ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: syntax; Pareto-optimality; bottleneck method; phase transitions; statistical mechanics
Online: 2 January 2020 (04:21:01 CET)
What are relevant levels of description when investigating human language? How are these levels connected to each other? Does one description yield smoothly into the next one such that different models lie naturally along a hierarchy containing each other? Or, instead, are there sharp transitions between one description and the next, such that to gain a little bit accuracy it is necessary to change our framework radically? Do different levels describe the same linguistic aspects with increasing (or decreasing) accuracy? Historically, answers to these questions were guided by intuition and resulted in subfields of study, from phonetics to syntax and semantics. Need for research at each level is acknowledged, but seldom are these different aspects brought together (with notable exceptions). Here we propose a methodology to inspect empirical corpora systematically, and to extract from them, blindly, relevant phenomenological scales and interactions between them. Our methodology is rigorously grounded in information theory, multi-objective optimization, and statistical physics. Salient levels of linguistic description are readily interpretable in terms of energies, entropies, phase transitions, or criticality. Our results suggest a critical point in the description of human language, indicating that several complementary models are simultaneously necessary (and unavoidable) to describe it.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer morphospace; microenvironmental complexity; genome instability; developmental abnormalities
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:18:06 CET)
Human cancers comprise an heterogeneous array of diseases with different progression patterns and responses to therapy. However, they all develop within a host context that constraints their natural history. As it occurs with the diversity of organisms, one can conjecture that there is order in the cancer multiverse. Is there a way to capture the broad range of tumor types within a space of the possible? Here we define the oncospace, a coordinate system that integrates the ecological, evolutionary and developmental components of cancer complexity. The spatial position of a tumor results from its departure from the healthy tissue along these three axes, and progression trajectories inform about the components driving malignancy across cancer subtypes. We postulate that the oncospace topology encodes new information regarding tumorigenic pathways, subtype prognosis and therapeutic opportunities: treatment design could benefit from considering how to nudge tumors towards empty evolutionary deserts in the oncospace.