ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0004.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; live-cell imaging; super-resolution microscopy; classification; segmentation
Online: 19 February 2019 (12:20:04 CET)
Artificial Intelligence based on Deep Learning is opening new horizons in Biomedical research and promises to revolutionize the Microscopy field. Slowly, it now transitions from the hands of experts in Computer Sciences to researchers in Cell Biology. Here, we introduce recent developments in Deep Learning applied to Microscopy, in a manner accessible to non-experts. We overview its concepts, capabilities and limitations, presenting applications in image segmentation, classification and restoration. We discuss how Deep Learning shows an outstanding potential to push the limits of Microscopy, enhancing resolution, signal and information content in acquired data. Its pitfalls are carefully discussed, as well as the future directions expected in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: 3d printing; microscopy; open-source; optics; super-resolution
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:10:24 CEST)
The maker movement has reached the optics labs, empowering researchers to actively create and modify microscope designs and imaging accessories. 3D printing has especially had a disruptive impact on the field, as it entails an accessible new approach in fabrication technologies, namely additive manufacturing, making prototyping in the lab available at low cost. Examples of this trend are taking advantage of the easy availability of 3D printing technology. For example, inexpensive microscopes for education have been designed, such as the FlyPi. Also, the highly complex robotic microscope OpenFlexure represents a clear desire for the democratisation of this technology. 3D printing facilitates new and powerful approaches to science and promotes collaboration between researchers, as 3D designs are easily shared. This holds the unique possibility to extend the open-access concept from knowledge to technology, allowing researchers from everywhere to use and extend model structures. Here we present a review of additive manufacturing applications in microscopy, guiding the user through this new and exciting technology and providing a starting point to anyone willing to employ this versatile and powerful new tool.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: super-resolution microscopy; advanced light microscopy; quantitative microscopy; live-cell microscopy; SMLM; STORM; SIM; STED; expansion microscopy; influenza virus; viral replication
Online: 6 January 2021 (10:40:59 CET)
With an estimated 3 to 5 million human cases annually and the potential to infect domestic and wild animal populations, influenza viruses are one of the greatest health and economic burdens to our society  and pose an ongoing threat of large-scale pandemics. Despite our knowledge of many important aspects of influenza virus biology, there is still much to learn about how influenza viruses replicate in infected cells, for instance how they use entry receptors or exploit host cell trafficking pathways. These gaps in our knowledge are due, in part, to the difficulty of directly observing viruses in living cells. In recent years, advances in light microscopy, including super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule imaging, have enabled many viral replication steps to be visualised dynamically in living cells. In particular, the ability to track single virions and their components, in real time, now allows specific pathways to be interrogated providing new insights to various aspects of the virus-host cell interaction. In this review, we discuss how state-of-the-art imaging technologies, notably quantitative live-cell and super-resolution microscopy, are shedding new nanoscale and molecular insights into influenza virus replication and revealing new opportunities for developing antiviral strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Phototoxicity, Photodamage, Super-Resolution Microscopy, Fluorescence
Online: 30 August 2019 (08:22:58 CEST)
Super-Resolution Microscopy enables non-invasive, molecule-specific imaging of the internal structure and dynamics of cells with sub-diffraction limit spatial resolution. One of its major limitations is the requirement for high-intensity illumination, generating considerable cellular phototoxicity. This factor considerably limits the capacity for live-cell observations, particularly for extended periods of time. Here, we overview new developments in hardware, software and probe chemistry aiming to reduce phototoxicity. Additionally, we discuss how the choice of biological model and sample environment impacts the capacity for live-cell observations.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: expansion microscopy; yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; super-resolution
Online: 10 March 2022 (10:51:02 CET)
The unicellular eukaryote S. cerevisiae is an invaluable resource for the study of basic eukaryotic cellular and molecular processes. However, due to its small size compared to other eukaryotic organisms the study of subcellular structures is challenging. Expansion microscopy (ExM) holds great potential to study the intracellular architecture of yeast, especially when paired with pan-labelling techniques visualising the full protein content inside cells. ExM allows to increase imaging resolution by physically enlarging a fixed sample that is embedded and cross- linked to a swellable gel followed by isotropic expansion in water. The cell wall present in fungi – including yeast – and Gram-positive bacteria is a resilient structure that resists denaturation and conventional digestion processes usually used in ExM protocols, resulting in uneven expansion. Thus, the digestion of the cell wall while maintaining the structure of the resulting protoplasts are crucial steps to ensure isotropic expansion. For this reason, specific experimental strategies are needed, and only a few protocols are currently available. We have developed a modified ExM protocol for S. cerevisiae, with 4x expansion factor, which allows the visualisation of the ultrastructure of the cells. Here, we describe the experimental procedure in detail, focusing on the most critical steps required to achieve isotropic expansion for ExM of S. cerevisiae.