agronomic Research Station Farooqabad to evaluate the various stubble management techniques for the sowing of wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system. The Experiment consist of four treatments Happy seeder (Zero tillage), conventional sowing without burning of rice stubble, Rotavator two times, and Conventional sowing with the burning of rice stubble. The trail was arranged as a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications having a net plot size of 8 m x 20 m. The Treatments have significant effects on Plant height, Number of productive tillers, 1000- grain weight, and grain yield. Maximum plant height (94.74 and 94.25 cm), numbers of productive tillers/m2 (324.00 and 322.25), 1000-grain weight (36.35 and 36.20 g), grain yield (3780 and 3613 kg/ha), and benefit-cost ratio (2.54 and 2.43) were recorded from the treatment happy seeder (Zero tillage) during both years respectively. It is concluded that the sowing of wheat with a happy seeder (Zero tillage) is an appropriate technique in the rice-wheat cropping system by protecting the environment and soil health from the burning of rice stubbles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0128.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: ditches; grain yield; lodging resistance; root traits; wet-seeded rice
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:25:04 CET)
The mechanical hill wet-seeded rice machine is benefits to establish uniform seedling, and ditches were established by using this machine. However, little knowledge is known on the effect of the establishment of ditches on growth, lodging and yield, and their relationship with root traits. In this study, two field experiments were conducted during 2012 and 2013 with using two super rice varieties (i.e. hybrid rice ‘Peizataifeng’ and inbred rice ‘Yuxiangyouzhan’) grown under three ditches establishment treatments (i.e. T1: both water ditches and seed ditches were established by the machine, T2: seed ditches were established by the machine, T3: neither water nor seed ditches were established by the machine). The lodging index and lodging resistance traits, the grain yield and above-ground dry weight and the root traits were measured. The results showed that the lodging index was significantly affected by the treatments with ditches. The strongest lodging resistance was detected in mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment in both 2012 and 2013. The lodging resistance was strongly related to the breaking resistance, the root volume and root superficial area at the heading stage and maturity stage and the total root length at the heading stage. No significant difference was investigated in grain yield or dry weight of mechanical hill wet-seeded rice. Yuxiangyouzhan showed higher grain yield, dry weight and better lodging resistance but unfavorable root growth attributes than Peizataifeng. Therefore, the mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment increased rice lodging resistance is related to root traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0016.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: GRAMI model; remote sensing; rice yield; satellite imagery; vegetation index
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:33:37 CEST)
The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) increases the chance of acquiring images with greater clarity at eight times a day and is equipped with spectral bands suitable for monitoring crop yield with a moderate spatial resolution. The objectives of this study were to classify nationwide paddy fields and to project rice (Oryza sativa) yield and production using the grid-based GRAMI-rice model and GOCI satellite products over South Korea from 2011 to 2014. Solar insolation and temperatures were obtained from COMS and the Korea local analysis and prediction system for model inputs, respectively. The paddy fields and transplanting dates were estimated using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance and land cover products. The crop model was calibrated using observed yield data in 11 counties and was applied to 62 counties in South Korea. The overall accuracies of the detected paddy fields ranged from 89.5 to 90.2%. The simulated rice yields statistically agreed with observed yields, with root-mean-square errors of 0.219 to 0.451 ton ha-1 and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies of 0.241 to 0.733 in four years, respectively. According to paired t-tests (α = 0.05), the simulated and observed rice yields were not significantly different. These results demonstrate the possible development of a crop information delivery system that can classify land cover, simulate crop yield, and monitor regional crop production on a national scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0186.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: rice landscape; natural enemies; location; population dynamics; variography; LANDSAT 8
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:13:50 CEST)
Relationships among the population abundance of four predator groups for rice insect pests, namely: carabid beetles, staphylinid beetles, green mirid bugs, and spiders in three landscape categories were evaluated. Both rice plots and the associated bund margins of these rice plots found among three Bangladesh landscape categories were sampled by sweep net. The results revealed that the abundance significantly varied across landscapes. The rice landscape of one location harbored higher numbers of a specific predator than other location in other regions of Bangladesh. The results also showed a dependency on the width of the rice bund margins of the rice plots, where spiders populations increased with increased bund widths, but the population abundance of these predators did not depend on the diversity of the number of weed species found on the rice bund margins. The relative abundance of predator populations also significantly differed among the three landscapes, with the green mirid bug having the highest number among the four predators. This study indicates that predators of rice insect pests are highly landscape specific. In order to design integrated pest management systems for different Bangladeshi rice production locales, considerations unique to the characteristics of each locale are necessary. Preliminary efforts to apply variography analyses to the RED spectral band of LANDSAT 8 imagery from December 2016 are presented as first step toward learning a suite of methods which describe useful local characteristics affecting rice pest predators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0080.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: APEX; rice paddy; water quality; agriculture; modeling; nonpoint source pollution
Online: 12 October 2017 (06:10:32 CEST)
The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model is widely used for evaluating agricultural conservation efforts and their effects on soil and water. A key component of APEX application in Korea is simulating water quality impacts of rice paddies because rice agriculture claims the largest cropland area in the country. In this study, a computational module called APEX-Paddy is developed to simulate water quality with considering pertinent paddy management practices such as puddling, flood irrigation management. Data collected at two experimental paddy sites in Korea were used to calibrate and validate the model. Results indicate that APEX-Paddy performs well in predicting runoff discharge rate and nitrogen yield while the original APEX highly overestimates runoff rates and nitrogen yields on large storm events. With APEX-Paddy, simulated and observed flow and mineral nitrogen yield (QN) are found to be highly correlated after calibration (Nash & Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) = 0.87 and Percent Bias (PBIAS) = −14.6% for flow; NSE = 0.68 and PBIAS = 2.1% for QN). Consequently, the APEX-Paddy showed a greater accuracy in flow and QN prediction than the original APEX modeling practice using the SCS-CN method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0086.v2
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: arsenic pollution; differential display; genes; resistance; rice crop; soil contamination
Online: 22 June 2017 (05:16:08 CEST)
The main objective of the present study was to investigate arsenate [As (V)] resistance genes in rice cultivars grown in arsenic contaminated Egyptian soil in order to genetically induce resistance against arsenic in the local rice varieties as well as defining contaminated rice grains and/or soil. Three local rice cultivars; Sakha 102-104 were cultivated on modified Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MS medium) containing elevated concentrations of arsenate (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/l). The three varieties showed different resistant attitudes against arsenate with Sakha 104 being the most resistant. Extracted messenger RNA (mRNA) from treated and untreated Sakha 104 plantlets was scanned using differential display to demonstrate the arsenate resistant genes using three different arbitrary primers. About 100 different RNAs with (1500 bp - 50 bp) were obtained from which seven were up-regulated genes, subjected to DNA cloning using TOPO TA system and the selected clones were sequenced. The sequence analysis described four genes out of the seven namely disease resistance protein RPM1, Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-1-like, CwfJ family protein and outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA while the other three genes were hypothetical proteins. It is concluded the four induced genes in the resistant rice cultivar considered as a direct response to arsenic soil pollution. Genes detected in the present study can be used as geno-sensors for rice grains and soil contamination with As (V). Moreover, local rice cultivars may be genetically modified with such genes to induce high resistance and to overcome arsenic soil pollution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: vulnerability; resilience; rice value chains; climate change; Sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 9 August 2016 (12:09:07 CEST)
Abstract: Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threaten to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: organic rice; agricultural research; participation; public funding; scientists; monitoring and evaluation
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:57:32 CET)
This paper reports on the conception and implementation of a participatory approach within an agricultural research project aimed at fostering the transition towards organic in the Italian rice district. We investigate the relationships among scientists and stakeholders, exploring researchers’ attitudes, barriers, and potential in relation to participatory research. We use participant observation, in-depth interviews, and systematic cataloguing of communication documents, from the beginning to two years into project implementation, for a total period of three years. The results of the analysis show that, despite a high level of authoritative commitment to participation, scientists reveal a scarcity of knowledge and skills, and poor attitudes that come from a negative perception of participatory research. They engage in various forms of collaboration with stakeholders, as long as decision-making remains essentially in their hands. With the deep analysis of a case study, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the quality of participatory agricultural research, in particular presenting evidence on the key role of researchers and their attitudes. The paper also contributes to the development of a culture of learning by doing, through honest monitoring and evaluation, and the capacity to learn from failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Aerated concrete; ultimate load; finite element analysis and rice husk ash
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:56:53 CEST)
Aerated concrete, which is manufactured from binding material, sand, foaming agent and water, is currently being utilized in the construction industry because of its lightweight and durability. The binding material, cement, along with other materials used in the concrete produces huge carbon footprints during its fabrication. The utilization of natural aggregates name as coarse aggregates depletes the natural resources of the country. Therefore, huge amounts of agricultural wastes have led scholars to investigate the effectiveness of replacing conventional materials used in concrete with agricultural wastes. In the current study, rice husk ash (RHA) was used as supplementary cementing material, thereby reducing the amount of cement used in aerated concrete (AC) mixture will reduce carbon footprints. The experimental and numerical analysis were conducted to investigate structural behavior of reinforced RAC- B beams subjected to flexural load. Parametric study on structural performance of RAC- B beam under flexure were conducted using finite element analysis (FEA). From the experiment and FEA. Results from the parametric study showed that RAC-10%RHA-B with higher depth structurally performed better compared to RAC-B under flexure with greater load carrying capacity, lesser maximum deflection, and less cracks developing in the tension area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0153.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: antioxidant system; chilling stress; mineral homeostasis; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; rice
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:32:41 CET)
Being a chilling-sensitive staple crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is vulnerable to climate change. The competence of rice to withstand chilling stress should, therefore, be enhanced through technological tools. The present study employed chemical intervention like application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as nitric oxide (NO) donor and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of NO-mediated chilling tolerance in rice. At germination stage, germination indicators were interrupted by chilling stress (5.0 ± 1.0°C for 8 h day‒1), while pretreatment with 100 μM SNP markedly improved the indicators. At seedling stage (14-day-old), chilling stress caused stunted growth with visible toxicity along with alteration of biochemical markers, for example, increase in oxidative stress markers (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde) and osmolytes (total soluble sugar; proline and soluble protein content, SPC), and decrease in chlorophyll (Chl), relative water content (RWC), and antioxidants. However, NO application attenuated toxicity symptoms with improving growth performance which might be attributed to enhanced activities of antioxidants, mineral contents, Chl, RWC and SPC. Furthermore, principal component analysis indicated that water imbalance and increased oxidative damage were the main contributors to chilling injury, whereas NO-mediated mineral homeostasis and antioxidant defense were the critical determinants for chilling tolerance in rice. Collectively, our findings revealed that NO protects against chilling stress through valorizing cellular defense mechanisms, suggesting that exogenous application of NO could be a potential tool to evolve cold tolerance as well as climate resilience in rice.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought stress; osmotic stress; rice; transcription factors; stress signaling; qtl; breeding
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:39:50 CET)
Many studies were done in the development of drought stress-tolerant transgenic plants, including crop plants. Rice is considered to be a vital crop target for improving drought stress tolerance. Much transgenic rice showed improved drought stress tolerance was reported to date. They are genetically engineered plants that are developed by using genes that encode proteins involved in drought stress regulatory networks. These proteins include protein kinases, transcription factors, enzymes related to osmoprotectant or plant hormone synthesis, receptor-like kinase. Of the drought stress-tolerant transgenic rice plants described in this review, most of them display retarded plant growth. In crop crops, plant health is a fundamental agronomic trait that can directly affect yield. By understanding the regulatory mechanisms of retarded plant growth under drought stress, conditions are necessary precursors to developing genetically modified plants that result in high yields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0264.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mesoporous silica; surface area; rice husk ash; hydrolysis-ageing time, hydrophobicity
Online: 18 June 2018 (13:38:56 CEST)
This work describes the preparation of mesoporous silica by the green reaction of rice husk ash (RHA) with glycerol, followed by the modification and the potential use as a drug carrier. The reaction was carried out at 215 °C for 2 h. The solution was further hydrolyzed with deionized water and aged for various times (24, 48, 120, 360, 528 and 672 h) before calcinations at 500 oC for 24 h. Further treatment of prepared mesoporous silica was performed using trimethylmethoxysilane (TMMS) to obtain hydrophobic Mesoporous silica. For all synthesized silica, silica contents were as high as 95%wt, whereas organic residues were less than 3%wt. RHA-glycerol showed the highest specific surface area with smallest pore diameter (205.70 m2/g, 7.46 nm) when aged for 48 h. The optimal hydrolysis-ageing period of 120 h resulted in 500.7 m2/g BET surface area, 0.655 cm3/g pore volume and 5.23 nm pore diameter. The surface modification of RHA-glycerol was succeeded through the reaction with TMMS as confirmed by FTIR. Ibuprofen was selected as a model drug for the adsorption experiments. The adsorption under supercritical CO2 was carried out at isothermal temperature of 40 ˚C and 100 bar, % ibuprofen loading of TMMS modified mesoporous silica (TMMS-g-MS) was 6 times less than mesoporous silica aged for 24 h (MS-24h) due to the hydrophobic nature of modified mesoporous silica, not surface and pore characteristics. The release kinetics of ibuprofen-loaded mesoporous silicas were also investigated in vitro. The release rate of ibuprofen-loaded MS-24h was much faster than that of ibuprofen-loaded TMMS-g-MS, but comparable to the crystalline ibuprofen. The slower release rate was attributed to the diffusion control and the stability of hydrophobic nature of modified silica. This would allow the design for the controlled release drug delivery system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: ANFIS; basmati rice; image processing; grading; quality assessment; fuzzy inference system
Online: 11 April 2018 (06:28:49 CEST)
Grading of rice grains has gain attentions due its requirement of quality assessment during import or export. Rice grain quality depends on milling operation, where rice hull is removed with a huller system followed by whitening operation. In such process, adjustment of rollers, control, and operation is important in terms of quality of milled rice. Especially, the basmati rice needed more quality assurance as it is not parboiled rice and exported globally with a high product value. In this present work, the basic problem of quality assessment in rice industry is addressed with digital image processing based technique. Machine vision and digital image processing provide an alternative with the automated, nondestructive, cost-effective, and fast approach as compared with traditional method which is done manually by human inspectors. A model of quality grade testing and identification is built based on morphological features using digital image processing and knowledge based adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The qualities of rice kernels are determined with the help of shape descriptors and geometric features using the sample images of milled rice. The adopted technique has been tested on a sufficient number of training images of basmati rice grain. The proposed method gives a promising result in an evaluation of rice quality with 100% classification accuracy for broken and whole grain. The milling efficiency is also assessed using the ratio between head rice and broken rice percentage and it is 77.27% for the test sample. The overall results of the adopted methodology are promising in terms of classification accuracy and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0079.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: DNA barcoding; genetic diversity; hymenopteran parasitoids; Nephotettix spp.; Nilaparvata lugens; rice
Online: 13 November 2017 (17:06:38 CET)
On-going intensification of rice production systems in Southeast Asia is causing devastating yield losses each year due to rice hoppers. Continuing development of immunity to resistant rice varieties and pesticide application further complicate this problem. Hence, there is a high demand for biological control agents. Egg parasitoid wasps are among the most important natural enemies of rice hoppers such as Nilaparvata lugens and Nephotettix spp. However, our knowledge on their diversity is still very limited due to their small size and the lack of available morphological information. Classifying these parasitoids is the first step to properly understand their role in the rice agroecosystem. We used traditional morphological identification as well as DNA sequencing of COI and 28S genes to investigate the diversity of four important hopper egg parasitoid genera in the Philippines. Parasitoids of the genera Anagrus spp., Oligosita spp., Gonatocerus spp. and Paracentrobia spp. were collected in eight study landscapes located in Luzon. We found discrepancies between the morphological and the molecular analysis. Morphological and molecular results were only valid for Paracentrobia spp. Anagrus spp. and Gonatocerus spp. showed more genetic diversity, than expected after the morphological analysis, indicating cryptic species. The sequences for Oligosita spp. revealed less variation than expected. This is the first study on molecular diversity of rice parasitoids in the Philippines. More research combining morphological, behavioural and genetic methods as well as the establishment of a comprehensive DNA database is urgently needed to assess the performance and suitability of these organisms as biocontrol agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0161.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Agricultural productivity; Cambodia; Rice production; Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA); Technical Efficiency
Online: 29 September 2017 (18:21:43 CEST)
Rice is the most important food crop in Cambodia and its production is the most organized food production system in the country. The main objective of this study is to measure technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian rice production and also trying to identify core influencing factors of rice TE at both national and household level, for explaining the possibilities of increasing productivity and profitability of rice, by using translog production function through Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model. Four-years dataset (2012-2015) generated from the government documents was utilized for the national analysis, while at household-level, the primary three-years data (2013-2015) collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang province by structured questionnaires was applied. The results indicate that level of rice output varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total actual harvested area, and technically fertilizers application within provinces, while level of household rice output varied according to the differences in efficiency of production processes, techniques, total annual harvested land, and technically application of fertilizers and pesticides of farmers. The overall mean TE was estimated at 78.4% (national-level) and 34% (household-level), indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 21.6% (national production) and 66% (household) at the same level of inputs and technology if farmers had been technically efficient. The TE also recorded -7% decreasing rate at the national-level and -14.3% at household-level due to highly affected of natural disasters and various environmental and social factors during the study periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0002.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: soft texture rice; dietary fibre prediction; soluble dietary fibre; -glucan; pectin; arabinoxylan
Online: 1 September 2021 (09:20:53 CEST)
To date, most people prefer softer and stickier rice with high glycaemic index, which has led to the study of the association between the dietary fibre profile and the textural properties to balance between the eating quality, and health benefits. A slight variation was observed in the dietary fibre composition among rice varieties with different amylose content. The percentage of insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) in whole grain rice varied from 1.65–4.32 while the percentage of soluble dietary fibre (SDF) ranged from 0.26–1.37. We demonstrated that the SDF/IDF ratio was higher in soft texture rice with low amylose and it shared a negative correlation with hardness and chewiness of cooked whole grain rice determined by a texture analyser, which suggested that the distribution of SDF throughout the rice endosperm influences the reduction of the hardness of cooked rice. According to the importance of dietary fibre, we proposed a simple linear regression method to estimate the amount of IDF and total dietary fibre with r = 0.97 and 0.92, respectively, of whole grain rice based on its bran layer, determined by the alternative alkaline method. Furthermore, low amylose rice has higher content of -glucan and pectin, which are classified as soluble dietary fibre, than high amylose rice. The percentage of -glucan and pectin in whole grain rice ranged from 0.03 and 0.07 respectively, for high amylose rice to 0.14 and 0.27 respectively for low amylose rice,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0426.v1
Subject: Keywords: rice, abiotic stress, high temperature, drought, physiological responses, molecular mechanisms, systems biology
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:30:20 CEST)
Rice production, owing to its high-water requirement for cultivation, is very vulnerable to the threat of changing climate, particularly prolonged drought and high temperature. Such threats heighten the need for abiotic stress-resilient rice varieties with better yield potential. This review examines the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rice varieties to cope with stress conditions of drought (DS), high temperature (HTS) and their combination (DS-HTS). It appraises research studies in rice about its various phenotypic traits, genetic loci and response mechanisms to stress conditions to help craft new breeding strategies for rice varieties with improved resilience to abiotic stresses. This review consolidates available information on promising rice cultivars with desirable traits as well as advocates synergistic and complementary approaches in molecular and systems biology to develop new rice breeds that favorably respond to climate-induced abiotic stresses. The development of new breeding and cultivation strategies for climate-resilient rice varieties is a challenging task. It requires a comprehensive understanding of the various morphological, biochemical, physiological, and molecular components governing yield under drought and high temperature, but possible by implementing cohesive approaches involving molecular and systems biology approaches in genomics and molecular breeding, including genetic engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0409.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Air Pollutant Emissions; Rice Cultivation; Agricultural Machinery; Tier 1 Methodology; Geographic Information System
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:22:08 CEST)
In Korea, rice is a major staple grain and is mainly cultivated using various agricultural machinery. Air pollutants emitted from agricultural machinery have their origins mainly from the exhaustion of internal combustion engines. In this study, emission characteristics of five main air pollutants by European Environment Agency's Tier 1 method for rice cultivation was analyzed. Diesel is a main fuel for agricultural machinery and gasoline is generally used only for rice transplanters as a fuel in Korea. Tractors consume 46% of total fuel consumption and 56% of diesel fuel consumption. Gasoline used for rice transplanters accounts for 17% of total fuel consumption each year. Tractors and rice transplanters are emitting 82% of all total pollutants. From 2011 to 2019, the total amount of air pollutant emissions was decrease by 15%. That accounted for the reduction of rice cultivation fields in those periods. Rice transplanting operation was in charge of 42% of total emissions. Then, harrowing, harvesting, tilling, leveling, and pest control operations generated 10%, 10%, 8%, 8% and 7% of total emissions, respectively. The contribution of each air pollutant held 54% of CO, 39% of NOx, 5% of NMVOC, and 2% of TSP from the total emission inventory. The three major regions emitting air pollutants from mechanized agricultural practices were Jeollanam-do, Chungcheongnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do, which consume 55% of total fuel usage in rice farming. The total amount of air pollutant emissions from rice cultivation practices in 2019 was calculated as 8,448 Mg in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0335.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: digestibility; goat; growth performance; rice stubble; urea; value-added product; white-rod fungi
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:44:38 CET)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fungal treatment (Pleurotus ostreatus) of urea-treated rice stubble on growth performance in slow-growing goats. Eighteen crossbred Thai native x Anglo-Nubian male goats (average body weight: 20.4 ± 2.0 kg) were randomly assigned to three experimental total mixed rations containing 35% rice stubble (RS) that was either untreated (URS), urea treated (UTRS) or treated with urea and fungi (UFTRS). URS and UTRS were cultivated and harvested from aseptically fungal spawn, incubated at 25-30 °C for 25 days. Indicators of growth performance were monitored and faeces were collected quantitatively to assess nutrient digestibility, during a 12-week feeding trial. All goats remained healthy throughout experiment. The goats fed UFTRS had a lower feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg growth) compared to goats fed URS or UTRS. Compared to URS, dietary UFTRS increased nutrient digestibility of slow-growing goats, such as OM (+8.5%), CP (+5.5%), NDF (+39.2%), and ADF (+27.4%). Likewise, dietary UFTRS tended to increase rumen ammonia concentrations but rumen pH and volatile fatty acids were not affected by UFTRS. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the fungal treatment of RS is an effective tool to improve the growth performance of slow-growing goats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0207.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Future rice production; Future maize production; Hybrid dynamical statistical; Climate change; Agriculture; Thailand
Online: 9 October 2020 (14:06:50 CEST)
Climate change effect on human-living in verities of way such as health and food security. This study presents predicting crop yields, and production risk in the near future (2020-2029) in northern Thailand using coupling 1 km resolution of regional climate model which is downscaled using a conservative remapping method and the Decision Support System for the Transfer of Agrotechnology (DSSAT) modeling system. The accuracy of the climate and agricultural model was appropriate compared to the observations with Index of Agreement (IOA) in ranges of 0.65 - 0.89. The DSSAT modeling system predicts that rice, and maize production will decrease by 5% and 4% in northern Thailand. In addition, a short-term risk analysis of rice and maize production has shown that, in the context of climate change, maize production appears to be at a high risk of low production in the near future, while rice cultivation might be a low risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0463.v1
Subject: Keywords: Africa; deficit irrigation; food security; system of rice intensification; water conservation; water productivity
Online: 24 July 2018 (16:41:31 CEST)
Rice production is important for global food security but given its large water footprint, efficient irrigation management strategies need to be developed. Expansion of rice growing area is larger than any other crop in Africa due to increasing demand for rice. Three rice irrigation management alternatives with the system of rice intensification (SRI) were field-evaluated against the conventional continuously flooded system (CF) in Tanzania. Production systems included: (1) CF (50 mm ponding depth for the entire season); (2) SRI (40 mm ponding for 3 days and no irrigation for next 5 days); (3) 80% SRI (80% of the SRI ponding); and (4) 50% SRI (50% of the SRI ponding). Experimental evaluation of the four systems was conducted for both wet and dry seasons. For the dry season, the SRI and 80% SRI produced higher yields of 9.68 tons/ha and 11.45 tons/ha and saved 26% and 35% of water, respectively compared to the CF (8.69 tons/ha). The yield advantage of the 80% SRI and SRI over the CF was less during the wet season with 6.01 tons/ha and 5.99 tons/ha of production, and water savings of 30% and 14%, respectively compared to the CF (5.64 tons/ha). The 50% SRI had lowest yield of all for both seasons, 7.48 tons/ha and 4.99 tons/ha for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Statistically, the 80% SRI treatment outperformed all other treatments over the two seasons with an additional yield of 1.57 tons/ha and 33% (345 mm) water savings compared to the CF. Economic productivity of water (US$/ha-cm) over two seasons was highest for the 80% SRI ($20.27/ha-cm), while it was lowest for the CF ($12.89/ha-cm). Water saved by converting from the CF to the 80% SRI (1.98 million ha-cm) can support a 50% expansion in the current rice irrigated area in Tanzania. Even without irrigation expansion, the 80% SRI can increase rice production by 1.5 million tons annually while enhancing water availability for industrial and environmental uses (e.g., ecological preserves) and help achieve food security in Tanzania and the greater sub-Saharan Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: nutrient use efficiency; grain yield; nitrogen, phosphorus; potassium; green super rice; BC breeding
Online: 12 July 2018 (11:05:46 CEST)
To develop green super rice varieties with high and stable yields under the rainfed conditions and improved nutrient use efficiency (NuUE), a modified backcross (BC) breeding approach was adopted using a high yielding and widely adaptable Xian variety, WTR1, as the recipient and a Geng variety, HAN, as the donor. Starting from the BC1F2 generation, the BC population had gone through one generation of selection under the IG, LI and RF conditions, followed by consecutive four generations of screening and selection for high GY under six different nutrient conditions, leading to the development of 230 BC1F6 introgression lines (ILs). The final evaluation of the 230 ILs under the six nutrient conditions identified many ILs with improved yields under various combinations of nutrient deficient conditions, including 12 promising lines that had significantly improved NuUE under two or more nutrient deficiency conditions. Our results demonstrated an efficient inter-subspecific BC breeding procedure with first round selection under the rainfed-drought condition followed by four generations of progeny testing for yield performances under six different nutrient conditions. The promising ILs were studied under replicated yield trials under 75N and -NPK conditions for developing high yield rice varieties with improved NuUE. Our results indicated that NuUE in rice was controlled by complex genetic and physiological mechanisms and the developed ILs provided useful materials for genetic and molecular dissection of NuUE in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0307.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: PUFA; oils; body condition score; sheep milk composition; supplementation; canola; flaxseed; safflower; rice bran
Online: 13 November 2018 (10:05:15 CET)
The Australian dairy sheep industry is small and mostly based on a natural grass grazing system which can limit productivity. The current study tested different plant oil-infused and rumen protected polyunsaturated fats and their interactions with sire breeds to improve lactation traits and body condition score (BCS) of ewes grazing low quality pastures. It was hypothesised that supplementing lactating ewe diets plant-derived polyunsaturated oils will improve milk production and composition without compromising BCS. Sixty ewes (n=10/treatment) in mid-lactation, balanced by sire breed, parity, milk yield, body condition score, and liveweight were supplemented with: 1) control: wheat-based pellets without oil inclusion; wheat-based pellets including 2) canola oil (CO); 3) rice bran oil (RBO); 4) flaxseed oil (FSO), 5); safflower oil (SFO) and 6) rumen protected fat containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (RPO). Except for the control group, all supplementary diets included the same level of 50 ml/kg DM of oil and all diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Experimental animals were grazed in the same paddock with ad libitum access to pasture, hay and water during the 10-week study. RPO was the most effective diet that enhanced milk, fat and protein yields by approximately 30, 13, and 31% respectively (P<0.0001). Significant increase in milk production was also observed in CO, RBO, and SFO (P<0.0001). Breed significantly influenced animal performance with higher milk yield recorded for crossbred Awassi x East Friesian (AW x EF) (578 g/day) vs purebred Awassi (452 g/day) (P<0.0001). This study provides empirical evidence for the use of rumen-protected and plant-derived oil-infused pellets as supplements under low quality pasture grazing conditions, to improve production performance of purebred Awassi and crossbred AW x EF ewes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0097.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: lamb; n-3 LC-PUFA; muscle; liver; heart; kidney; rice bran; canola; cocksfoot; lucerne
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:08:19 CET)
The enhancement of health-beneficial omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) contents in the muscle, liver, heart and kidney of Australian prime lambs through pasture grazing and supplementation with oil infused pellets was investigated. Forty-eight first-cross prime lambs were randomly assigned into a split-plot design with pasture type as the main plot effect and pellet supplementation as a sub-plot effect in a feeding trial that lasted for nine weeks. The n-3 LC-PUFA content in Longissimus dorsi muscle of all lambs was well above the 30 mg threshold for “omega-3 source” nutrition claim under the Australian Food Standards and Guidelines. Pasture type impacted the fatty acid contents in muscle, heart and kidney of prime lambs. Lambs grazing cocksfoot only had the highest 18:3n-3 (ALA) and n-3 LC-PUFA contents (67.1 mg/100g and 55.2 mg/100 g, respectively). Supplementation of pellets with or without oil infusion to grazing lambs decreased the ALA and n-3 LC-PUFA contents and increased n-6/n-3 ratio in Longissimus dorsi muscle. The fatty acid content in internal organs of grazing lambs was also affected by pellet supplementation. The liver and kidney of grazing lambs were both “good sources” (60 mg/100 g) of omega-3. The cocksfoot grass showed considerable potential for producing healthy, premium quality meat with high contents of n-3 and n-3 LC-PUFA which may consequently enhance the omega-3 intake of Australian lamb consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0046.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: agricultural productivity; Battambang; Cambodia; rice production; stochastic frontier production function (SFA model); technical efficiency
Online: 8 November 2016 (08:51:50 CET)
The aims of this study are to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian household’s rice production and trying to determine its main influencing factors using the stochastic frontier production function. The study utilized primary data collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang by structured questionnaires. The empirical results indicated the level of household rice output varied according to differences in the efficiency of production processes. The mean TE is 0.34 which means that famers produce 34% of rice at best practice at the current level of production inputs and technology, indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 66% at the same level of inputs if farmers had been technically efficient. Furthermore, between 2013-2015 TE of household’s rice production recorded -14.3% decline rate due to highly affected of drought during dry season of 2015. Moreover, evidence reveals that land, fertilizer, and pesticide are the major influencing input factors of household’s rice production, while disaster, education of household head, family size and other crops’ cultivated area are core influencing factors decreasing TE. Conversely, the main influencing factors increasing TE are irrigated area, number of plot area and sex of household head.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0135.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; stochastic frontier production function (SFA model); rice production; Battambang; Cambodia; agricultural productivity
Online: 31 October 2016 (03:31:11 CET)
The aims of this study are to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian household’s rice production and trying to determine its main influencing factors using the stochastic frontier production function. The study utilized primary data collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang by structured questionnaires. The empirical results indicated the level of household rice output varied according to differences in the efficiency of the production processes. The mean TE is 0.34 which means that famers produce 34% of rice at best practice at the current level of production inputs and technology, indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 66% at the same level of inputs if farmers had been technically efficient. Furthermore, between 2013-2015, TE of household’s rice production recorded -14.3% decline rate due to highly affected of drought during dry season of 2015. Moreover, evidence reveals that land, fertilizer, and pesticide are the major influencing input factors of household’s rice production, while disaster, education of household head, family size and other crops’ cultivated area are core influencing factors decreasing TE. Conversely, the main influencing factors increasing TE are irrigated area, number of plot area and sex of household head.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Genome selection; Rice breeding; Genetic analysis; Omics assisted markers; Nutritional quality; Genomics and pangenomics; Biofortification
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:53:16 CEST)
The primary considerations while producing rice (Oryza sativa L.) include improving its nutritional quality and production. To tackle widespread hunger globally, better nutritional, high-yielding rice cultivars need to be developed. The conventional ways are to increase the production of rice and add balanced nutrients in the daily diet to fulfill the need of yield and nutrient quality. This article focuses on nutritional strategies for rice and illustrates the availability of omics technologies. Current advancements providing many methodologies and approaches for exploring genetic resources and for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in trait formation have been highlighted. Studying the genetic influences of various characteristics has been proven to expedite crop breeding processes. In this perspective, genome-wide association research, genome selection (GS), and QTL mapping are all genetic analysis that helps in increasing the nutritional content of rice. Implementation of several omic techniques are effective approaches to enhance and regulate the nutritional quality of rice cultivars. Advancements in different types of omics including genomics and pangenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, and proteomics are also relevant to rice development initiatives. This review article compiles genes, locus, mutants and all omic approaches for rice enhancement. This knowledge will be very useful for now and for the future regarding rice studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0098.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: PUFA; oil; prime lamb; feedlot; carcass characteristics; live performance; oils; canola; flaxseed; safflower; rice bran
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:16:48 CET)
This study investigated live animal performance and carcass characteristics of Australian prime lambs fed oil based polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched pellets in a feedlot system. The tested hypothesis was that supplementation of lambs with a variety of dietary oil based PUFA enriched pellets would enhance growth and carcass characteristics compared with the control lambs on lucerne only. Seventy-two, 6 months old White Suffolk x Corriedale first-cross prime lambs with an average liveweight (LWT) of 35.7 ± 0.9 kg were allocated to six treatment groups in a completely randomised experimental design. The treatments were: (1) control: lucerne hay only; or lucerne hay plus wheat-based pellets infused with 50 ml/kg DM of oils from (2) rice bran (RBO); (3) canola (CO); (4) rumen protected (RPO); (5) flaxseed (FO) and (6) safflower (SO) dietary sources. All lambs had ad libitum access to lucerne hay and clean fresh water. Supplemented lambs were fed 1kg of pellet/head/day for 10 weeks. Feed intake, final LWT, average daily gain (ADG), body conformation and carcass characteristics of lambs in the supplemented groups were all greater than for the control group. SO lambs had the lowest ADG of 190.3 g/day. RBO and CO treatments had the lowest feed cost per unit gain of AU$ 3.0/kg. Supplemented lambs had similar over the hooks (OTH) incomes that were all higher than that of the control group. This empirical evidence-based data demonstrated that supplementation of lambs with RBO and CO had comparatively lower feed costs without compromising ADG, carcass characteristics and OTH income.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0135.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncom; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 21 November 2017 (03:33:00 CET)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of bacterial strains from the endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0031.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncomm; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 8 September 2017 (14:02:56 CEST)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of hundreds bacterial isolates obtained from endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: total aflatoxin; quantum dot nanobead; test strip; on-site; peanut and rice; agro-food safety
Online: 24 March 2017 (03:59:06 CET)
An on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing method was developed based on quantum dot nanobeads (QDNBs) and test strip for the determination of total aflatoxins (AFTs) in rice and peanut. The monoclonal antibody against AFT (mAbAFT) was home-made and labeled with QDNB. After the pre-coating of the AFT antigen on the test line (T line), the competitive immunoreactions were conducted between AFT and AFT antigen on the T line with QDNBs-mAbAFT. Under optimal conditions, this approach allowed a rapid response towards AFT with a considerable sensitivity of 1.4 pg/mL and 2.9 pg/mL in rice and peanut matrices, respectively. The put-in and put-out duration were within 10 min. The recoveries for AFT in rice and peanut samples matrices were recorded from 86.25–118.0% with the relative deviations (RSD) below 12%. The assay was further validated via the comparison between this QDNB strip and the conventional HPLC method using spiked samples. Thus, the design provided a potential alternative for on-site, ultra-sensitive, and quantitative sensing of AFT that could also be expanded to other chemical contaminants for food safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0290.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: microbial antioxidants; bioactive compounds; microwave extract; aspergillus flavus; rice, antioxidant compounds; free radical; phenolic compounds; temperatures
Online: 26 September 2019 (03:39:00 CEST)
The current study aims to study the optimal fermentation conditions for producing microbial bioactive compounds. The microwave parameters consist on 2450 MHz, and 500-watt for 20, 30, and 40 seconds. The solubility of solvents was tested for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from fermented rice (Koji) by A. flavus, Ethyl acetate was the best solvent used for extraction purposes. Antioxidant properties were differentiated by blocking the oxidation of the linoleic acid with an inhibition rate of 73.13% at a concentration of 200 mg/mL, in addition to increasing its effectiveness for free radical extraction and reduction strength by increasing concentrations gradually. The bond ability to irons was lower compared to the EDTA-2Na, in addition to the obtained total content corresponding to phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate extract of fermented rice (Koji) by A. flavus was 232.11 mg, on the basis of galic acid/mg. The stability of the antioxidant compounds of the ethyl acetate extract of fermented rice (Koji) by A. flavus was also studied; showing stability under neutral conditions, as well as at high temperatures (185 °C during two hours). However, no stability was obtained under acidic and alkaline conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0152.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: permanent raised beds; strip tillage; rice-maize-mungbean system; crop residue management; soil health; productivity; profitability
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:57:46 CET)
Farmers’ conventional tillage (CT) and residue removal practices in rice-maize systems in South Asia’s Eastern Gangetic Plain (EGP) are input-intensive, costly and soil degradative. We conducted a rice-maize-mungbean (R-M-MB) system experiment with six tillage and three residue management treatments in Bangladesh representing the EGP. Maize yields were significantly (p≤0.05) higher under permanent (PB) or fresh (FB) beds and strip tillage (ST) than CT but no differences in mungbean yields. Rice yields under PB, FB and CT were similar, but significantly higher than under zero or minimum tillage and ST. Yields of all crops increased significantly (p≤0.05) with residue retention compared to no retention. Total system productivity was highest under PB followed by FB and ST. Compared with CT, gross margins in PB, FB and ST increased by 18, 13 and 11%, and soil organic matter (SOM) and total N contents across tillage treatments increased by 11-16% and 12-24%, respectively. After three years, SOM and total N and available P and S contents increased significantly (p≤0.05) by residue retention. Results demonstrate the potential of PB, FB and ST with residue retention, for improving the productivity, profitability and soil health under R-M-MB systems in Bangladesh and similar soils in the EGP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0344.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Lysine; Rice; Amino Acids; Saline Stress; Abiotic Stress; Gene Regulatory Network; Bayesian Network; Parameter Estimation; Inference; RNA Seq
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:52:26 CEST)
Lysine is the first limiting essential amino acid in rice because it is present in the lowest quantity compared to all the other amino acids. Amino acids are the building block of proteins and play an essential role in maintaining the human body’s healthy functioning. Rice is a staple food for large proportion of the global population, thus increasing the lysine content in rice will improve its nutritional value. In this paper, we studied the lysine biosynthesis pathway in rice (Oryza Sativa) to identify the regulators of the lysine reporter gene LYSA (LOC_Os02g24354). Genetically intervening at the regulators has the potential to increase the overall lysine content in rice. We modeled the lysine biosynthesis pathway in rice seedlings under normal and saline (NaCl) stress conditions using Bayesian networks. We estimated the model parameters using experimental data and identified the gene DAPF(LOC_Os12g37960) as a positive regulator of the lysine reporter gene LYSA under both normal and saline stress conditions. Based on this analysis, we conclude that the gene DAPF is a potent candidate for genetic intervention. Upregulating DAPF using methods such as CRISPR-Cas9 has the potential to upregulate the lysine reporter gene LYSA and increase the overall lysine content in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0493.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Weed competitive ability; early seed germination and seedling vigor traits; quantitative trait loci (QTLs); single nucleotide polymorphism; direct seeded rice
Online: 29 August 2018 (10:46:02 CEST)
Weed competitive ability (WCA) is a desirable key trait for the improvement of grain yield under direct-seeded rice (DSR) and the aerobic rice ecosystem. The present study targeted screening of 167 introgression lines (ILs) of a Green Super Rice (GSR) IR2-6 population derived from a cross between Weed Tolerant Rice 1 (WTR1) as the recipient parent and Y134 as the donor parent developed at IRRI for weed competitiveness in screen house conditions (SHC). The ILs were phenotyped for WCA traits such as early seed germination (ESG) and early seedling vigor (ESV) in Petri dishes and pot experiment conditions. The results of phenotypic variance revealed ESG-related traits, especially first germination count (1st GC) that positively correlated with second germination count (2nd GC), germination percentage (GP), total dry weight (TDW), total fresh weight (TFW), and vigor index (VI-1), whereas, in ESV, all the traits were positively correlated with each other except for three traits: root dry weight (RDW), 1st GC, and GP-2. The ESG and ESV traits are vital for weed competitiveness. A 6K SNP array was used to study the genetic association for the WCA traits. Forty-four QTLs for WCA traits were mapped on all chromosomes (except on chromosomes 4 and 8) through single marker analysis (SMA). Out of 44 QTLs, 29 were associated with ESG traits and 15 with ESV traits, with LOD scores of 2.93 to 8.03 and 2.93 to 5.04 and explained phenotypic variance ranging from 7.85% to 19.9% and from 7.85% to 13.2%, respectively. However, 31 QTLs were contributed by a negative additive allele from Y134, whereas a positive additive allele was contributed by WTR1 in 13 QTLs. Among them, two QTL hotspot regions were mapped on chromosome 11 (24.7-27.9 Mb) and chromosome 12 (14.8-17.4 Mb). The majority of the QTLs related to WCA traits were grouped into two QTL hotspots: QTL hotspot-I (qAFW11.1, qFC11.1, qFC11.2, qSC11.1, qGP-111.1, qGP-111.2, qTFGS11.1, qVI-111.1, and qVI-111.2) and QTL hotspot-II (qFC12.1, qFC12.2, qSC12.1, qFC12.2, qGP-112.1, qGP-112.2, qTFGS12.1, qTFGS12.2, qVI-112.1, qIV12.2, qFC12.1, and qGC12.2), and a few of them were co-localized on chromosomes 11 and 12. Further, we fine-tuned in the genomic regions of QTL hotspots and identified a total of 13 putative candidate genes on chromosomes 11 and 12 collectively. The present study is the first report on the genetic basis of WCA-related traits and the co-localized QTLs, which could be highly valuable in future breeding programs aiming to improve WCA in rice.