ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; inflammation; smoking; nicotine; hospitalization; adverse outcome
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:52:04 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and effects of current smoking on adverse outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature (PubMed) for studies published until April 25. Studies were included into the analysis if they satisfied all of the following criteria: 1. To present hospitalized patients with COVID-19. 2. To classify patients into less and more severe disease, irrespective of the severity definition (defined as “adverse ourtcome”). 3. To present data on the smoking status, separately for each severity classification. We identified 18 (from a total of 1398) relevant studies. Pooled current smoking prevalence was compared with the gender-adjusted, population-based expected prevalence by calculating Prevalence Odds Ratio (POR). The association between current, compared to non-current and former, smoking and adverse outcome was examined by calculating Odds Ratio (OR). All analyses were performed using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Among 6515 patients, 440 of whom were current smokers, the pooled prevalence of current smoking was 6.8% (95%CI: 4.8-9.1%) and the POR was 0.21 (95%CI: 0.16-0.26, P < 0.001). In Chinese studies only, the POR was 0.22 (95%CI: 0.17-0.27, P < 0.001). Current smokers were more likely to have an adverse outcome compared to non-current smokers (OR: 1.53, 95%CI: 1.06-2.20, P = 0.022). However, they were less likely to have an adverse outcome compared to former smokers (OR: 0.42, 95%CI: 0.27-0.74, P = 0.003). Conclusion: An unexpectedly low prevalence of current smoking was observed among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Hospitalized current smokers had higher odds compared to non-current smokers but lower odds compared to former smokers for an adverse outcome. The possibility that nicotine may have a protective effect in COVID-19 which may be masked by smoking-related toxicity and by the abrupt cessation of nicotine intake when smokers are hospitalized should be explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ACE-2; nicotine; smoke; cigarette; epithelial cells.
Online: 6 October 2020 (09:43:40 CEST)
Prevalence studies of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients demonstrated an unexpectedly low prevalence of current smoking among patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present proposal was to evaluate the effect of smoke from cigarettes on ACE-2 in bronchial epithelial cells. Normal bronchial epithelial cells (H292) were exposed to smoke by an air-liquid-interface (ALI) system and ACE-2 membrane protein expression was evaluated after 24 hours from exposure. Our transcriptomics data analysis showed a significant selective reduction of membrane ACE-2 expression (about 25%) following smoking exposure. Interestingly, we observed a positive direct correlation between ACE-2 reduction and nicotine delivery. Furthermore, by stratifying GSE52237 as a function of ACE-2 gene expression levels, we highlighted 1012 genes related to ACE-2 in smokers and 855 in non-smokers. Furthermore, we showed that 161 genes involved in the endocytosis process were highlighted using the online pathway tool KEGG. Finally, 11 genes were in common between the ACE-2 pathway in smokers and the genes regulated during endocytosis, while 12 genes with non-smokers. Interestingly, six in non-smokers and four genes in smokers were closely involved during the viral internalization process. Our data may offer a pharmaceutical role of nicotine as potential treatment option in COVID-19.